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        #90: Story of John Brown's Raid on Harpers Ferry

        作者:Frank Beardsley 發布日期:5-12-2013

        Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English.

        One day in October of eighteen fifty-nine, Americans were shocked by news of an attack led by John Brown. He was an antislavery extremist. Many people also considered him a madman.

        1859年10月的一天,反對蓄奴的極端主義者約翰·布朗對一個叫哈珀斯費里的小鎮發起攻擊,消息傳來,四方震驚。布朗曾宣稱,他要為結束奴隸制度獻身,很多人覺得他簡直就是個瘋子。

        John Brown
        John Brown

        John Brown had declared that he was ready to die fighting slavery. He said that God wanted him to fight slavery by invading Virginia with a military force. And even if the rebellion failed, he predicted that it would lead to a civil war between the North and the South. Should there be a war, he said, the North would break the chains of black slaves.

        布朗說,上帝授意,要他率領一支武裝力量進攻維吉尼亞,掀起奴隸起義。布朗預言,即便起義失敗,也會點燃南、北雙方的內戰。一旦戰爭打響,北方就會鑿爛黑奴身上的枷鎖。

        Brown decided to strike at Harpers Ferry, a small town about one hundred kilometers from Washington. It was part of Virginia at that time, but is now located in the state of West Virginia. It had a factory that made guns for the army and a supply center of valuable military equipment. Brown wanted the guns and equipment for the slave army he hoped to organize.

        布朗選擇距離首都華盛頓大約一百公里的小鎮哈珀斯費里做為攻擊目標。當時,哈珀斯費里是維吉尼亞的一部分,如今位于西維吉尼亞。那里有一家槍械廠和一個彈藥庫。布朗希望奪取武器彈藥,用來武裝自己準備組建的奴隸軍。

        Harpers Ferry was built on a narrow finger of land where the Shenandoah River flowed into the Potomac. There was a bridge across each river. Brown organized his attack from across the Potomac, in Maryland.

        哈珀斯費里鎮位于雪蘭多河跟波托馬克河交匯處一片狹窄地段,兩座橋梁分跨兩座河流。布朗從波托馬克河對岸的馬里蘭州發動進攻。

        This week in our series, Harry Monroe and Jack Moyles continue the story of John Brown and his raid on Harpers Ferry.

        VOICE ONE:

        With his force of less than twenty men, John Brown moved through the darkness down to the bridge that crossed the Potomac River.

        他率領不到20人的手下,連夜摸黑來到波托馬克橋頭。

        Two men left the group to cut the telegraph lines east and west of Harpers Ferry.

        布朗派兩個人去切斷哈珀斯費里鎮東、西兩側的電報線。

        At the bridge, Brown's men surprised a railroad guard. They told him he was their prisoner. The guard thought they were joking until he saw their guns.

        布朗率領其他人突襲橋頭的鐵路線看守,告訴他,被俘虜了。這個看守本以為他們開玩笑,直到布朗一伙拿出槍來,他才恍然大悟。

        Once across the bridge, Brown and his men moved quickly. They captured a few people in the street and another guard at the front gate of the government armory. They seized the armory, then crossed the street and seized the supply center. Millions of dollars' worth of military equipment was kept there.

        過橋后,布朗率領手下迅速按計劃行動,在大街上抓了幾個人,俘虜了彈藥庫衛兵,奪取了彈藥庫,控制了價值數百萬美元的軍事裝備。

        VOICE TWO:

        At left, the armory
        At left, the armory

        After leaving a few men to guard the prisoners, Brown and the others went to the gun factory across town. They seized the few people who were there and captured the factory.

        布朗命令幾個人留下,看守俘虜,剩下的人直奔小鎮另一側的槍械廠,奪取了槍械廠的控制權。

        Without firing a shot, Brown now controlled the three places he wanted in Harpers Ferry. His problem now was to hold what he had captured. Brown knew he had little time. The people of the town would soon learn what had happened. They would call for help. And several groups of militia in the area would come to the aid of Harpers Ferry.

        就這樣,布朗不費一槍一炮,就控制了哈珀斯費里鎮的三處要地,現在的任務是如何保住這三處要地的控制權。布朗知道,時間有限,小鎮居民很快就會得到消息,迅速向外求援,附近地區的幾個民兵團隊會趕來協助。

        Brown planned to use the people he had captured as hostages. The militia would not attack if there was danger of harming the prisoners. He wanted as many prisoners as possible, to protect himself. If his plan failed, he could offer them in exchange for his own freedom and that of his men.

        布朗打算用手里的俘虜做人質,防止民兵進攻。他希望盡可能多抓些人,以便保證自己的安全,在萬不得已的情況下,可以用人質做為交換,保全自己和手下人的性命。

        VOICE ONE:

        Brown had decided to capture, as his best hostage, Colonel Lewis Washington. The Colonel was a descendant of President George Washington. He lived on a big farm near Harpers Ferry. Brown sent some of his men to capture the old colonel and free his slaves.

        布朗決定把前總統喬治·華盛頓的后裔路易斯·華盛頓上校抓來做人質。華盛頓上校住在哈珀斯費里鎮附近的一個大農場上,布朗派手下人去抓老上校,把他的奴隸都放走。

        They returned from the Washington farm after midnight. They brought Colonel Washington and ten slaves. They also captured another farmer and his son. The slaves were given spears and told to guard the prisoners.

        午夜過后,他們帶著華盛頓上校和十個奴隸回到行動總部。他們還抓了一個農夫和他的兒子。布朗把矛發給奴隸,讓他們負責看守俘虜。

        Then, at the far end of the Potomac River bridge, the first shots were fired.

        就在這時候,波托馬克橋另一端響起了槍聲。

        Brown's son, Watson, and another man fired at a railroad guard who refused to halt. A bullet struck his head, but did not hurt him seriously. The guard raced back across the bridge to the railroad station. He cried out that a group of armed men had seized the bridge.

        布朗的兒子沃森和另外一個人向拒絕投降的鐵路看守開槍,擊中看守的頭部,但是傷勢并不嚴重。這個看守帶傷跑回橋另外一頭的火車站,一邊跑一邊喊,“橋被武裝份子搶占了。”

        VOICE TWO:

        A few minutes later, a train from the west arrived at Harpers Ferry. The wounded guard warned the trainmen of the danger at the bridge. Two of the trainmen decided to investigate. They walked toward the bridge. Before they could reach it, bullets began whizzing past them. They ran back to the train and moved it farther from the bridge.

        幾分鐘后,一列西進的火車抵達哈珀斯費里。受傷的看守人警告火車駕駛,說橋上有危險?;疖嚿系膬蓚€人決定去偵察一下,但是還沒走到橋頭,子彈就呼嘯而來。他們只好原路返回,把火車向后倒。

        Then a free Negro man who worked at the railroad station, Hayward Shepherd, walked down to the bridge. Brown's men ordered him to halt. Shepherd tried to run and was shot. He got back to the station, but died several hours later.

        隨后,一個在火車站工作的自由黑人海沃德·謝潑德準備過橋。布朗的手下要他停下。謝潑德想跑,但還是不幸中彈,跑回火車站幾小時后,就命喪黃泉了。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE ONE:

        Brown finally agreed to let the train pass over the bridge and continue on to Baltimore. The train left at sunrise.

        布朗最終同意,讓一列西進前往巴爾的摩的火車在日出時分通行。

        An illustration from Harper's Weekly showing armed citizens marching to Harpers Ferry
        An illustration from Harper's Weekly showing armed citizens marching to Harpers Ferry

        By this time, word of Brown's attack had spread to Charles Town, more than twelve kilometers away. Officials called out the militia, ordering the men of Charles Town to get ready to go to the aid of Harpers Ferry.

        那時候,布朗襲擊哈珀斯費里鎮的消息已經傳到了十二公里以外的查爾斯鎮。查爾斯鎮的官員立即召集民兵,準備趕往哈珀斯費里鎮。

        Soon after sunrise, men began arriving at Harpers Ferry from other towns in the area. They took positions above the armory and started shooting at it.

        與此同時,日出后不久,周邊城鎮的民間武裝紛紛抵達哈珀斯費里鎮,在俯視彈藥庫的高地上集結,向彈藥庫發起攻擊。

        The militia from Charles Town arrived at the Maryland end of the Potomac bridge. They charged across, forcing Brown's men on the bridge to flee to the armory. Only one of Brown's men was hit. He was killed instantly.

        查爾斯鎮民兵從波托馬克橋的馬里蘭州一側向橋上發起沖鋒,迫使布朗手下向彈藥庫后撤,其中一人中彈,當場斃命。

        VOICE TWO:

        Brown saw that he was surrounded. His only hope was to try to negotiate a ceasefire and offer to release his thirty hostages, if the militia would let him and his men go free. Brown sent out one of his men and one of the prisoners with a white flag. The excited crowd refused to recognize the white flag. They seized Brown's man and carried him away.

        布朗意識到,自己被包圍了,他把唯一希望寄托在人質身上,希望利用手里的30個人質,交涉?;?,保全性命。布朗讓一名手下和一個人質舉著白旗走出去,誰知圍攻的民兵群情激昂,不接受白旗,把布朗的手下抓了起來。

        Brown moved his men and the most important of his hostages into a small brick building at the armory. Then he sent out two more of his men with a prisoner to try to negotiate a ceasefire. One of them was his son, Watson.

        布朗只好帶著其余手下,押著最重要的人質,躲進彈藥庫一個小磚房里,派兩個人和一名人質出去談判,其中包括他兒子沃森。

        VOICE ONE:

        This time, the crowd opened fire. Watson and the other raider were wounded. Their prisoner escaped to safety. Watson was able to crawl back to the armory.

        圍攻的民兵開槍,打傷了沃森兩人,人質順利逃跑,沃森也倉惶逃回了彈藥庫。

        One of the youngest of Brown's men, William Leeman, tried to escape. He ran from the armory and jumped into the Potomac, planning to swim across the river. He did not get far. A group of militia saw him and began shooting. Leeman was forced to hide behind a rock in the middle of the river. Two men went out to the rock with guns and shot him. His body lay in the river for two days.

        布朗手下的一個年輕人威廉·里曼試圖逃走,從彈藥庫跑出去,跳進波托馬克河,準備游泳過河。但是沒游多遠就被民兵發現了,里曼沒辦法,只好躲在河中間一塊巖石后面。兩個人從背面包抄,將他打死,尸體在河里漂了兩天。

        Later, more people were killed. One was the mayor of Harpers Ferry, Fontaine Beckham.

        后來,又有更多人喪生,包括哈珀斯費里鎮長貝克漢姆。

        VOICE TWO:

        After the mayor's death, a mob went to the hotel where one of Brown's men had been held since he was seized earlier in the day.

        貝克漢姆鎮長死后,一群暴民趕往當地的一間旅店,旅店里關著早先抓獲的布朗的一個手下。

        They pulled him from the hotel and took him to the bridge over the river. Several members of the mob put guns to his head and fired. They pushed his body off the bridge and into the water.

        暴民將此人帶到橋頭,幾個暴民用槍口頂著他的頭,開槍將他打死,然后將尸體投進河里。

        Across town, three of Brown's men were in trouble at the gun factory. The factory was built on an island in the Shenandoah River. The island was now surrounded by militia. Forty of the soldiers attacked the factory from three sides. They pushed the three raiders back to a small building next to the river. The three men fought as long as possible. Then they jumped through a window into the river.

        與此同時,布朗的三個手下在小鎮另一頭的槍械廠也遇到了麻煩。這個槍械廠建在雪蘭多河的一個小島上,小島被民兵包圍,四十個民兵從三面同時向槍械廠發起攻擊,將布朗手下的三個人逼到河邊的一個小房子里,這三個人最后實在堅持不住,只好從窗戶跳進河里。

        They tried to swim to safety. Men with guns were waiting for them. Bullets fell around the three like rain. One man was hit. He died instantly. Another was wounded. He was pulled to land and left to die. The third man escaped death. He was captured and held for trial.

        他們本想從水路逃命,但是等待他們的卻是槍口,子彈象雨點般落下來,其中一人當場中彈身亡,另外一人受傷,被拉到岸上,留在那里等死,還有一個人被生擒,接受審判。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE ONE:

        All through the afternoon and evening, Brown's men at the armory continued to exchange shots with the militia. Several more on both sides were killed or wounded. One of those was another of Brown's sons, Oliver. He was shot and seriously wounded.

        從下午到晚上,布朗繼續率領手下在彈藥庫跟民兵對峙,雙方都有人死傷,布朗的兒子奧利佛也身受重傷。

        Night fell. Then, a militia officer, Captain Sinn, walked up to the small building held by Brown. He shouted to the men inside that he wished to talk. Brown opened the door and let him in. For almost an hour, the two men talked. They talked about slavery and the right to rebel against the government.

        夜幕降臨后,民兵指揮官辛恩來到布朗占領的小房子前,表示愿意談判。布朗開門讓他進去。兩人交談了將近一個小時,談到了奴隸制度和反抗政府的權利。

        VOICE TWO:

        Brown was furious that the crowd outside had refused to honor his white flag of truce earlier in the day. He told Sinn that his men could have killed unarmed men and women, but did not do so.

        布朗對圍攻者早先時候不承認他們的白旗感到憤怒。他告訴辛恩說,他的手下本可以打死手無寸鐵的普通百姓,但他們并沒有這樣做。

        "That is not quite correct," Captain Sinn said. "Mayor Beckham had no gun when he was shot."

        辛恩說,“你的話不全對。貝克漢姆鎮長中彈的時候手里就沒拿槍。”

        "Then I can only say I am most sad to hear it," said Brown.

        布朗回答說,“那我只能說,我聽到這個消息十分遺憾。”

        "Men who take up guns against the government," said Sinn, "must expect to be shot down like dogs."

        辛恩說,“拿槍反抗政府的人,一定會象狗一樣被打死。”

        VOICE ONE:

        In Washington, President Buchanan and Secretary of War John Floyd did not learn of the rebellion at Harpers Ferry until after ten o'clock that morning. The president wanted immediate action.

        與此同時,在首都華盛頓,布坎南總統和戰爭部長約翰·弗洛伊德直到早上十點才聽到布朗起義的消息。布坎南總統希望立即采取行動。

        (MUSIC)

        ANNOUNCER:

        Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Harry Monroe and Jack Moyles. Transcripts, MP3s, podcasts and archives of our programs can be found, along with historical images, at www.squishedblueberries.com. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

        ___

        This is program #90 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

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