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        #97: The Civil War Begins

        作者:Frank Beardsley 發布日期:5-19-2013

        Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

        Just before sunrise on April twelfth, eighteen sixty-one, the first shot was fired in the American Civil War. A heavy mortar roared, sending a shell high over the harbor at Charleston, South Carolina. The shell dropped and exploded above Fort Sumter, a United States military base on an island in the harbor.

        1861年4月12號拂曉,美國南北戰爭打響了。一枚炮彈呼嘯著飛過南卡羅來納查爾斯頓港的天空,在位于查爾斯頓一個島上的美國聯邦軍事基地薩姆特堡的上空爆炸。

        The explosion was a signal for all Confederate guns surrounding the fort to open fire. Shell after shell smashed into the fort. The booming of the cannons woke the people of Charleston. They rushed to the harbor and cheered as the bursting shells lighted the dark sky.

        這一炮是開戰的信號,查爾斯頓港口周圍的所有南方邦聯炮艦紛紛投入戰斗,炮彈像雨點般飛向薩姆特堡。隆隆的炮聲驚醒了查爾斯頓睡夢中的居民,他們飛奔到港口,看著呼嘯的炮彈劃破夜空,歡呼雀躍。

        This week in our series, Jack Moyles and Stuart Spencer tell about the attack on Fort Sumter.

        VOICE ONE:

        The shelling of Fort Sumter
        The shelling of Fort Sumter

        Confederate leaders ordered the attack after President Abraham Lincoln refused to withdraw the small force of American soldiers at Sumter. Food supplies at the fort were very low. And southerners expected hunger would force the soldiers to leave. But Lincoln announced he was sending a ship to Fort Sumter with food.

        當時,薩姆特堡里駐扎著一小批聯邦士兵。城堡里的給養日益短缺。南方人本想等饑腸轆轆的困兵自己出來,但是林肯宣布,要向城堡運送糧食補給,南方邦聯領導人因此下令攻打城堡。

        Confederate President Jefferson Davis ordered his commander in Charleston, General [Pierre] Beauregard, to destroy the fort before the food could arrive.

        南方邦聯總統戴維斯命令駐扎在查爾斯頓的邦聯軍事指揮官包瑞德,在糧食補給到達前摧毀薩姆特堡。

        VOICE TWO:

        The attack started from Fort Johnson across the harbor from Sumter. A Virginia congressman, Roger Pryor, was visiting Fort Johnson when the order to fire was given. The fort's commander asked Pryor if he would like the honor of firing the mortar that would begin the attack. "No," answered Pryor, and his voice shook. "I cannot fire the first gun of the war."

        南北戰爭的第一炮是在薩姆特堡對岸的約翰遜堡打響的。當時,維吉尼亞州國會議員普賴爾正在那里視察。約翰遜堡的指揮官問普賴爾要不要點燃第一炮,普賴爾回答說,“不。我不能點燃戰爭的第一炮。”他講話的聲音有些顫抖。

        But others could. And the attack began.

        然而,他不愿意,別人愿意。美國的南北戰爭打響了。

        VOICE ONE:

        At Fort Sumter, Major Robert Anderson and his men waited three hours before firing back at the Confederate guns.

        在薩姆特堡里,安德森少校和他的手下等了足足三個小時才開始還擊。

        Anderson could not use his most powerful cannons. They were in the open at the top of the fort, where there was no protection for the gunners. Too many of his small force would be lost if he tried to fire these guns.

        他們火力最猛烈的大炮都在城堡頂上的露天里,炮手安全得不到保護,會造成嚴重的人員傷亡。

        So Anderson had his men fire the smaller cannon from better-protected positions. These, however, did not do much damage to the Confederate guns.

        安德森少校只好求其次,使用位置相對安全的小型火炮,但是火力太小,無法對南方邦聯的炮火造成任何威脅。

        VOICE TWO:

        Confederate guns fire on Fort Sumter
        Confederate guns fire on Fort Sumter

        The shelling continued all day. A big cloud of smoke rose high in the air over Fort Sumter.

        炮火整整持續了一天,薩姆特堡上空被一層厚厚的煙霧所籠罩。

        The smoke was seen by United States navy ships a few miles outside Charleston Harbor. They had come with the ship bringing food for the men at Sumter. There were soldiers on these ships. But they could not reach the fort to help Major Anderson. Confederate boats blocked the entrance to the harbor. And confederate guns could destroy any ship that tried to enter.

        當時,聯邦運糧船已經到了查爾斯頓港外幾里處,能看到薩姆特堡上空的煙霧。運糧船上雖然有聯邦士兵,但是他們進不了薩姆特堡,幫不上忙,南方邦聯的船只封鎖了港口,要想強行入港,就會遭到炮轟。

        The commander of the naval force, Captain [Gustavus] Fox, had hoped to move the soldiers to Sumter in small boats. But the sea was so rough that the small boats could not be used. Fox could only watch and hope for calmer seas.

        運糧船上的聯邦指揮官是海軍上尉??怂?。他本想用小船把士兵送進薩姆特堡,但是迫于風浪太大,只好耐心等待。

        VOICE ONE:

        Confederate shells continued to smash into Sumter throughout the night and into the morning of the second day. The fires at Fort Sumter burned higher. And smoke filled the rooms where soldiers still tried to fire their cannons.

        南方邦聯的炮火一夜沒停,第二天早上還在繼續。薩姆特堡四處起火,連炮兵所在的房間里也是煙霧彌漫。

        About noon, three men arrived at the fort in a small boat. One of them was Louis Wigfall, a former United States senator from Texas, now a Confederate officer. He asked to see Major Anderson.

        中午時分,南方邦聯的三個代表坐小船來到薩姆特堡,其中一個是路易斯·威格法爾。他原來是德克薩斯的聯邦參議員,如今已經成了南方邦聯官員。他要求會見安德森少校。

        "I come from General Beauregard," he said. "It is time to put a stop to this, sir. The flames are raging all around you. And you have defended your flag bravely. Will you leave, sir?" Wigfall asked.

        威格法爾告訴安德森說,“我代表包瑞德將軍告訴你,現在是結束這一切的時候了。你的周圍都是熊熊烈火,你已經勇敢地捍衛了美國國旗,你現在愿意離開嗎?”

        VOICE TWO:

        The wreckage of Fort Sumter
        The wreckage of Fort Sumter

        Major Anderson was ready to stop fighting. His men had done all that could be expected of them. They had fought well against a much stronger enemy. Anderson said he would surrender, if he and his men could leave with honor.

        安德森少校也想就此罷手。他的手下已經盡了全力,面對比自己強大得多的對手頑強抵抗。安德森說,如果他的部下能夠體面地離開,他就愿意投降。

        Wigfall agreed. He told Anderson to lower his flag and the firing would stop.

        威格法爾表示同意,并告訴安德森說,降下聯邦旗幟,炮火就會停息。

        Down came the United States flag. And up went the white flag of surrender. The battle of Fort Sumter was over.

        安德森下令降下聯邦國旗,換上投降的白旗。薩姆特堡戰役最后以聯邦守軍投降而告終。

        More than four-thousand shells had been fired during the thirty-three hours of fighting. But no one on either side was killed. One United States soldier, however, was killed the next day when a cannon exploded as Anderson's men prepared to leave the fort.

        這場戰役持續33小時,一共發射了四千多枚炮彈,但是雙方沒有人員傷亡。反而是第二天聯邦守軍準備離開城堡時,有一枚炸彈爆炸,炸死了一個聯邦士兵。

        VOICE ONE:

        The news of Anderson's surrender reached Washington late Saturday, April thirteenth. President Lincoln and his cabinet met the next day and wrote a declaration that the president would announce on Monday.

        4月13號星期六晚上,安德森少校率兵投降的消息傳到了首都華盛頓。林肯第二天召集內閣開會,撰寫了一份宣言,準備星期一由林肯宣讀。

        In it, Lincoln said powerful forces had seized control in seven states of the South. He said these forces were too strong to be stopped by courts or policemen. Lincoln said troops were needed. He requested that the states send him seventy-five thousand soldiers. He said these men would be used to get control of forts and other federal property seized from the Union.

        宣言里說,強大的武裝部隊占領了南方的七個州,依靠法院和警察的力量,已經無法阻止他們,所以需要征兵。林肯要求各州派兵,組織一支七萬五千人的部隊,任務是奪回聯邦政府對軍事城堡和聯邦財產的控制權。

        VOICE TWO:

        Stephen Douglas
        Stephen Douglas

        Lincoln knew he had the support of his own party. He also wanted northern Democrats to give him full support. So, Sunday evening, a Republican congressman visited the top Democrat of the North, Senator Stephen Douglas.

        林肯知道自己所在的共和黨一定會支持他。他還希望得到北方民主黨人的全力支持。為此,共和黨國會議員阿什姆星期天晚上前去拜訪北方最有威信的民主黨參議員史蒂文·道格拉斯。

        The congressman urged Douglas to go to the White House and tell Lincoln that he would do all he could to help put down the rebellion in the south. At first, Douglas refused. He said Lincoln had removed Democrats -- friends of his -- from government jobs and had given the jobs to Republicans. Douglas said he didn't like this. Anyway, he said, Lincoln probably did not want his advice.

        阿什姆敦促道格拉斯到白宮去,告訴林肯,他愿意不遺余力,協助鎮壓南方反叛。道格拉斯起初不愿意,說林肯上臺后把他的民主黨朋友都趕出了政府,換成共和黨人。道格拉斯說,他很不高興,況且,林肯八成并不想聽他的意見。

        The congressman, George Ashmun, urged Douglas to forget party politics. He said Lincoln and the country needed the Senator's help. Douglas finally agreed to talk with Lincoln. He and Ashmun went immediately to the White House.

        阿什姆敦促道格拉斯拋開政黨政治,并表示,林肯和國家都需要道格拉斯的幫助。道格拉斯最后同意去見林肯,隨阿什姆立即動身前往白宮。

        VOICE ONE:

        Lincoln welcomed his old political opponent. He explained his plans and read to Douglas the declaration he would announce the next day.

        林肯對這位老政敵表示歡迎,向道格拉斯解釋了自己的計劃,還讓道格拉斯看了第二天準備宣讀的宣言。

        Douglas said he agreed with every word of it except, he said, seventy-five thousand soldiers would not be enough. Remembering his problems with southern extremists, he urged Lincoln to ask for two-hundred thousand men. He told the president, "You do not know the dishonest purposes of those men as well as I do."

        道格拉斯看過后,表示舉雙手贊成,但指出,七萬五千人絕對不夠。道格拉斯回想起他以前跟南方極端主義者打交道時的經驗,建議林肯征集一支20萬人的部隊。他警告林肯說,“對這些人卑鄙的目的,你不如我清楚。”

        Lincoln and Douglas talked for two hours. Then the Senator gave a statement for the newspapers. He said he still opposed the administration on political questions. But, he said, he completely supported Lincoln's efforts to protect the Union.

        林肯和道格拉斯交談了兩個小時。道格拉斯參議員后來通過報紙發表聲明說,在政治問題上,他依舊反對林肯政府的立場,但是在保護聯邦完整的問題上,他毫無保留地支持林肯。

        Douglas was to live for only a few more months. He spent this time working for the Union. He traveled through the states of the northwest, making many speeches. Douglas urged Democrats everywhere to support the Republican government. He told them, "There can be no neutrals in this war -- only patriots or traitors."

        道格拉斯把自己人生最后幾個月全部貢獻給了聯邦,在西北各州奔波,發表講話。道格拉斯敦促各地民主黨人支持共和黨政府,并告訴他們說,“這場戰爭里沒有中立方,只有愛國者和叛國者”。

        VOICE TWO:

        Throughout the north, thousands of men rushed to answer Lincoln's call for troops. Within two days, a military group from Boston left for Washington. Other groups formed quickly in northern cities and began training for war.

        美國北方人紛紛響應林肯的號召,短短兩天內,波士頓的隊伍就啟程趕往華盛頓,北方其它城市的部隊也迅速組建起來,投入備戰訓練。

        Lincoln received a different answer, however, from the border states between North and South.

        但是南北交界地區各州的反應卻完全不同。

        Virginia's governor said he would not send troops to help the North get control of the South. North Carolina's governor said the request violated the Constitution. He would have no part of it. Tennessee said it would not send one man to help force southern states back into the Union. But it said it would send fifty thousand troops to defend southern rights.

        維吉尼亞州長說,他不會派兵幫助北方控制南方。北卡羅來納州州長說,林肯的要求違反了憲法,他不會參與。田納西州表示,他們不會派一兵一卒,強迫南方各州重返聯邦,但是愿意派五萬人,保護南方的權利。

        Lincoln got the same answer from the governors of Kentucky, Arkansas, and Missouri. For several days, it seemed that all these states would secede and join the southern confederacy.

        林肯從肯塔基、阿肯色和密蘇里州那里得到了類似的答復。當時看來,這些州似乎更有可能脫離聯邦,加入南方邦聯。

        VOICE ONE:

        Lincoln worried most about Virginia, the powerful state just across the Potomac River from Washington. A secession convention already was meeting at the state capital. On April seventeenth, the convention voted to take Virginia out of the Union.

        最讓林肯擔心的,還是波托馬克河對岸的維吉尼亞州。4月17號,維吉尼亞州在首府召開大會,投票決定脫離聯邦。

        Virginia's vote to secede forced an American army officer to make a most difficult decision. The officer was Colonel Robert E. Lee, a citizen of Virginia.

        投票結果讓美軍指揮官羅伯特·李將軍左右為難,因為他是維吉尼亞居民。

        The army's top commander, General Winfield Scott, had called Lee to Washington. Scott believed Lee was the best officer in the army. Lincoln agreed. He asked Lee to take General Scott's job, to become the army chief.

        當時美軍最高將領斯科特將軍把羅伯特·李叫到華盛頓,斯科特認為羅伯特·李是最出色的將領。林肯也同意,他讓羅伯特·李接任斯科特的職務。

        Lee was offered the job on the same day that Virginia left the Union. He felt strong ties to his state. But he also loved the Union.

        羅伯特·李得到通知的同一天,維吉尼亞州投票決定脫離聯邦。羅伯特·李既放不下自己的州,又熱愛美國聯邦。他會做出什么樣的選擇?

        (MUSIC)

        ANNOUNCER:

        Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Jack Moyles and Stuart Spencer. Transcripts, MP3s and podcasts are online, along with historical pictures, at www.squishedblueberries.com. You can also follow our programs at twitter.com/voalearnenglish. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

        ___

        This is program #97 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

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