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        #91: A Failed Attempt to Raise a Rebel Army of Slaves

        作者:Frank Beardsley 發布日期:5-13-2013

        Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

        In October of eighteen fifty-nine, a group of anti-slavery extremists attacked the town of Harpers Ferry. Harpers Ferry was part of Virginia then; today it is located in West Virginia. The attackers were led by John Brown. They seized a gun factory and a federal supply center where military equipment was kept. They planned to use the guns and equipment to organize a rebel army of slaves.

        1859年10月的一天,一小群反對蓄奴的極端主義者在約翰·布朗的帶領下,對一個叫哈珀斯費里的小鎮發動進攻。哈珀斯費里鎮當時還是維吉尼亞的一部分,如今已經劃歸西維吉尼亞。布朗等人奪取了一個槍械廠和一個聯邦軍需彈藥庫,準備用這些槍支彈藥來裝備一支奴隸起義軍。

        This week in our series, Harry Monroe and Kay Gallant tell us what happened to John Brown after he seized Harpers Ferry.

        VOICE ONE:

        Marines attack the engine house at Harpers Ferry
        Marines attack the engine house at Harpers Ferry

        The president of the United States in eighteen fifty-nine was James Buchanan. When Buchanan learned of the attack, he wanted immediate action. He sent a force of Marines to Harpers Ferry, under the command of Army Colonel Robert E. Lee.

        1859年時的美國總統是詹姆斯·布坎南。布坎南聽到哈珀斯費里鎮被襲擊的消息后,希望立即采取行動。他下令陸軍上校羅伯特·李率領一批海軍陸戰隊員,奔赴哈珀斯費里鎮。

        John Brown had attacked with about twenty men. Several, including two of his sons, had been killed by local militia. He and his remaining men withdrew to a small brick building. The attack had failed. Not one slave had come to Harpers Ferry to help Brown.

        約翰·布朗手下只有大約二十人,包括他的兩個兒子在內的一些人已經被當地民兵打死。布朗帶著殘余力量撤退到一個小磚房里。這次襲擊行動以失敗告終,沒有一個奴隸如布朗預料的那樣,揭竿而起,投奔布朗的起義軍。

        The few whom his men had freed had refused to fight when the shooting started. Brown could not understand the fear that kept the slaves from fighting for their freedom.

        就連布朗在行動中釋放的幾個奴隸,也都拒絕參加戰斗。布朗實在難以理解,這些奴隸到底怕什么,不敢為自己的自由奮起反抗。

        VOICE TWO:

        Brown and his men were trapped inside the brick building. They held a few hostages whom they hoped to exchange for their freedom.

        布朗等人被圍困在小磚房里,希望靠人質來保全性命。

        A drawing of the inside of the engine house just before it was seized by Marines
        A drawing of the inside of the engine house just before it was seized by Marines

        Colonel Lee wrote a message to John Brown demanding his surrender. He did not think Brown would surrender peaceably. So, he planned to attack as soon as Brown rejected the message. He felt this was the surest way to save the lives of the hostages.

        羅伯特·李上校寫信給布朗,要求他投降。羅伯特·李上校估計布朗不會和平繳械,所以做好了進攻的準備,只要布朗拒絕,立刻動手,他覺得,這是保護人質性命安全的最佳手段。

        As expected, Brown refused to surrender. He said he and his men had the right to go free. As soon as Brown spoke, the signal was given. The Marines attacked.

        不出所料,布朗不肯投降,并表示,他們有權全身而退。布朗話音剛落,羅伯特·李就下達了進攻的命令。

        They broke open a small hole in the door of the brick building. One by one, the Marines moved through the hole. They fought hand-to-hand against the men inside. After a brief fight, they won. John Brown's rebellion was crushed.

        海軍陸戰隊隊員在小磚房的門上打開一個小洞,一個接一個地從洞里鉆進去。他們跟布朗的手下展開肉搏戰,最終獲勝,將布朗等人捕獲。

        VOICE ONE:

        A few hours after Brown was captured, the Governor of Virginia and three Congressmen arrived in Harpers Ferry. They wanted to question Brown. Brown had been wounded in the final attack. He was weak from the loss of blood. But he welcomed the chance to explain his actions.

        布朗被俘幾小時后,維吉尼亞州州長和三個國會議員來到哈珀斯費里鎮,希望向布朗問話。布朗在最后的搏斗中受了傷,嚴重失血,但還是愿意為自己的行動做出辯護。

        The officials first asked where Brown got the money to organize his raid. Brown said he raised most of it himself. He refused to give the names of any of his supporters. Then the officials asked why Brown had come to Harpers Ferry. "We came to free the slaves," Brown said, "and only that."

        維吉尼亞州州長和三名國會議員問布朗,發動襲擊的錢是哪來的,布朗說,大部分是自己籌措的,不肯說出任何支持者的名字。接下來的問題是,為什么選擇哈珀斯費里鎮,布朗的回答是,“我們的目的是要解放奴隸,不為別的。”

        He continued: "I think that you are guilty of a great wrong against God and humanity. I believe anyone would be perfectly right to interfere with you, so far as to free those you wickedly hold in slavery. I think I did right. You had better -- all you people of the South -- prepare yourselves for a settlement sooner than you are prepared for it.

        布朗繼續說,“我覺得你們對上帝和人類鑄下了大錯。我相信,任何人都有權干涉你們的所作所為,解放那些被你們無恥地占為己有的奴隸。我覺得我是對的。你們這些南方人最好做好準備,問題的解決要比你們預料的來得快得多。”

        "You may get rid of me very easily. I am nearly gone now. But this question is still to be settled -- this Negro question, I mean. That is not yet ended."

        布朗還說,“你們可以很輕易地除掉我,我已經快不行了,但是黑奴的問題還是沒有解決。”

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE TWO:

        The raid on Harpers Ferry increased the bitterness of the national dispute over slavery. Members of the Democratic Party called the raid a plot by the Republican Party. Republican leaders denied the charge. They said the raid was the work of one man -- one madman -- John Brown. Still, they said, he had acted for good reason: to end slavery in America.

        哈珀斯費里鎮受到攻擊的事件進一步加深了南北雙方圍繞奴隸存廢問題展開的激烈爭論。民主黨人說這起事件是共和黨的陰謀,共和黨領袖矢口否認,說這只是布朗一個人--一個瘋子---的個人行為,但他初衷沒錯,那就是,結束奴隸制。

        Southern newspapers condemned Brown. Some said his raid was an act of war. Some demanded that he be executed as a thief and murderer.

        南方報紙對布朗提出譴責。有人說他的襲擊行動是在宣戰。另外一些人要求以盜竊和謀殺罪將他處死。

        Many southerners said all of the North was responsible for the raid. They believed all northerners wanted a slave rebellion in the South. And it was such a rebellion that southerners feared more than anything else.

        很多南方人表示,所有北方人都要為這次襲擊行動負責,因為所有北方人都希望看到南方出現奴隸起義,而這也是南方人最擔心的。

        New measures were approved throughout the South to prevent this. Military law was declared in some areas. Slave owners threatened to beat or hang any Negro who even looked rebellious.

        南方各地紛紛采取措施進行防范,有些地區甚至宣布了戒嚴令。奴隸主威脅說,哪怕黑奴只是看上去要叛逆,就要拷打、絞死他們。

        VOICE ONE:

        The fear of a slave rebellion united the people of the South. For years, rich slave owners had talked of taking the southern states out of the Union to save their way of life. But those who had no slaves opposed the idea of disunion.

        對奴隸起義的擔憂讓南方人凝聚到了一處。多年來,南方有錢的奴隸主一直主張脫離聯邦,以保全自己的生活方式,但是沒有奴隸的南方人反對分裂。

        John Brown's raid changed that. After his attack on Harpers Ferry, the south spoke with one voice. All southerners declared that they would fight to protect their homes from a Negro rebellion or from another attack by men like Brown. Feelings were especially high in Virginia, the state in which the raid took place. Virginians wanted Brown punished quickly to show what would happen to anyone who tried to lead a Negro rebellion.

        約翰·布朗對哈珀斯費里鎮的襲擊改變了這一切。襲擊事件發生后,南方成了鐵板一塊。南方人一致宣稱,他們誓死保護自己的家園不受奴隸起義的威脅,不受布朗這種人的襲擊。這種情緒在哈珀斯費里鎮所在的維吉尼亞州尤其高漲。維吉尼亞州居民希望立即嚴懲布朗,讓大家知道,領導黑奴起義的人是什么下場。

        There was some question whether Brown should be tried in a federal court or a state court. Brown's raid took place within the borders of a state. But the property he seized belonged to the federal government.

        可問題是,布朗應該在州法院還是聯邦法院受審。襲擊發生在維吉尼亞州,但是布朗奪取的財物歸聯邦政府。

        The Governor of Virginia decided to try Brown in a state court. He believed a federal court trial would take too long. If Brown were not brought to trial quickly, he said, people might attack the jail and kill him.

        維吉尼亞州州長決定讓州法院受理布朗一案,因為他覺得,聯邦法院拖得太久。如果不立即將布朗繩之以法,民眾就可能沖擊監獄,把他打死。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE TWO:

        John Brown
        John Brown

        Brown was being held in Charles Town, a few kilometers from Harpers Ferry. The court there named two lawyers to defend him. A doctor examined Brown. He reported that Brown's wounds were not serious enough to prevent the trial from starting. Brown lay in a bed in the courtroom throughout the trial.

        當時,布朗被關在距離哈珀斯費里鎮幾公里處的查爾斯鎮。當地法院為他指定了兩名辯護律師。醫生給布朗驗傷后表示,傷勢的嚴重程度不妨礙審判。審判全過程,布朗一直躺在床上。

        John Brown's lawyers tried to show that his family had a history of madness. They tried to prove that Brown, too, was mad. They asked the court to declare him innocent because of insanity. Brown protested. He said the lawyers were just trying to save his life. He did not want such a defense. The matter of insanity was dropped.

        起初,布朗的律師提出,布朗有家族精神病史,因此布朗神智不正常,應該無罪釋放。布朗不肯接受這種辯護。

        VOICE ONE:

        Brown's lawyers then argued that he was not guilty of the three crimes with which he was charged.

        律師沒辦法,也只好另覓溪徑,說布朗被指控的三大罪名并不成立。

        First, they said, he could not be guilty of treason against Virginia, because he was not a citizen of Virginia. Second, he could not be guilty of plotting a slave rebellion, because he had never incited slaves against their owners. And third, he could not be guilty of murder, because he had killed only in self-defense.

        首先,他不是維吉尼亞州居民,因此叛逆罪不能成立;第二,他從來沒有煽動奴隸反抗奴隸主,所以陰謀策劃奴隸起義的罪名也不成立;第三,他殺人是正當防衛,所以謀殺罪不成立。

        The trial lasted five days. The jury found John Brown guilty of all three charges.

        布朗一案的審理進行了五天,陪審團最后裁定,布朗被指控的三大罪名全部成立。

        VOICE TWO:

        The judge asked Brown if he wanted to make a statement before being sentenced. Brown did. He declared that he had not planned to start a slave rebellion. He said he only wanted to free some slaves and take them to Canada. Brown's statement was strong. But it was not true. He had, in fact, planned to organize an army of slaves to fight for their freedom. He acted in the belief that slaves throughout the south would rise up against their owners and join him.

        法官問布朗,在宣判之前有什么話說。布朗宣稱,他不曾計劃挑起奴隸起義,他本以為,南方各地的奴隸會自覺自愿地揭竿而起,加入他的陣營。

        Brown's words did not move the judge. He said he could find no reason to question the jury's decision that Brown was guilty. He sentenced Brown to be hanged.

        然而,布朗的一番話并沒有打動法官。法官表示,他沒有理由懷疑陪審團的有罪裁決,并判處布朗絞刑。

        VOICE ONE:

        One of Brown's supporters attempted to find a way to free Brown from jail. Several plans were proposed. None were tried.

        布朗的一個支持者試圖劫獄,提出了好幾項計劃,但是最終都沒有落實。

        A drawing of John Brown as he is about to be hanged
        A drawing of John Brown as he is about to be hanged

        Brown himself did not want to escape. He said he could do more to destroy slavery by hanging than by staying alive.

        布朗本人并不想跑。他表示,他活著對消滅奴隸制度的價值,遠遠沒有他被絞死對消滅奴隸制度的意義更為重大。

        John Brown was executed on December second, eighteen fifty-nine. His death created a wave of public emotion throughout the country. In the North, people mourned.

        1859年12月2號,布朗被處以絞刑。他的死在美國全國引起了巨大反響。北方人悼念布朗。

        One man wrote: "The events of the last month or two have done more to build northern opposition to slavery than anything which has ever happened before, than all the anti-slavery pamphlets and books that have ever been written."

        曾經有一個人這樣寫道:“過去一、兩個月發生的事情,比已往任何時候發生的事情,比任何反對蓄奴的書籍和資料,對推動北方聯合反對奴隸制產生的效果都要大。”

        In the south, people cheered. But their happiness at Brown's punishment was mixed with anger at those who honored him. As the nation prepared for a presidential election year, the South renewed its promise to defend slavery -- or leave the Union.

        與此同時,布朗的死讓南方人歡騰雀躍,同時也夾雜了對悼念他的人們的憤怒。美國總統大選前夕,南方人再次誓言捍衛奴隸制,要么就脫離聯邦。

        That will be our story next week.

        (MUSIC)

        ANNOUNCER:

        Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Harry Monroe and Kay Gallant. Transcripts of our programs can be found along with MP3s, podcasts and historical images at www.squishedblueberries.com. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

        ___

        This is program #91 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

        網友的學習評論(1條):
        作者:perfect100
        10-27-2013 20:49:35
        the true hero is named john brown in the USA .
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