<em id="0i93o"></em>
<sub id="0i93o"></sub>
<meter id="0i93o"></meter>
      1. <form id="0i93o"></form>

        官方APP下載:英語學習播客(支持蘋果手機、安卓手機)
        創辦于2003年
        UNSV記不???那就記中文諧音“憂安思?!卑?!
          Slow and Steady Wins the Race!
        UNSV英語學習頻道 - Slow and steady wins the race!
        公眾微信服務號(英語全能特訓)
        英語全能特訓(微信公眾服務號)
        UNSV英語學習頻道淘寶網店
        客服短信:18913948480
        客服郵箱:web@unsv.com
        初級VIP會員
        全站英語學習資料下載。
        ¥98元/12個月

        #9: British Defeat the French in a Struggle for North America

        作者:Nancy Steinbach and Paul Thompson 發布日期:1-25-2013

        VOICE ONE:

        This is THE MAKING OF A NATION in VOA Special English. I'm Steve Ember

        VOICE TWO:

        And I'm Barbara Klein. This week, we tell about the conflicts among the nations in Europe during the eighteenth century and how they affected North America.

        VOICE ONE:

        During the eighteenth century, Spain, France and Britain controlled land in North America. Spain controlled Florida. France was powerful in the northern and central areas. Britain controlled the east. All three nations knew they could not exist together peacefully in North America. The situation could only be settled by war.

        十八世紀,西班牙、法國和英國在北美大陸三雄鼎立。西班牙控制著佛羅里達,法國在北部和中部地區勢力強大,而東部地區則是英國的地盤。這三個歐洲大國都知道,他們無法在北美大陸上和平共處,這種局面只能通過戰爭來解決。

        The powerful European nations already were fighting each other for land and money all over the world. These small wars continued for more than one hundred years. They were called King William's War, Queen Anne's War, King George's War and the French and Indian War.

        為了爭奪土地和財富,它們的沖突遍及世界各地,前后延續了一百多年,包括威廉姆斯國王戰爭、安妮女王戰爭、喬治國王戰爭,還有就是我們今天要介紹的法印戰爭。

        VOICE TWO:

        Detail from ''The Death of General Wolfe,'' a 1770 painting by Benjamin West. James Wolfe was a British general killed during the 1759 battle in which his troops won a victory over the French at Quebec, Canada.
        Detail from ''The Death of General Wolfe,'' a 1770 painting by Benjamin West. James Wolfe was a British general killed during the 1759 battle in which his troops won a victory over the French at Quebec, Canada.

        The French and Indian War was fought to decide if Britain or France would be the strong power in North America. France and its colonists and Indian allies fought against Britain, its colonists and Indian allies.

        法印戰爭是由土地控制權引起的,是一場英國和法國在北美大陸爭霸的戰爭,交戰雙方是法國殖民者和英國殖民者以及跟它們結盟的印第安部落。

        The war began with conflicts about land. French explorers had been the first Europeans in the areas around the Great Lakes and the Ohio and Mississippi rivers. France had sent traders and trappers to these territories and had established trading centers there.

        這場戰爭始于土地沖突。法國探險家是率先抵達大湖區、俄亥俄、以及密西西比河的歐洲人,他們在這些地區安置商人和捕獸人,并建立了交易中心。

        Britain claimed the same land. When the king gave land in North America to someone, the land was considered to extend from east coast to west coast, even though no one knew where the west coast was. The land along the east coast had become crowded, and settlers were moving west. White people were destroying the Indians' hunting areas. And Indians became worried that they would lose the use of their land.

        然而,英國認為這片土地是英國的。英國國王的賜地,范圍橫貫北美大陸東西海岸。隨著東海岸人口的增加,殖民者開始向西移動,白人的西進,損害了印第安人的獵區,印第安人擔心會喪失土地的使用。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE ONE:

        The Indian tribes may have been able to resist the people moving west if they had been united. But their own conflicts kept the Indian groups apart. When Britain and France started fighting each other, some Indians helped the British. Others helped the French.

        如果聯合起來的話,印第安部落本來是可以地抵御殖民者的西進運動的,但是印第安各部落間也存在矛盾,因此缺少凝聚力。英國和法國開戰后,印第安部落也分成了親英和親法兩派。

        The French settlers lived mainly in what was called New France. Today it is part of Canada. Life there was different from life in the British colonies to the south. There was no religious freedom, for example. All settlers in French territories had to be French and belong to the Roman Catholic Church. So, many French people who belonged to Protestant churches settled in the British colonies.

        法國殖民者主要居住在所謂的新法國地區,是今天加拿大的一部分。那里的生活跟南面英國殖民地的生活截然不同。沒有宗教自由。法國領地里的所有定居者都必須是法國人,并屬于羅馬天主教會。因此很多信奉新教的法國人只好住到英國殖民地去。

        France also did not like the fact that the British paid the Indians high prices for animal furs. France was more interested in the fur trade than in settling the land. The British hurt the French traders' business when they bought fur from the Indians.

        此外,法國人對建立殖民地不感興趣,他們關心的是皮毛生意。英國人高價向印第安人收購動物皮毛,損害了法國的經濟利益,也引起了法國的不滿。

        VOICE TWO:

        One of the French trading forts was built in the area where the city of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania is today. The French called it Fort Duquesne. The British claimed it was in Virginia and that the land belonged to them. In seventeen fifty-four, the governor of Virginia sent a twenty-one-year-old colonist named George Washington to tell the French to get out. This was the same George Washington who would later become the first President of the United States.

        法國在今天美國賓夕法尼亞州的匹茲堡地區建立過一個貿易點,稱為迪凱納堡。但是英國人說,這個城堡位于維吉尼亞,是英國的領地。維吉尼亞總督1754年派遣21歲的喬治·華盛頓前去跟法國人交涉,讓他們離開。這位年輕的喬治·華盛頓后來成了美國的第一屆總統。

        The French refused to leave Fort Duquesne. So Washington and one hundred fifty men tried to force them out. They attacked a group of Frenchmen and killed ten of them. The French and Indian War had begun.

        對于英國人的要求,法國人一口回絕。喬治·華盛頓決定訴諸武力,他率領150人對一群法國人發動襲擊,打死了其中的十人,從而引發了法印戰爭。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE ONE:

        The defeat of General Edward Braddock in Virginia in 1755, in a detail from a work by artist John Andrew
        The defeat of General Edward Braddock in Virginia in 1755, in a detail from a work by artist John Andrew

        British troops under the command of General Edward Braddock joined George Washington at Fort Duquesne. The British general expected to fight the way battles were fought in Europe. There, troops lined up on open fields and fired their weapons as they marched toward each other.

        英國部隊在愛德華·布雷多克將軍的率領下,趕赴迪凱納堡參戰。布雷多克將軍打算打一場歐洲式的戰爭,也就是兩軍將士在開闊地里正面沖突,一邊向對方推進,一邊開火。

        The French and Indians did not fight this way. They hid in the woods. They wore clothes that made them difficult to see. They shot at the British from behind trees. The British had more troops than the other side. But the French and Indians won the battle of Fort Duquesne. General Braddock was killed.

        但是法國人和印第安人卻藏在樹叢后面,向英國人開槍射擊。雖然英國人在人數上占據優勢,但還是輸掉了迪凱納堡一戰,布雷多克將軍也戰死疆場。

        VOICE TWO:

        Most of the French and Indian War was fought along two lakes in an area of New York state near the border with Canada. One was Lake George. The other, Lake Champlain north of Lake George. It reaches almost all the way to the city of Montreal in Canada.

        法印戰爭的主要戰場是在今天美國紐約州靠近加拿大邊境的兩個湖泊一帶。一個是喬治湖、另外一個是喬治湖以北的尚普蘭湖,一直通到今天加拿大境內的蒙特利爾。

        These lakes provided the best way to move troops and supplies during the French and Indian war. Few roads existed in North America at that time. The military force, which controlled the lakes and rivers, controlled much of North America.

        這兩個湖泊為法印戰爭提供了運輸部隊和給養的最佳手段。當時,北美大陸上還沒有多少道路,控制這些湖泊和河流的軍事力量同時也控制著北美大陸的大部分地區。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE ONE:

        The French had military bases in the cities of Quebec and Montreal. The British had military bases along New York's Hudson River. The area between them became the great battleground.

        法國人在魁北克和蒙特利爾有軍事基地,英國人的軍事基地設在紐約的哈得孫河沿岸,中間地帶就成了巨大的戰場。

        Fighting increased after the British defeated the French near Lake George in the last months of seventeen fifty-five. The French then built a new military base to control Lake Champlain and the surrounding area.

        1755年最后幾個月英國軍隊在喬治湖附近擊敗法國部隊后,沖突進一步升級,法國人隨即興建了一個新的軍事基地,控制尚普蘭湖和周圍地區。

        The French military base was at the southern end of Lake Champlain. They built a strong camp, the kind called a fort. They called it Fort Carillon.

        這個軍事基地位于尚普蘭湖南端,是一個堅固的城堡,被稱為卡里永堡。

        The fort would control Lake Champlain and the area needed to reach the northern part of Lake George. The fort was designed to provide a strong defense against attack. The French built two big walls of logs, several meters apart. The area between the walls was filled with dirt. Later, a strong stone front was added. Troops inside the walls were well protected. The British built a similar fort at the southern end of Lake George. They called it Fort William Henry.

        法國人修建卡里永堡是為了控制尚普蘭湖和通往喬治湖北部的地區,在受到進攻時提供堅強防御。法國人修建了兩座相隔幾米的木墻,在中間填上土,后來又用石頭在外面加固了一層,城堡里的士兵非常安全。與此同時,英國人也在喬治湖南端修建了一座類似的城堡,叫威廉姆·亨利堡。

        VOICE TWO:

        France sent one of its best military commanders to take command of its troops in America. His name was the Marquis de Montcalm. General Montcalm attacked several British forts in seventeen fifty-seven. One of these was Fort William Henry on Lake George. The British commander was forced to surrender.

        法國把最好的軍事指揮官蒙卡爾姆將軍派往美洲指揮戰斗。蒙卡爾姆將軍1757年對英國的幾座城堡發動攻擊,其中之一就是喬治湖畔的威廉姆·亨利堡,英國指揮官被迫投降。

        General Montcalm promised that the British troops would be treated fairly if they surrendered. But the Indian allies of the French did not honor the surrender agreement. They began to kill British soldiers and settlers. No one is sure how many people died. It could have been more than one thousand.

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE ONE:

        During the French and Indian War and the American Revolution, soldiers often marked their powder horns with maps and other images
        During the French and Indian War and the American Revolution, soldiers often marked their powder horns with maps and other images

        In seventeen fifty-eight, a strong British force attacked Fort Carillon on Lake Champlain. General Montcalm was the French commander. Fort Carillon was strong enough that the smaller French force was able to defeat the bigger British force. The British withdrew, but attacked again the next year. This time the British commander was General Jeffery Amherst.

        1758年,一支強大的英國軍隊對尚普蘭湖畔的卡里永堡發動猛攻,蒙卡爾姆將軍組織防守??ɡ镉辣圆豢纱?,法國軍隊以少勝多,擊退了英國的進攻。英國人次年卷土重來,在阿默斯特將軍的率領下,終于擊敗了法國人。

        Amherst was successful. The British defeated the French. They changed the name of Fort Carillon to Fort Ticonderoga. It became an important military center in the French and Indian War. Fort Ticonderoga would also become important later, during America's war for independence.

        英國人把卡里永堡改名為泰孔德羅加堡,成為法印戰爭中一個重要的軍事中心。泰孔德羅加堡在后來的美國獨立戰爭中,也發揮了重要的作用。

        VOICE TWO:

        The Battle for Quebec was the turning point in the war. Britain and France signed a treaty to end it in Paris in seventeen sixty-three. The British had won. They took control of the lands that had been claimed by France.

        魁北克戰役是法印戰爭的轉折點。英法兩國1763年在法國巴黎簽署了停戰協議。英國人取得了戰爭的勝利,收回了對相關土地的控制權。

        Britain now claimed all the land from the east coast of North America to the Mississippi River. Everything west of that river belonged to Spain. France gave all its western lands to Spain to keep the British out. Indians still controlled most of the western lands, except for some Spanish colonies in Texas and New Mexico.

        法印戰爭結束后,從北美大陸東海岸一直到密西西比河的大片土地都歸英國所有,密西西比河以西地區歸西班牙。為了不讓英國人過來,法國把西部自己控制下的所有土地都給了西班牙。除了今天德克薩斯和新墨西哥一帶的西班牙殖民地外,西部的大片土地仍然在印第安人的控制之下。

        VOICE ONE:

        Today, you can still visit the two forts that were so important in the French and Indian War. Little of the original buildings have survived. However, both have been re-built using the original designs. The area surrounding both forts is very beautiful, including the two lakes, Lake George and Lake Champlain.

        今天,在法印戰爭中發揮了重要作用的兩座城堡都對外開放,供人們參觀。雖然原始建筑幾乎完全沒有保存下來,但是后人根據城堡的設計圖紙重新修建,再現了城堡當年的面貌。城堡周圍喬治湖和尚普蘭湖的景色美不勝收。

        Many people spend their holidays in this area enjoying the outdoors. The area includes one of America's national historical parks, Saratoga. It also includes the Lake George Beach State Park. Few people who visit the area stop to remember the terrible fighting that took place there two-hundred fifty years ago.

        很多人到這里來渡假,享受戶外生活。當地還有美國國家歷史公園之一薩拉托加,以及喬治湖州立沙灘公園。沒有什么人會想起250年前這里曾發生過恐怖的戰斗。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE TWO:

        This MAKING OF A NATION program was written by Nancy Steinbach and Paul Thompson. I'm Barbara Klein.

        VOICE ONE:

        And I'm Steve Ember. Read and listen to our programs at www.squishedblueberries.com. Join us again at this time next week for another program about the history of the United States in Special English on the Voice of America.

        網友的學習評論(5條):
        作者:華晨
        2-7-2013 6:36:10
        British troops defeated french troops in a struggle for north America. The war began with conflicts about land. The anciet war field have became the America's national historical park . These places have been became heritage sight and historical landscape. If i have a chance to vist USA ,I will go sightseeing int these places to remebmer the terrible fighting that took place there two-hundred fifity years ago.
        作者:櫻桃圓子
        3-17-2013 10:35:7
        A wonderful palace!
        作者:Kane
        1-28-2014 5:45:15
        I am here today~~
        作者:Melody
        1-3-2015 11:42:23
        The war between countries will only bring forth disaster to the people . Numerous of them either died or became homeless . There is nothing fantastic left after the baffle . War meant death . And peace is what we aim for people all over the world .
        作者:Melody
        1-3-2015 11:43:10
        There is nothing fantastic left after the battle .
        版權所有©2003-2019 南京通享科技有限公司,保留所有權利。未經書面許可,嚴禁轉載本站內容,違者追究法律責任。 互聯網經營ICP證:蘇B2-20120186
        網站備案:蘇公網安備 32010202011039號蘇ICP備05000269號-1中國工業和信息化部網站備案查詢
        廣播臺
        又粗又大又黄又爽的免费视频