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        #96: Lincoln's Policy on South Is Soon Tested

        作者:Frank Beardsley 發布日期:5-18-2013

        Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

        On a cold and cloudy day in March of eighteen sixty-one, Abraham Lincoln became the sixteenth president of the United States. In his inaugural speech, the new president announced the policy that he would follow toward the southern states that had left the Union.

        1861年3月一個寒氣逼人、陰云密布的日子,亞伯拉罕·林肯成為美國第十六任總統。林肯在就職講話中宣布了他對脫離聯邦的南方各州的政策。

        Abraham Lincoln
        Abraham Lincoln

        Lincoln said no state had a legal right to secede -- the Union could not be broken. He said he would enforce federal laws in every state. And he promised not to surrender any federal property in the states that seceded. Lincoln said if force was necessary to protect the Union, then force would be used. His policy was soon tested.

        林肯說,任何州都無權合法脫離聯邦,聯邦是不可分裂的。林肯保證,要在所有州執行聯邦法律,絕不放棄脫離聯邦的各州境內的聯邦財產。林肯表示,在必要情況下,不惜動武保衛聯邦。林肯的這一政策馬上受到了檢驗。

        This week in our series, Jack Weitzel and Jack Moyles discuss the dispute over the federal base that was being built at Fort Sumter.

        VOICE ONE:

        On his second day as president, Lincoln received some bad news from Fort Sumter at Charleston, South Carolina. Major Robert Anderson, the commander of the small United States force at Sumter, wrote that his food supplies were low. At most, said Anderson, there was enough food for forty days. Unless he and his men received more supplies, they would have to leave the fort.

        宣誓就職后的第二天,林肯就得到了有關南卡羅來納州查爾斯頓的薩姆特軍事城堡的壞消息。薩姆特堡里當時駐扎了一小批聯邦部隊。聯邦部隊指揮官安德森少校來信說,城堡給養日漸短缺,最多只夠四十天。除非得到補充,否則只好棄堡而去。

        Fort Sumter before the first shot
        Fort Sumter before the first shot

        Lincoln wanted to keep Fort Sumter. It was one of the few United States forts in the south still held by federal forces. And he had promised not to give up any federal property in the states that seceded.

        薩姆特堡是南方仍舊處于聯邦控制下為數不多的城堡之一,林肯不愿放棄。而且,林肯在宣誓就職時剛剛保證過,絕不放棄脫離聯邦各州境內的聯邦財產。

        VOICE TWO:

        But getting food to Fort Sumter would be a very difficult job. The fort was built on an island in Charleston Harbor. It was surrounded by southern artillery. Southern gunboats guarded the port.

        然而,向薩姆特堡運送補給非常困難。薩姆特堡位于查爾斯頓港的一個島上,四周都是南方炮火。

        To get supplies to Anderson and his men, a ship would have to fight its way to Sumter. Such a battle was sure to begin a bitter civil war. There also was the danger that fighting would cause slave states still in the Union to secede and join the southern Confederacy.

        查爾斯頓港還有南方炮艦守衛。要想給安德森少校和他的部下送去補給,只能靠武力硬闖,勢必會點燃一場激烈的內戰。另外,開戰還可能迫使仍然留在聯邦里的南方奴隸州退出聯邦,加入南方邦聯。

        VOICE ONE:

        The Army chief, General [Winfield] Scott, warned Lincoln that it was too late to get supplies to Fort Sumter. He said southern defenses around the fort were so strong that a major military effort would be necessary. He said it would take months to prepare the warships and soldiers for such an effort. Major Anderson and his men at Sumter, he said, could not wait that long.

        聯邦部隊總指揮斯科特將軍警告林肯說,想為薩姆特堡提供補給,如今已經為時過晚,查爾斯頓港周圍的南方防御力量過于強大,要想沖破封鎖,就要展開重大攻勢,需要幾個月的時間備戰。斯科特說,薩姆特堡里的人熬不了這么久。

        There was another plan, however, that might work. It was proposed to Lincoln by Captain Gustavus Fox of the Navy Department.

        海軍部的??怂股衔咎岢隽艘豁椬兺ǚ桨?。

        Captain Fox said soldiers and supplies could be sent down to Charleston in ships. Outside the entrance to the harbor, on a dark night, they could be put into small boats and pulled by tugs to the fort. Fox said a few warships could be sent to prevent southern gunboats from interfering.

        他說,可以用船把援兵和補給運到查爾斯頓港。在一個月黑風高的晚上,在查爾斯頓港外圍,讓援兵和補給改乘小船,靠近薩姆特堡,并派幾艘戰艦保護,防止南方炮艦出面干涉。

        VOICE TWO:

        Lincoln liked this plan. He asked his cabinet for advice. If it were possible to send supplies to Sumter, he asked, would it be wise to do so?

        林肯很喜歡這項計劃,征求內閣意見,問他們,如果有辦法向薩姆特堡運送補給,這樣做是否明智。

        Postmaster General [Montgomery] Blair was the only member of the cabinet to answer 'yes'. Treasury Secretary [Salmon] Chase was for the plan only if Lincoln was sure it would not mean war. Secretary of State [William] Seward and the others opposed it. They said it would be better to withdraw Major Anderson and his men. They felt that now was not the time to start a civil war.

        結果只有郵政總局局長布萊爾表示支持。財政部長蔡斯表示,除非林肯保證這樣做不會引發戰爭,他才愿意支持。國務卿西沃德和其他內閣成員一律反對。他們認為,現在不是打響內戰的時候,最好還是下令安德森少校和他的部下撤出薩姆特堡。

        This opposition in the cabinet caused Lincoln to postpone action on the Fox plan. But he sent two men separately to Charleston to get him information on the situation there. One was Captain Fox. The other was a close friend, Ward Lamon.

        面對內閣的反對,林肯決定推遲執行。他分別派了兩個人到查爾斯頓探聽情況,一個是??怂股衔?,另外一個是林肯的好朋友沃德·拉蒙。

        VOICE ONE:

        Union Major Robert Anderson
        Union Major Robert Anderson

        In Charleston, Fox met with Governor [Francis] Pickens. He explained that he wished to talk with Major Anderson, not to give him orders, but to find out what the situation really was. Governor Pickens agreed. A Confederate boat carried Fox to Sumter. Anderson told Fox that the last of the food would be gone on April fifteenth.

        ??怂乖诓闋査诡D會見了南卡羅來納州州長平肯斯。??怂菇忉屨f,他想見一下安德森少校,不是向他傳達命令,而是希望了解情況。平肯斯州長同意,用船送??怂骨巴_姆特堡。安德森少校告訴??怂拐f,給養只能堅持到4月15號。

        Ward Lamon went to Charleston after Fox returned to Washington. He, too, met with Governor Pickens and Major Anderson. The South Carolina Governor asked Lamon to give Lincoln this message:

        ??怂狗祷厝A盛頓后,林肯的好友沃德·拉蒙又前往查爾斯頓,見到了平肯斯州長和安德森少校。平肯斯州長讓拉蒙轉告林肯:

        "Nothing can prevent war except a decision by the President of the United States to accept the secession of the South. If an attempt is made to put more men in Fort Sumter, a war cry will be sounded from every hilltop and valley in the South."

        “除非美國總統決定接受南方退出聯邦的現實,否則任何事情都無法阻止戰爭爆發。如果試圖向薩姆特堡增派兵力,戰爭的號角會響徹南方的高山峽谷。”

        Lamon reported to Lincoln that the arrival of even a boat load of food at Sumter would lead to fighting.

        拉蒙向林肯匯報說,哪怕只是一小船軍糧,都勢必引發內戰。

        VOICE TWO:

        At the end of March, Lincoln held another cabinet meeting and again asked what should be done about Fort Sumter. Should an attempt be made to get supplies to Major Anderson? This time, three members of the cabinet voted 'yes' and three voted 'no'.

        林肯3月底再次召集內閣會議,問大家怎么辦,要不要增派援兵,運送給養。結果內閣里三個人支持,三個人反對。

        When the meeting ended, Lincoln wrote an order for the Secretary of War. He told him to prepare to move men and supplies by sea to Fort Sumter. He said they should be ready to sail as early as April sixth -- only one week away.

        會議結束后,林肯命令戰爭部長準備通過海路向薩姆特堡運送人員和物資,一個星期后的4月6號出發。

        VOICE ONE:

        On April fourth, Lincoln called Captain Fox to the White House. He told him that the government was ready to take supplies to Fort Sumter. He said Fox would lead the attempt.

        4月4號這天,林肯把??怂股衔窘械桨讓m,告訴他決定向薩姆特堡運送給養,由他帶隊。

        Lincoln showed Fox a message he was sending to Governor Pickens in South Carolina. It read: "This is to inform you that an attempt will be made to supply Fort Sumter with food only. If this attempt is not opposed, no effort will be made to throw in men, arms or ammunition."

        林肯還給??怂箍戳怂麑懡o南卡羅來納州州長平肯斯的信。信里說,“現在通知你,我們將向薩姆特堡運送給養,而且只有糧食。如果不遭到阻攔,我們不會再增運兵力、武器或是彈藥。”

        Governor Pickens received the message on April Eight. He immediately sent it by telegraph to Confederate President Jefferson Davis at Montgomery, Alabama.

        平肯斯州長4月8號收到了林肯的信,馬上打電報給位于阿拉巴馬州的南方邦聯總統杰斐遜·戴維斯。

        Davis called a meeting of his cabinet to discuss what should be done. He asked if Fort Sumter should be seized before supplies could arrive.

        戴維斯立即召集內閣會議,談論對策,決定是否要在給養到達前奪取薩姆特堡。

        VOICE TWO:

        Robert Toombs
        Robert Toombs

        Former United States Senator Robert Toombs of Georgia was the Confederate secretary of state. He told Davis, "Firing upon that fort will begin a civil war greater than any the world has ever seen. I cannot advise you."

        南方邦聯國務卿是前喬治亞州的聯邦參議員羅伯特·圖姆斯。他告訴戴維斯說,“向薩姆特堡開火會引發一場前所未有的內戰,我不主張你這樣做。”

        Later in the meeting, Toombs urged Davis not to attack the fort.

        圖姆斯敦促戴維斯不要進攻薩姆特堡。

        "Mr. President," he said, "at this time it is suicide -- murder -- and will lose us every friend in the North. You will strike a hornets' nest which extends from mountains to oceans. Millions now quiet will swarm out and sting us to death. It is not necessary. It puts us in the wrong. It will kill us!"

        圖姆斯說:“總統先生,眼下發動襲擊無異于自殺、謀殺,會讓我們失去北方的所有朋友。你會捅破一個從高山延伸到海洋的大馬蜂窩,數百萬沉寂的馬蜂會蜂擁而來,把我們叮死。這完全沒有必要,會陷我們于不義,置我們于死地”。

        VOICE ONE :

        On April tenth, Jefferson Davis sent his decision to the Confederate commander at Charleston, General Pierre Beauregard. He told Beauregard to demand the surrender of Fort Sumter. If Major Anderson refused, then the general was to destroy the fort.

        4月10號,戴維斯向駐守查爾斯頓的南部邦聯指揮官包瑞德將軍下達命令,要求薩姆特堡駐軍投降,如果安德森少校拒絕投降,就把城堡毀掉。

        The surrender demand was carried to Sumter the next day by a group of Confederate officers. They said Anderson and his men must leave the fort. But they could take with them their weapons and property. And they were offered transportation to any United States port they named.

        第二天,幾位南方邦聯指揮官前往薩姆特堡,要求安德森投降。他們表示,安德森必需率領部下離開城堡,但是可以帶走武器和財物,他們可以提供交通工具,把安德森的人送到任何一個美國聯邦港口去。

        VOICE TWO:

        Anderson rejected the demand. As he walked with the Confederate officers back to their boat, he asked if General Beauregard would open fire on Sumter immediately. No, they said, he would be told later when the shooting would start. Anderson then told the southerners, "If you do not shell us to pieces, hunger will force us out in a few days."

        安德森拒絕投降。他送邦聯指揮官回到船上,問包瑞德將軍是否會立即對薩姆特堡開火,得到的回答是,不會立即動手,動手前會通知他。安德森告訴他們,“如果你們不把我們炸成碎片,幾天以后,饑餓也會迫使我們撤走。”

        General Beauregard informed the Confederate government in Montgomery that Anderson refused to surrender. He also reported the major's statement that Sumter had only enough food for a few more days.

        包瑞德將軍向阿拉巴馬的南方邦聯政府匯報,說安德魯少校拒絕投降,并表示,薩姆特堡的給養只能堅持幾天了。

        VOICE ONE:

        New orders were sent to Beauregard. Jefferson Davis said there was no need to attack the fort if hunger would soon force the United States soldiers to leave. But he said Anderson must say exactly when he and his men would leave. And he said Anderson must promise not to fire on Confederate forces. If Anderson agreed to this, then Confederate guns would remain silent.

        得到這一消息后,南方邦聯總統戴維斯向包瑞德將軍下達了新的指令。戴維斯說,既然饑餓會讓聯邦部隊退出薩姆特堡,那就無需發動進攻了,但是安德森一定要具體說明,他的人什么時候離開,而且必須保證不會對邦聯部隊開火。如果安德森接受上述條件的話,南方邦聯的大炮就可以保持安靜。

        This offer was carried to Fort Sumter a few minutes before midnight, April eleventh.

        4月11號午夜前的幾分鐘,安德森接到了南方邦聯提出的條件。

        Anderson discussed the offer with his officers and then wrote his answer. He would leave the fort on April fifteenth if the Confederates made no hostile act against Fort Sumter or against the United States flag. He would not leave, however, if before then he received new orders or supplies.

        他跟部下討論后回信說,如果邦聯部隊不對薩姆特堡或是美國國旗發起敵對行動,他4月15號會退出城堡。不過,如果4月15號以前接到新命令或是得到補給,那他會留下來。

        VOICE TWO:

        Confederate General Pierre Beauregard
        Confederate General Pierre Beauregard

        This did not satisfy the three Confederate officers who brought Beauregard's message. They handed Anderson a short note. It said: "We have the honor to inform you that General Beauregard will open fire on Fort Sumter in one hour -- at twenty minutes after four on the morning of April twelfth, eighteen sixty-one."

        替包瑞德傳遞信息的三位邦聯指揮官很不滿意。他們簡短地回復了安德森,信里說,“我們榮幸地通知你,包瑞德將軍一小時后會對薩姆特堡開火,也就是1861年4月12號凌晨4點20分。”

        The major shook hands with Beauregard's representatives, and they left the fort. Anderson and his officers woke their men and told them to prepare for battle.

        安德森跟包瑞德的三位代表握手后,三位代表坐船離開。安德森和部下叫醒城堡里的所有駐軍,告訴他們準備戰斗。

        At Fort Johnson, across the harbor, Confederate gunners also were getting ready. These men would fire the first shot at Sumter. That explosion would signal the other guns surrounding the fort to open fire.

        與此同時,港口對面的邦聯炮艦也做好了準備。他們的炮聲就是開戰的信號,港口周圍的其它炮艦會一起投入戰斗。

        (MUSIC)

        ANNOUNCER:

        Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Jack Weitzel and Jack Moyles. You can find transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our programs, along with historical images, at www.squishedblueberries.com. And you can follow us at twitter.com/voalearnenglish. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

        ___

        This is program #96 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

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