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        #95: Lincoln Names a Cabinet

        作者:Frank Beardsley 發布日期:5-17-2013

        Welcome to the MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

        By February first, eighteen sixty-one, seven southern states had withdrawn from the United States of America. They created their own independent nation -- the Confederate States of America. The South seceded because Abraham Lincoln, a Republican, had been elected president. Southerners believed he would support a constitutional ban on slavery. They were afraid their way of life would soon end.

        截止到1861年2月1號,南方先后已經有七個州退出聯邦。他們成立了自己的獨立共和國,取名美國南方邦聯。南方這些州之所以決定退出聯邦,是因為共和黨人林肯當選總統。南方人相信,林肯一定會支持修改憲法,全面取締奴隸制度。他們擔心,自己的生活方式岌岌可危。

        This week in our series, Kay Gallant and Harry Monroe discuss the beginning of Abraham Lincoln's presidency.

        VOICE ONE:

        Abraham Lincoln
        Abraham Lincoln

        President-elect Lincoln traveled by train from his home in Illinois to Washington, D.C. Along the way, he stopped to make speeches. As he got closer to Washington, he was warned that a mob was planning to attack the train. He had to continue his trip in secret.

        當選總統林肯離開家鄉伊利諾伊,坐火車前往華盛頓走馬上任。他沿途多次發表講話??斓饺A盛頓的時候,林肯聽到消息,說有暴民準備襲擊他坐的列車,林肯被迫秘密走完了剩下的旅程。

        Lincoln arrived in Washington nine days before his inauguration. It was a busy time. He talked with many people, including delegates to a peace convention. Every state was represented at the convention, except the states that had seceded. The delegates urged Lincoln to support slavery. They urged him not to go to war over the issue.

        就職典禮九天前,林肯抵達華盛頓。那是一段繁忙的日子。林肯要跟很多人談話,包括一些參加和平大會的代表。這次和平大會,除了退出聯邦的各州外,都派了代表參加。代表們要求林肯支持蓄奴,不要因為奴隸問題而發動戰爭。

        Lincoln said only that he would faithfully execute the duties of President of all the United States. He said he would protect and defend the American Constitution.

        林肯只保證,他會忠實執行作為美國總統應盡的責任,捍衛美國憲法。

        VOICE TWO:

        Lincoln, fourth from left, with cabinet members Montgomery Blair, Caleb Smith, Salmon Chase, William Seward, Simon Cameron, Edward Bates and Gideon Wells
        Lincoln, fourth from left, with cabinet members Montgomery Blair, Caleb Smith, Salmon Chase, William Seward, Simon Cameron, Edward Bates and Gideon Wells

        While Lincoln waited for inauguration day, he chose the members of his cabinet. He wanted men representing all opposing groups in the Republican Party. He hoped this would unite the party and give him support in the difficult years ahead.

        林肯等待宣誓就職期間,挑選了內閣成員。他希望共和黨內部的所有派系在內閣里都有代表。林肯覺得,這么做能讓共和黨團結一致,幫助他渡過日后的難關。

        Lincoln chose William Seward as secretary of state, Salmon Chase as Treasury secretary, Gideon Welles as Navy secretary and Montgomery Blair as postmaster general.

        林肯選擇威廉·西沃德擔任國務卿,選擇薩蒙·蔡斯擔任財政部長,選擇吉迪恩·韋爾斯擔任海軍部長,選擇布萊爾擔任郵政總局局長。

        Seward did not like Chase, Welles or Blair. He told Lincoln that he could not serve in the cabinet with them. He said they would never be able to work together. Lincoln answered that he would be happy to make Seward ambassador to Britain, instead of secretary of state. Seward gave up the argument and agreed to join the cabinet.

        西沃德不喜歡其他三個人,表示沒法跟他們共事。林肯表示,如果西沃德不愿意當國務卿,可以擔任美國駐英大使。西沃德最后還是同意加入內閣。

        VOICE ONE:

        Lincoln and Buchanan entering the Senate chamber before the inauguration
        Lincoln and Buchanan entering the Senate chamber before the inauguration

        Inauguration Day was the fourth of March. President-elect Lincoln rode to the ceremony with outgoing President James Buchanan. Buchanan was ready to give up his power. He told Lincoln: "If you are as happy to get into the White House as I am to get out of it, you must be the happiest man alive!"

        3月4號總統就職。當選總統林肯跟即將卸任的總統布坎南一起坐馬車參加就職典禮。布坎南告訴林肯說,如果你就職的心情跟我離任的心情一樣愉快的話,那你一定是世界上最快樂的人。

        The inaugural ceremony took place outside the Capitol building. Lincoln was to give his inaugural speech before being sworn-in.

        就職典禮在國會大廈外舉行。宣誓前,林肯發表就職演說。

        He had worked hard on the speech. He wanted to say clearly what his policy would be on slavery and secession. These were the issues which divided the country. These were the issues which were leading the country to civil war.

        林肯的就職演說經過了精心準備,他希望說明自己在奴隸和脫離聯邦這兩大問題上的立場,因為這些是造成國家分裂、走向內戰的問題。

        This is what Lincoln said:

        VOICE TWO:

        "There seems to be some fear among the people of the southern states, that because a Republican administration is coming to power, their property and their peace and personal security are threatened. There has never been any reasonable cause for such fears. In fact, much evidence to the contrary has existed, open to their inspection. It is found in nearly all my published speeches.

        林肯說:“南方各州的人民似乎擔心,共和黨政府上任,會讓他們的財產、他們的平靜和個人安全受到威脅。這種擔心是毫無根據的。事實恰恰相反,證據就擺在那里,我發表的所有講話里都有,大家可以隨便去看。”

        "In one of those speeches, I declared that I had no purpose -- directly or indirectly -- to interfere with the institution of slavery in the states where it exists. I said I believed I had no legal right to do so, and no wish to do so. This statement is still true. I can only say that the property, peace, and security of no part of the country are to be in any way endangered by the incoming administration."

        林肯說:“我在其中一次講話中曾經說過,我根本不打算直接或是間接地插手現存的蓄奴制度,我覺得,根據法律,我無權這樣做,也不想這樣做。我的這一立場沒有變。這個國家任何一個地方居民的財產、和平與安全都不會因為政府換屆而受到任何形式的威脅。”

        VOICE ONE:

        Lincoln noted that seventy-two years had passed since the first president was inaugurated. Since then, he said, fifteen men had led the nation through many dangers, generally with great success. He went on:

        林肯指出,自從72年前美國建國第一位總統宣誓就職以來,已經有15位總統帶領這個國家成功地走過了風風雨雨。

        VOICE TWO:

        A page of President Lincoln's inaugural speech
        A page of President Lincoln's inaugural speech

        "I now begin the same job under great difficulty. The breaking up of the federal Union -- before, only threatened -- now, is attempted. I believe that under universal law and the Constitution, the Union of these states is permanent. This is shown by the history of the Union itself.

        他說,“我即將在目前的艱難條件下就任美國總統。以前,退出聯邦的威脅只是說說而已,但如今已經落實到了行動上。我認為,根據憲法和法律,各州間形成的聯盟是永恒的,聯邦自身的歷史就可以證明這一點。”。

        "The Union is much older than the Constitution. It was formed, in fact, by the Articles of Association in seventeen seventy-four. It was continued by the Declaration of Independence in seventeen seventy-six. It grew further under the Articles of Confederation in seventeen seventy-eight. And finally, in seventeen eighty-seven, one of the declared reasons for establishing the Constitution of the United States was to form 'a more perfect Union'.

        美國聯邦的歷史比憲法還要久遠,早在1774年就已經根據《聯盟條例》出現了,后來又根據1776年的《獨立宣言》得到延續。1778年的《聯邦條例》使聯邦進一步得到鞏固,直到1787年,制定美國憲法的理由之一就是要建立‘一個完美的聯邦’。

        "I therefore believe that, in view of the Constitution and the laws, the Union is not broken. I shall make sure, as the Constitution orders me to do, that the laws of the Union are obeyed in all the states. In doing this, there needs to be no bloodshed or violence. And there shall be none, unless it be forced upon the national government.

        他說,“我因此相信,根據憲法和法律,聯邦并未分裂。我要執行憲法給我的命令,確保聯邦法律得到所有州的遵守,要做到這一點,無須流血和暴力,除非有人將流血和暴力強加給聯邦政府。”

        "The power given to me will be used to hold, occupy, and possess the property and places belonging to the government, and to collect the taxes. But beyond what is necessary for these purposes, there will be no invasion, no using of force against or among the people anywhere."

        林肯說,“根據憲法賦予我的權力,我要掌握、控制、占有一切屬于聯邦政府的財產和領地,并收取稅賦。但是除了為達到上述目的而采取的必要手段外,政府不會入侵任何地方,或是對任何人使用暴力。”

        VOICE ONE:

        Lincoln then repeated some statements he had made during his campaign for president. He used them to explain the differences between North and South.

        林肯還重申了他在競選期間發表的一些聲明,解釋南方和北方之間的分歧。

        One part of the country, he said, believes slavery is right and should be extended. The other part believes slavery is wrong and should not be extended. This, he said, was the only important dispute.

        他說,我們這個國家的一部分地區認為奴隸制度是正確的,應該推廣,另一部分地區認為奴隸制度是錯誤的,不應該推廣,這是唯一的重大分歧。

        Lincoln admitted that, even if the dispute could be settled peacefully, there were those who wanted to see the Union destroyed. He said his words were not meant for them. They were meant only for those people who really loved the Union. He said:

        林肯承認,即使這一分歧能夠得到和平解決,還是會有人希望看到聯邦解體。他說,他的話不是說給這些人聽的,而是說給那些真正熱愛聯邦的人聽的。他說,

        VOICE TWO:

        "Physically speaking, we cannot separate. We cannot remove our sections from each other nor build an impassable wall between them. A husband and wife may be divorced and go away from or out of the reach of each other. But the different parts of our country cannot do this. They must remain face to face. And relations -- friendly or hostile -- must continue between them.

        “從地緣角度出發,我們不能分裂,不能各自搬走,在中間修建一面無法逾越的墻壁。夫妻可以離異,可以互不往來,但是我們國家的不同地區不能這樣做。他們必須彼此面對,不管是和睦還是敵對,都要繼續來往下去。”

        "Is it possible to make those relations better after separation than before. Can aliens make treaties easier than friends can make laws. Can treaties be more faithfully enforced between aliens than laws can be enforced among friends.

        林肯反問:“分裂能讓雙方的關系得到改善嗎?陌生人談判達成協議比朋友協商制定法律要容易嗎?陌生人間協議的落實要比朋友間法律的落實更輕而易舉嗎?”

        "My countrymen -- one and all -- think calmly and well upon this subject. Nothing valuable can be lost by taking time.

        林肯說,“同胞們,讓我們所有人都冷靜地仔細思考這個問題,多用一點時間去充分考慮一下是不會有重大損失的。”

        "In your hands, my dissatisfied fellow countrymen -- and not in mine -- is the great issue of civil war. The government will not attack you. You can have no conflict without being yourselves the aggressors.

        林肯還說,“內戰的決定權在你們這些對現狀不滿的同胞手里,不在我手里。政府是不會向你們發起攻擊的。如果你們不主動出擊,就不會發生沖突。”

        "We are not enemies, but friends. We must not be enemies. Though emotion may have damaged them, it must not break our ties of love."

        我們不是敵人,是朋友。我們不能成為敵人,我們之間愛的紐帶雖然可能受到感情的傷害,但是絕不會切斷。

        VOICE ONE:

        The 1861 inaugural Bible
        The 1861 inaugural Bible

        Abraham Lincoln then placed his hand on the Christian holy book, the Bible. The Chief Justice of the United States then spoke the presidential oath. Lincoln repeated the words. And the United States had a new president.

        林肯隨即把手放在圣經上,并在美國聯邦最高法院首席大法官的領誦下,宣誓就職,成為美國新總統。

        Lincoln's first crisis came quickly. It was a problem left unsolved by the out-going president. Lincoln had to decide immediately what to do about the federal fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina: Fort Sumter. The fort was surrounded by southern artillery. Southern gunboats guarded the harbor. The federal troops inside Fort Sumter were getting dangerously low on food. But any attempt to send more men or supplies would be seen as an act of war -- civil war.

        林肯剛剛走馬上任,就要解決一場棘手的危機,決定如何處理南卡羅來納州查爾斯頓港附近聯邦政府所屬的薩姆特堡。薩姆特堡被南方炮兵包圍,南方炮艦守衛著港口。薩姆特城堡里駐扎的聯邦部隊口糧越來越少,但是任何向薩姆特堡運送人員和物資的行動都會被看成是戰爭行為,意味著內戰的爆發。

        That will be our story next week.

        (MUSIC)

        ANNOUNCER:

        Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Kay Gallant and Harry Monroe. Transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our programs are online, along with historical images, at www.squishedblueberries.com. You can also follow us at twitter.com/voalearnenglish. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

        ___

        This is program #95 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

        網友的學習評論(1條):
        作者:Alumni
        9-25-2013 17:44:6
        Lincoln took his office after the inaugural speech . the united states were faced with bitter crisis of secession of the seven southern states. although Lincoln had declared that the govrnment would not use force to the pro-slavery southern states, the secession of the southern states had become a fact. one urgent thing laid befor the Lincoln. he must take mesaure to rescue the navies in the port of fort sumter which was surrounded by southern armed forecs-- artillary.
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