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        #98: The Civil War's First Days

        作者:Frank Beardsley 發布日期:5-20-2013

        ANNOUNCER:

        Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

        Years of disagreement between the North and the South finally burst into civil war in April of eighteen sixty-one. Seven states in the South had withdrawn from the Union. Soldiers of the new Confederate States of America shelled the Union base at Fort Sumter, built on an island in Charleston Harbor in South Carolina. They captured Fort Sumter after two days.

        美國南北間多年的分歧,終于導致1861年4月18號內戰爆發。南方七個州脫離聯邦,成立南方邦聯。邦聯士兵對南卡羅來納州查爾斯頓港的聯邦城堡薩姆特堡發起炮擊,兩天后占領了城堡。

        President Abraham Lincoln asked the states of the Union for seventy-five thousand soldiers to help end the southern rebellion. Northern states quickly sent forces to Washington. But border states -- those between the North and the South -- refused to send any. Some prepared to leave the Union and join the Confederacy.

        林肯總統要求各州組建一支七萬五千人的部隊,鎮壓南方叛亂。北方各州積極響應,迅速向華盛頓派兵,但是南北交界地帶的各州拒絕出兵,有些州還準備脫離聯邦,加入南方邦聯。

        This week in our series, Steve Ember and Shirley Griffith describe the first days of the American Civil War.

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE ONE:

        Lieutenant Robert E. Lee
        Lieutenant Robert E. Lee

        The first state to secede after the start of the Civil War was Virginia. It was an important state because of its location. It was just across the Potomac River from Washington.

        美國南北戰爭打響后,第一個脫離聯邦的是維吉尼亞州,維吉尼亞州地處戰略要地,位于首都華盛頓對岸,中間只隔著一條波托馬克河。

        Virginia's decision to secede cost the Union a military commander of great ability. He was Robert E. Lee. Lee was a Virginian and had served in the United States army for more than thirty years. Lincoln asked him to be head of the army when General Winfield Scott retired.

        維吉尼亞州脫離聯邦還讓聯邦損失了一名重要將領。他就是羅伯特·李。李將軍是維吉尼亞人,在美國陸軍服役三十多年。美軍最高指揮官斯科特將軍退休后,林肯請羅伯特·李接任。

        Lee said he could not accept the job. He said he opposed secession and loved the Union. But, he said, he could not make war on his home state. Lee resigned from the army. He did not really want to fight at all. But soon after his resignation, he agreed to command the forces of Virginia.

        羅伯特·李拒絕接受。他表示,他熱愛聯邦,反對維吉尼亞脫離聯邦,但是他不能與自己的州為敵。羅伯特·李辭去陸軍職務,不想卷入戰爭??墒寝o職沒多久,他就同意領導維吉尼亞部隊。

        VOICE TWO:

        Virginia's forces moved quickly after the state seceded. A group of one thousand soldiers went to Harpers Ferry, Virginia, where the Union army had a gun factory and arsenal. It was the same town where abolitionist John Brown had tried to start a slave rebellion a few years before.

        脫離聯邦后,維吉尼亞的武裝力量迅速行動,一支一千人的部隊趕往維吉尼亞的哈珀斯費里鎮。聯邦部隊在哈珀斯費里鎮有一個軍工廠和一個彈藥庫,廢奴主義者約翰·布朗幾年前曾試圖在那里發動一場奴隸起義,最后以失敗告終。

        The United States force at Harpers Ferry was small. The soldiers could not defend the town against the Virginians, so they left. Before marching away, the soldiers set fire to the gun factory and arsenal.

        聯邦政府在哈珀斯費里只有為數不多的駐軍,根本不是維吉尼亞部隊的對手,只好撤退。撤退前,聯邦部隊的士兵放火焚燒軍工廠和彈藥庫。

        The fire did not destroy all the equipment at the gun factory. When the Virginians captured the town, they sent the equipment south, where it was used to make guns for Confederate soldiers.

        大火沒有燒毀軍工廠的所有設備。維吉尼亞部隊奪取哈珀斯費里鎮后,把繳獲的設備向南運,用來為南方邦聯士兵生產槍支。

        VOICE ONE:

        Virginia's forces also moved against the United States' biggest navy base, which was at Norfolk, Virginia. Once again, the Union force withdrew. Before leaving, it burned every building and sank every ship.

        維吉尼亞部隊還對位于維吉尼亞諾??说拿绹畲蠛\娀匕l動進攻。諾??说穆摪畈筷牶蟪?,但是撤退前燒毀了所有建筑,炸毀了所有船只。

        President Lincoln was becoming increasingly worried about Virginia's military moves. He was afraid Confederate forces in Virginia might try to capture Washington in the first days of the war. After all, the Confederate secretary of war had declared that the Confederate flag would fly over the Capitol building before the first of May.

        維吉尼亞武裝力量的行動讓林肯越來越擔心。林肯害怕南方邦聯部隊會立即對首都華盛頓展開攻勢。畢竟,邦聯政府戰爭部長曾宣稱,要在5月1號前把邦聯旗幟插在國會大廈上。

        Washington was not strongly defended. It did not have enough soldiers to stop any real attempt by Confederate forces to seize the city. It was extremely important to get more soldiers to Washington as quickly as possible.

        華盛頓防守薄弱,沒有足夠的兵力抵御邦聯部隊的進攻,所以需要盡快增援。

        VOICE TWO:

        Thousands of men were on their way to Washington. But they could not get there quickly.

        數以千計的增援部隊正在途中,但不能立即抵達。

        Troop trains had to pass through the state of Maryland to get to Washington from the North. Many people in the state supported the Confederacy. The governor, however, did not. He refused to call a meeting of the state legislature. He was afraid it might vote to secede. He wanted to keep Maryland neutral.

        從北面來的運兵的火車途徑馬里蘭州。馬里蘭州很多人支持南方邦聯,但是馬里蘭州州長反對分裂。他拒絕召集州議會的特別會議,擔心州議會投票脫離聯邦。他希望馬里蘭州保持中立。

        The first troop train from the North passed through Baltimore, Maryland, without incident. The second train was not so lucky.

        運兵的第一列火車經過馬里蘭州巴爾的摩,沒有遇到任何麻煩,但是第二列火車就沒有這么幸運了。

        A mob blocked the rail line and threw stones at the train. Shots were fired. Four soldiers and twelve civilians were killed.

        一群暴民攔截列車,向列車扔石頭,最后雙方開火,四名士兵和十二名平民喪生。

        State and city officials met to discuss the trouble. They agreed that there would be even more violence in the future. So they ordered railroad bridges outside Baltimore destroyed. No more trains from the North could reach Washington that way.

        州政府和市政府官員開會討論,一致認為今后會發生更多暴力事件,下令摧毀馬里蘭州巴爾的摩市外面的鐵路大橋,讓北方來的運兵列車無法穿過巴爾的摩前往華盛頓。

        VOICE ONE:

        Abraham Lincoln
        Abraham Lincoln

        President Lincoln told the officials of the great need to get more soldiers to the capital. He agreed that they did not have to pass through Baltimore. But he wanted them to be able to land safely at Annapolis, a city on the Chesapeake Bay.

        林肯總統告訴這些官員,華盛頓急需增援。雖然林肯同意,援兵不一定非要經過巴爾的摩,但是他希望援兵能在切薩皮克灣沿岸的安納波利斯市安全登陸。

        Landing at Annapolis would be easy. Getting to the capital would not. Supporters of the Confederacy had damaged trains, rail lines and bridges between the two cities. The first soldiers to land at Annapolis had to repair everything as they moved ahead.

        然而,在安納波利斯安全登陸容易,從安納波利斯到華盛頓去就沒有那么簡單了。南方邦聯的支持者們破壞了從安納波利斯通往華盛頓的列車、鐵軌和橋梁,到達安納波利斯的第一批士兵必須先修復必要的交通線路。

        Still, with all these difficulties, ten-thousand troops made it to Washington in the first few weeks of the Civil War. The city and government were safe.

        盡管阻力重重,但是南北戰爭打響后的幾個星期里,還是有一萬人的部隊抵達華盛頓,保證了華盛頓市和聯邦政府的安全。

        VOICE TWO:

        President Lincoln worried about the presence of Confederate supporters in Maryland. He knew they would continue to be a threat to the movement of Union troops and supplies.

        馬里蘭州南方邦聯支持者的存在讓林肯深感不安,因為他知道,這些人會繼續對聯邦部隊的調動和供給的運輸構成威脅。

        Lincoln wanted to restrict the activities of the Confederate supporters. So he took an extremely unusual step for an American president. He put much of Maryland under military rule. He gave military officers the power to arrest civilians believed to be hostile to the Union. And he gave them the power to hold these suspects without trial.

        林肯希望限制南方邦聯支持者的活動,決定采取極不尋常的行動,對馬里蘭州的大部分地區實行軍事管制。林肯授權軍隊指揮官,可以逮捕任何他們認為對聯邦懷有敵意的平民,而且可以不經審判予以關押。

        This order suspended two of the basic rights under the Constitution. One was the right to go free until officially charged. And the other was the right to a speedy trial.

        這一總統令暫停了憲法里規定的兩項最基本的權利,一項是被正式起訴前保持人身自由的權利,另一項是盡速接受審判的權利。

        The chief justice of the United States wrote a letter to President Lincoln. He said the Constitution did not give the president the power to suspend the rights of citizens. Lincoln disagreed. He felt the situation facing the Union permitted him to take such strong measures. If he had not acted, he believed, Maryland would have seceded.

        聯邦法院首席大法官寫信給林肯說,憲法里沒有規定總統有權暫停公民權,但是林肯表示異議,他認為,聯邦面臨的嚴峻局面允許他采取強有力舉措,否則的話,馬里蘭州一定會脫離聯邦。

        VOICE ONE:

        Maryland did not withdraw. But North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas did. There were now eleven states in the Confederacy. There could be two more. No one knew how long Kentucky and Missouri would remain in the Union. Both supported the southern rebels.

        馬里蘭州倒是沒有脫離聯邦,但是北卡羅來納州、田納西州和阿肯色州紛紛退出,使南方邦聯擴大到十一個州,此外,肯塔基州和密蘇里州都支持南方,沒人知道它們在聯邦里還會待多久。

        President Lincoln treated Kentucky carefully. He did not want the state to secede. Nor did he want it to remain neutral. Kentucky reached from the mountains of Virginia to the Mississippi River. As a neutral state, Kentucky could block northern troops from much of the South. Lincoln wanted it firmly on the side of the Union.

        林肯對肯塔基十分重視,不希望肯塔基脫離聯邦,也不希望肯塔基保持中立,肯塔基從維吉尼亞山區一直延伸到密西西比河??纤绻3种辛⒌脑?,會阻止北方部隊深入南方大部分地區。林肯希望肯塔基州能堅定地站在聯邦一邊。

        The president did not use force in Kentucky, as he had done in Maryland. Instead, he sent people to Kentucky to organize support for the Union. Newspapers were urged to publish pro-union statements. Home guard forces were formed. They received their weapons and supplies from Lincoln's administration.

        林肯沒有像對馬里蘭州一樣,對肯塔基州實行軍事管制,而是派人到肯塔基去,爭取對聯邦的支持。林肯派去的特使說服報紙發表支持聯邦的聲明,組織民防部隊,由聯邦政府提供武器和供給。

        Lincoln hoped that, in time, these efforts would win Kentucky's support for his war effort.

        林肯希望能借此爭取到肯塔基州的支持。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE TWO:

        In Missouri, the governor tried hard to take the state out of the Union. He called a convention to decide the question. A majority of the delegates refused to vote for secession.

        與此同時,密蘇里州州長極力主張脫離聯邦。他召集特別大會,投票表決,但是大多數與會代表都反對脫離聯邦。

        The governor organized state soldiers. The Lincoln administration organized home guard forces. The two sides clashed several times. Some civilians were killed.

        密蘇里州州長組織了州內部隊,林肯政府組建了民防部隊,雙方幾次發生沖突,一些平民被打死。

        The United States army finally seized government buildings in the state capital. They forced state officials, including the governor, to flee. Missouri would remain in the Union.

        聯邦部隊最終奪取了密蘇里州首府的政府大樓,包括州長在內的官員被迫逃走。密蘇里州因此留在了聯邦里。

        VOICE ONE:

        The capital of the Confederate states of America was located far south in Montgomery, Alabama. Within the first few weeks of the Civil War, the Confederate Congress voted to move the capital farther north to Richmond, Virginia. They believed Virginia would be an important battlefield in the war. They were right.

        當時,南方邦聯首都位于阿拉巴馬的蒙哥馬利市,南北戰爭打響幾周內,邦聯議會投票決定將首都北遷,移到維吉尼亞的里士滿,因為他們相信,維吉尼亞將成為南北戰爭的重要戰場,結果證明,他們的判斷是正確的。

        Two days before Confederate President Jefferson Davis left for Richmond, Union troops invaded Virginia. They left Washington, crossed the Potomac River, and seized the towns of Arlington and Alexandria.

        No shots were fired. Confederate forces withdrew as Union troops moved forward. Within a month, thousands more Union soldiers were in Virginia. They were to prepare for a major battle at a place called Manassas Junction, or Bull Run.

        就在邦聯總統戴維斯起身前往里士滿的兩天前,聯邦部隊進入維吉尼亞,他們從華盛頓橫跨波托馬克河,沒開一槍,就占領了阿靈頓市和亞歷山德里亞市。南方邦聯部隊后撤,隨后不到一個月里,又有數千名聯邦士兵進入維吉尼亞。維吉尼亞的馬納薩斯將有一場重大戰役,又稱布爾溪戰役。

        That will be our story next week.

        (MUSIC)

        ANNOUNCER:

        Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Steve Ember and Shirley Griffith. Transcripts, MP3s and podcasts are online, along with historical images, at www.squishedblueberries.com. You can also follow our programs at twitter.com/voalearnenglish. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

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