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        #92: Hopes, Fears and the Election of 1860

        作者:Frank Beardsley 發布日期:5-14-2013

        Welcome to the MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

        Eighteen sixty was a year of mixed feelings of hope and fear. Americans had hope for the future, because they would be electing a new president. But they had fear that even a new president could not hold the nation together. The states of the South were very close to leaving the Union over the issue of slavery.

        1860年是美國的總統大選年。美國人既滿懷希望,又忐忑不安:一方面希望新總統能給國家帶來新氣象;另一方面又擔心,新總統恐怕也很難力挽狂瀾,維系國家的統一,因為南方各州為了奴隸制的問題已經走到了分裂的邊緣。

        This week in our series, Tony Riggs and Frank Oliver talk about the candidates and the issues in the election of eighteen sixty.

        VOICE ONE:

        After four years as president, James Buchanan decided not to run again. Buchanan was a Democrat. His party, like the nation, was split over slavery. Southern Democrats wanted the party to support slavery. Northern Democrats refused.

        當時的總統布坎南決定不參選連任。布坎南是民主黨人,他所在的民主黨跟整個國家一樣,也因為奴隸制的分歧分為兩派,南方民主黨人支持蓄奴,北方民主黨人反對蓄奴。

        The opposition Republican Party expected to gain votes from dissatisfied Democrats. Republicans had become stronger since the last presidential election in eighteen fifty-six. They felt their candidate would win in eighteen sixty.

        共和黨人坐收漁利,希望能借此網羅到一些對民主黨失去信心的選民。1856年總統大選后的四年里,共和黨的勢力不斷壯大。他們覺得,1860年總統大選共和黨候選人勢在必得。

        Stephen Douglas
        Stephen Douglas

        VOICE TWO:

        The Democratic nominating convention opened in April in Charleston, South Carolina. Senator Stephen Douglas of Illinois was the leading candidate. He had the support of a majority of convention delegates. But he did not have the two-thirds majority needed to win the nomination.

        1860年四月,民主黨全國代表大會在南卡羅來納州的查爾斯頓召開。伊利諾伊州聯邦參議員史蒂文•道格拉斯是與會多數代表支持的人選,但是沒有得到提名所需要的三分之二多數票。

        Many Southern Democrats did not like Stephen Douglas. Some did not trust him. Others did not accept his policies on slavery. Douglas did not oppose slavery or the spread of slavery. However, he said no federal law could make slavery legal in a territory where the people did not want it. This was his policy of "popular sovereignty."

        南方很多民主黨人不喜歡道格拉斯,其中一些人不信任他,另外一些人無法認同他在奴隸制度問題上的政策。道格拉斯不反對蓄奴,也不反對奴隸制度的推廣,但是他曾表示,聯邦法律不能將奴隸制度強加于不愿意接受奴隸制度的地區。這就是他所謂的“人民主權論”。

        VOICE ONE:

        The Southern Democrats who opposed Stephen Douglas were led by William Yancey of Alabama. Yancey wanted to get a pro-slavery statement into the party's platform. He was sure Douglas would not accept the nomination based on such a platform.

        反對道格拉斯的南方民主黨人以阿拉巴馬州的威廉•揚西為首。揚西想在民主黨競選綱領里加入支持蓄奴的內容,他知道,一旦寫上了這樣的話,道格拉斯一定不會接受黨內提名。

        If Yancey failed to get the statement he wanted, he would take Southern Democrats out of the convention. And out of the party.

        如果不成功,揚西就準備帶領南方民主黨人退出代表大會,甚至退出民主黨。

        The committee on resolutions considered three platforms. One platform declared that the people of a territory had the right to decide if slavery would be legal or illegal. The second declared that the Supreme Court had that right. And the third declared that no one did -- that slavery was legal everywhere.

        大會議案小組委員會考慮了三份競選綱領的提案。第一份提案稱,當地居民有權決定奴隸制度的存廢;第二份提案稱,奴隸制存廢的決定權在聯邦最高法院手里;第三份提案稱,奴隸制度在任何地方都是合法的,誰也無權予以否定。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE TWO:

        William Yancey
        William Yancey

        William Yancey spoke to the convention in support of the pro-slavery platform. He said pro-slavery Democrats did not want to destroy the union. But he said someone had to make clear to anti-slavery Democrats that the union would be dissolved if the constitutional rights of slave owners were not honored.

        威廉•揚西在代表大會上發表講話,力挺支持蓄奴的競選綱領。他說,支持蓄奴的民主黨人不想看見國家分裂,但是必須有人明確地告訴反對蓄奴的民主黨人,如果奴隸主根據憲法所享有的權利得不到保障的話,那么國家就會走向分裂。

        Yancey spoke of the danger of a great slave rebellion. He described it as a sleeping volcano that threatened the lives, property, and honor of the people of the South. He said the actions of the North might cause that volcano to explode.

        揚西還談到了一場大規模奴隸起義的危險,說這就好象是一座沉睡中的火山,威脅著南方人的生命、財產和榮譽。他說,北方人的行動可能會導致火山的爆發。

        Another convention delegate answered Yancey's speech. He said Northern Democrats were tired of defending the interests of the South. "Now," he said, "Yancey tells us we must agree that slavery is right. He orders us to hide our faces and eat dirt. Gentlemen of the South," he said, "you mistake us. We will not do it!"

        大會的另一個代表對揚西的發言發起反擊。他說,北方民主黨人不愿意繼續保護南方的利益了。他還說,“如今,揚西告誡我們,要承認奴隸制是對的,命令我們昧著良心做事。南方的先生們,你們錯了,我們是不會唯命是從的。”

        VOICE ONE:

        In this atmosphere of tension, it was clear that a pro-slavery platform would not be approved. The Alabama delegation announced that, therefore, it must withdraw. The delegations from the other six states of the Deep South -- Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas -- did the same.

        在這種緊張氣氛中,支持蓄奴的競選綱領顯然是不會被接受的。阿拉巴馬代表團因此宣布,只好退會。美國最南部的另外六個州,阿肯色州、佛羅里達州、喬治亞州、路易斯安娜州、密西西比州和德克薩斯州也紛紛退出了大會。

        Those fifty men organized their own convention. They approved a pro-slavery platform, but did not nominate anyone for president. They agreed to meet again a few weeks later in Richmond, Virginia.

        退出大會的五十個人自己召開會議,批準了支持蓄奴的競選綱領,但沒有提名總統候選人,決定幾周后在維吉尼亞州的里士滿繼續開會。

        The Northern Democrats postponed their nomination, too. They agreed to meet again in Baltimore, Maryland.

        與此同時,北方民主黨人也推遲了候選人的提名,并決定不久后在馬里蘭州的巴爾地摩再議。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE TWO:

        William Seward
        William Seward

        The Republican Party held its presidential nominating convention in Chicago, Illinois. There was no question who was the leading candidate. He was the best-known Republican in the country at that time: Senator William Seward of New York.

        共和黨人在伊利諾伊州的芝加哥市召開全國代表大會,推舉總統候選人。當時美國最有聲望的共和黨人是紐約州參議員威廉•蘇厄德。蘇厄德得到了與會代表的普遍支持。

        The Republican platform seemed to contain something for everyone.

        共和黨競選綱領也符合很多人的利益。

        For those opposed to slavery, the platform rejected the idea that slave owners had a constitutional right to take slaves into new territories. For foreign-born Americans, it supported their right to full citizenship. For manufacturers, it proposed a new tax on imports to protect American industry. And for those in the northwest, it called for free land for settlers, and federal aid to build roads and canals.

        針對反蓄奴的選民,共和黨的競選綱領不承認奴隸主按照憲法有權將奴隸帶到新增領土里去。針對在外國出生的美國人,共和黨的競選綱領主張讓他們享有所有公民權。針對制造商,共和黨的競選綱領建議增設新的進口稅,保護美國工業。針對美國西北部的居民,共和黨的競選綱領提倡把土地免費撥發給定居者,由聯邦政府提供補貼,用來修筑道路和運河。

        Delegates approved the platform with loud cheers. They would return the next day to nominate their candidate for president.

        與會代表在歡呼聲中批準了競選綱領,準備次日推舉總統候選人。

        VOICE ONE:

        William Seward was sure he would win the nomination. If not on the first vote, he thought, then on the second. But there was some opposition to Seward. And his campaign organization failed to see its strength.

        Abraham Lincoln
        Abraham Lincoln

        The candidate of the opposition was Abraham Lincoln.

        威廉•蘇厄德的唯一對手是亞伯拉罕•林肯。

        The Republican convention voted three times. Lincoln gained support on each ballot. But neither he nor Seward received enough votes for the nomination. Then, before a fourth vote could be taken, a delegate from Ohio asked to speak. The big room became silent. "Mister chairman," he said, "I rise to announce the change of four votes of Ohio to Mister Lincoln."

        共和黨全國代表大會一共投票三次,林肯得到的票數越來越多,但是他和蘇厄德倆人都無法得到提名必需的多數票。第四次投票前,俄亥俄州的一個代表要求發言。大廳里鴉雀無聲。這名代表說,“主席先生,我宣布,俄亥俄州的四張選票改投給林肯。”

        That was enough to give Abraham Lincoln the Republican nomination for president.

        這四票扭轉乾坤,使林肯成為了共和黨候選人。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE TWO:

        One month later, the Democrats re-opened their nominating convention. Most of the Southern Democrats who walked out of the first meeting came back. Many of their seats at the convention had been given to new delegates. So a new dispute arose over which delegates had the right to be there.

        民主黨人一個月后重開代表大會,提名總統候選人。第一次大會退出會議的大部分南方民主黨人都回來參加會議,但他們的席位卻有了新的代表。誰才是合法代表?大會為此再次發生爭執。

        A compromise plan split the seats between old and new delegates. But most of the Southerners rejected it. One by one, a majority of each Southern delegation walked out. The remaining Democrats then voted for a candidate. They chose Stephen Douglas.

        有人提出妥協計劃,把席位在新、舊代表間進行分配,但是大多數南方人拒絕接受。最后,大多數南方代表都退出了會議,剩下的代表投票推舉史蒂文•道格拉斯為民主黨的總統候選人。

        Southern Democrats nominated their own candidate, John Breckinridge of Kentucky. And a group called the Constitutional Union Party nominated John Bell.

        南方民主黨人不甘示弱,提名了自己的候選人,肯塔基州的約翰•布雷肯里奇。除此之外,還有一個叫憲法聯合黨的團體提名約翰•貝爾。

        VOICE ONE:

        John Breckinridge
        John Breckinridge

        The election campaign opened in the summer of eighteen sixty. Lincoln was not well-known. So the Republican Party published many books and pamphlets about him. They told the story of a poor farm boy who educated himself and, through hard work and honesty, had become a candidate for president.

        1860年,大選拉開了戰幕。林肯的知名度不高,共和黨人因此發表了很多介紹林肯的書籍和宣傳材料,講述了一個窮苦的農民孩子,刻苦誠實、自學成才,最終成為總統候選人的故事。

        Lincoln's supporters organized a loud and colorful campaign, complete with marching bands and signs. Lincoln himself was silent. He said, "It has been my decision since becoming a candidate to make no speeches. I am here only to see you and to let you see me. "

        林肯的支持者把他的競選活動辦得生龍活虎,還外加游行樂隊和各種標語。林肯本人則始終保持沉默。他說,“我從成為總統候選人的那一刻起就已經決定,不發表講話。我來這里只是為了跟大家見面,也是為了讓大家認識我。”

        In fact, it was Lincoln's assistants who had advised him to say nothing. They believed he had said enough in the past to make clear his position on the important issues.

        事實上,建議林肯不公開講話的是他的顧問們。他們相信,在各種重要議題上,該說的,林肯過去都已經說過了。

        VOICE TWO:

        Stephen Douglas, on the other hand, campaigned very hard. His health was poor. And he had trouble getting money. But that did not stop him from speaking in almost every state.

        與此同時,民主黨候選人史蒂文•道格拉斯則全力以赴,投入選戰。他身體不好,又缺少競選經費,但他克服重重困難,幾乎在美國所有州都發表過競選講話。

        Within a few weeks, however, Douglas recognized that he had no real hope of winning. His position on slavery had cost him all support in the South.

        短短幾個星期內,道格拉斯就意識到,他完全沒有獲勝的希望。他在奴隸制存廢問題上的立場,讓他失去了南方的所有選票。

        Douglas believed that, of the other candidates, Abraham Lincoln had the best chance of winning the presidential election. He also believed pro-slavery extremists would use Lincoln's election as an excuse to take Southern states out of the union. So he turned his efforts to a campaign for the union itself.

        道格拉斯相信,在所有候選人當中,林肯當選的可能性最大。他同時相信,支持蓄奴的極端主義者會把林肯當選做為借口,退出聯邦,因此,道格拉斯改變了自己的方向,為聯邦統一而努力。

        He said, "The election of a man to the presidency by the American people, under the Constitution, is no reason for any attempt to dissolve this glorious nation."

        他說:“美國人民根據憲法選舉一個人當總統,不應該成為分裂這個美麗國家的理由。”

        VOICE ONE:

        Election day was November sixth. The popular vote was close between Lincoln and Douglas. But the electoral vote was not. Lincoln received one hundred eighty. Breckinridge received seventy-two. Bell received thirty-nine. And Douglas received just twelve.

        1860年11月6號是投票日。雖然林肯和道格拉斯倆人得到的總票數很接近,但是如果按照選舉人票計算的話,林肯得到180票、布雷肯里奇72票、貝爾39票、道格拉斯只有12票。

        Abraham Lincoln would be the new president of the United States. He would enter office facing the most serious crisis in American history. For, before his inauguration, southern states finally acted on their threats. They began to leave the union.

        亞伯拉罕•林肯當選美國的下一屆總統。迎接他的,是美國歷史上最嚴重的危機。林肯宣誓就職前,南方各州就開始紛紛采取行動,宣布退出聯邦。

        That will be our story next week.

        (MUSIC)

        ANNOUNCER:

        Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Tony Riggs and Frank Oliver. Transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our programs are online, along with historical images, at www.squishedblueberries.com. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION - an American history series in VOA Special English.

        ___

        This is program #92 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

        網友的學習評論(1條):
        作者:perfect100
        10-27-2013 21:21:16
        the campaign is estremly strongly about the election of president in 1860,finally Licon won .
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