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        #89: Slavery Crisis Eases, but Not for Very Long

        作者:Frank Beardsley 發布日期:5-11-2013

        Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

        Throughout most of the eighteen fifties, war was a continual threat between the North and the South over the issue of slavery. Then, in the autumn of eighteen fifty-nine, the crisis seemed to calm.

        十九世紀五十年代,美國南北雙方圍繞奴隸制存廢問題爭議不休,戰爭陰云一直籠罩在美國上空。1859年秋天,危機似乎出現了緩和。

        Anti-slavery extremists governed only a few states of the North. And pro-slavery extremists held power in only a few states of the deep South. There had been elections in most of the northern and southern states. Voters had rejected candidates with extremist ideas and elected moderates instead.

        主張廢奴的強硬派只控制著北方為數不多的幾個州;主張蓄奴的強硬派也只控制著南方腹地的少數幾個州。南方和北方的大多數選舉都是溫和派當選,持極端立場的人并未得到選民的擁護。

        The public saw the elections as a sign of hope that reasonable people might find a way to settle the bitter dispute over slavery.

        美國公眾從選舉結果中看到一線希望,期待當選者能理智地化解糾紛。

        But these hopes fell apart on October seventeenth, eighteen fifty-nine. That day brought the news that a group of Abolitionists had attacked the town of Harpers Ferry. The town was then part of Virginia; today it is part of West Virginia.

        然而,1859年10月17號,希望化為泡影。一小群廢奴主義者對哈珀斯費里小鎮發動進攻,這個小鎮當時屬于維吉尼亞,今天是西維吉尼亞州的一部分。

        Now, Jack Moyles and Harry Monroe continue our story.

        VOICE ONE:

        An early photo of John Brown
        An early photo of John Brown

        The attack was led by John Brown, an old anti-slavery extremist. Many believed him insane. He had gone to Kansas and fought bitterly against pro-slavery forces. Once, to answer an attack on the town of Lawrence, Brown and his men pulled five men and boys from their homes and murdered them.

        襲擊行動的領袖叫約翰·布朗。布朗是一個反對蓄奴的極端主義者。很多人覺得他是個瘋子。他曾經跑到堪薩斯去,跟蓄奴主義者打仗。有一次,為了報復一個叫勞倫斯的小鎮受到的攻擊,布朗領著一幫人把五個男人從家里拉出來活活打死,其中甚至包括未成年的男孩兒。

        The wife of one of the men said Brown told her: "If a man stands between me and what I believe to be right, I will take his life as coolly as I would eat my breakfast."

        其中一個受害者的妻子說,布朗告訴她,“如果有人擋在我和我的信仰之間,我就會毫不留情地把他殺死,象吃早飯一樣鎮定自若。”

        Brown lost a son in a pro-slavery attack on his home at Osawatomie, Kansas. Brown and his friends were forced to flee. They watched as the pro-slavery men burned the town.

        布朗在堪薩斯的家受到蓄奴主義者的襲擊,他的兒子被打死,布朗和他的朋友被迫出逃。他們眼睜睜看著小鎮被蓄奴主義者一把火燒光。

        Brown shook with grief and anger. "I have only a short time to live," he said, "only one death to die. And I will die fighting for this cause. There will be no more peace in this land until slavery is done for. I will give them something else to do than to extend slave territory. I will carry this war into the South."

        布朗悲憤填膺。他說,“我只有短暫的生命,我只能死一回,我一定要為廢除奴隸制度而死。除非奴隸制度徹底消失,否則這片土地上永遠不會有和平。我要給蓄奴主義者找點別的事情做,讓他們沒功夫推廣奴隸制。我要打到南方去。”

        VOICE TWO:

        To fight a war against slavery, Brown needed money and guns. He went to Massachusetts and New York. He spoke at town meetings and met privately with Abolitionist leaders.

        要打仗就需要槍支和經費。布朗為此前往麻薩諸塞州和紐約州,在市鎮大會上發表講話,并私下里跟廢奴主義領袖會面。

        In these private talks, Brown said it was too late to settle the slave question through politics or any other peaceful way. He said the only answer was a slave rebellion. It would be bloody, Brown said, and this was terrible. But slavery itself was a terrible wrong -- the same as murder. Only blood, he said, would wash away the wrongs of slavery.

        布朗表示,通過政治這類和平手段解決奴隸存廢的問題已經為時過晚,現在的唯一出路就是讓奴隸奮起反抗。布朗說,奴隸起義是血腥的,可怕的,但是奴隸制度本身就是一個可怕的錯誤,跟謀殺沒有兩樣。只有鮮血才能洗刷奴隸制度的罪惡。

        Brown said God meant for him to begin this rebellion by invading Virginia with a military force he already was organizing. Brown said even if the rebellion failed, it would probably lead to a civil war between North and South. In such a war, he said, the North would break the chains of the black man on the battlefield.

        布朗說,上帝要他率兵進攻維吉尼亞,吹響起義的號角,即使起義失敗,也會成為南北戰爭的導火索,北方將在戰場上斬斷黑人的鎖鏈。

        VOICE ONE:

        Brown later in life
        Brown later in life

        Brown won the support of a group of Abolitionist leaders. They formed a secret committee and called themselves the "Secret Six." They agreed to advise Brown and, more importantly, to raise one thousand dollars for him.

        布朗得到了一些廢奴主義領袖的支持。他們成立了一個秘密委員會,自稱“六人秘密小組”。小組成員同意給布朗出謀劃策,更重要的是,他們決定幫助布朗籌集一千美元,作為行動經費。

        From New England, Brown went to Chatham, Canada. He went there for a secret convention he had called to form a revolutionary government. This government would rule all the slave territory that Brown and his men could capture.

        布朗離開新英格蘭,前往加拿大查塔姆。他在那里召集了一次秘密大會,商量成立革命政府的事情,這個政府將負責管理布朗奪取的蓄奴區。

        Forty-six representatives went to the convention -- thirty-four Negroes and twelve whites. Brown told them of his plan. He said he was sure that southern slaves were ready for rebellion. He said they would rise up at the first sign of a leader who wished to break their chains.

        大會共有46名代表參加,包括34個黑人和12個白人。布朗講了自己的計劃,并表示,他敢肯定,南方奴隸奮起反抗的時機已經成熟。他還說,只要有人振臂高呼,就一定會有萬眾響應。

        VOICE TWO:

        "But what if troops are brought against you?" one man asked.

        會上有人問,如果政府派兵怎么辦?

        Brown answered that his men would fight in the mountains, where a small force could stop a much larger one. He said his men would be well-trained in mountain fighting. Brown said he expected his small force to grow much larger. He would invite the slaves he freed to join his army. And, he said he thought that all the free Negroes of the North would come to fight slavery with him.

        布朗回答說,他會率領部下進入山區作戰,憑借地勢以少勝多。布朗說,他領導的武裝力量會迅速壯大,接受良好的山地作戰的訓練,他還將吸收奴隸加入自己的隊伍,估計北方所有自由的黑人都會響應他的號召,同他并肩作戰。

        The representatives approved Brown's constitution. And they named him commander-in-chief.

        秘密大會代表投票通過了布朗提出的章程,任命他為革命軍總司令。

        VOICE ONE:

        Brown had decided to strike at Harpers Ferry, a town of about twenty-five hundred people. It was in northern Virginia about one hundred kilometers north of Washington. Harpers Ferry was built on a narrow finger of land where the Shenandoah River flowed into the Potomac River. There were two bridges. One crossed the Shenandoah. The other, a railroad bridge, crossed the Potomac to Maryland.

        布朗選擇哈珀斯費里,一個有大約兩千五百名居民的小鎮做為攻擊目標。哈珀斯費里位于維吉尼亞州北部,在華盛頓以北大約一百公里處,是雪蘭多河跟波托馬克河匯合的地方,有兩座橋梁,一座橫跨雪蘭多河,另外一座是鐵路橋,橫跨波托馬克河,通往馬里蘭州。

        John Brown chose Harpers Ferry because there was a factory there that made guns for the army. There also was an arsenal where several million dollars worth of military equipment was kept. Brown needed the guns and equipment for the slave army he hoped to form.

        布朗選擇哈珀斯費里做為攻擊目標,是因為那里有一個專門給政府軍造槍的工廠,還有一個彈藥庫,有價值數百萬美元的武器裝備存放在那里。布朗需要槍支彈藥來武裝未來的奴隸軍。

        VOICE TWO:

        The farmhouse used by John Brown to plan the raid on Harpers Ferry
        The farmhouse used by John Brown to plan the raid on Harpers Ferry

        Old Brown arrived at Harpers Ferry early in July, eighteen fifty-nine. Two of his sons, Owen and Oliver, and another man came with him. They rented an old house on a farm in Maryland not far from Harpers Ferry. Brown told people that he was a cattle buyer from New York.

        1859年7月初,布朗來到哈珀斯費里,跟他一起來的還有他的兩個兒子歐文、奧利佛和另外一名男子。他們在馬里蘭州距離哈珀斯費里不遠的一個農場租了一棟老房子住了下來。布朗自稱是紐約來的牛販子。

        Brown's men joined him, one or two at a time, over the next several months. They traveled at night so no one would see them. Once they reached the farm house, they had to stay in hiding.

        接下來的幾個月里,布朗的手下陸續抵達,他們或是兩人結伴,或是孑然一身,往往選擇夜間行動,以便掩人耳目,來到農場后,馬上躲藏起來。

        Week by week, the little force grew. But it grew too slowly. By the end of summer, there were still less than twenty men hiding in the old house.

        這樣雖然人不知,鬼不覺,但是集結速度緩慢,夏天即將結束的時候,老房子里藏著的還不到20人。

        Brown wrote letters to his supporters in the North. He asked for more money and more men. He got little of either. His supporters were afraid. Too many people knew of Brown's plans. The "Secret Six" feared they would face criminal charges if Brown attacked Harpers Ferry.

        布朗寫信給北方的支持者,要求增加經費和人手,但是二者都沒有得到。這是因為布朗在北方的支持者已經開始打退堂鼓了。知道布朗襲擊計劃的人太多,“六人秘密小組”的成員擔心,如果布朗對哈珀斯費里發動襲擊,他們會受到刑事起訴。

        Brown's men grew tired of the small, crowded rooms of the farm house. Brown knew he must act soon or his young men would begin leaving.

        布朗的手下也開始厭倦農場小房子里擁擠不堪、躲躲閃閃的日子。布朗心里明白,他必須立即采取行動,否則的話,這些年輕人就會萌發去意。

        VOICE ONE:

        On Saturday, October fifteenth, three men arrived to join the group. One of them brought six hundred dollars in gold for Brown's use. Brown saw the gold as a sign that God wanted him to act. He told his men they would strike the next night.

        10月15號星期六,又有三個人來到農場。其中一個人還帶來價值600多美元的黃金。布朗覺得,這是一個征兆,上帝是在暗示他,可以采取行動了。他告訴手下,第二天晚上動手。

        Brown held religious services Sunday morning and prayed for God to help him free the slaves. Then he called his men around him to explain to them his battle plan.

        第二天是星期天。布朗星期天早上向上帝禱告,懇求上帝保佑他解放奴隸。禱告完畢,布朗把手下叫到一塊兒,向他們解釋行動計劃。

        They would seize the two bridges at Harpers Ferry and close them. Next, they would capture the armory and the rifle factory. They would capture as many people as possible. They would use the people as hostages for protection against any soldiers that might be sent against them.

        首先,他們要奪取哈珀斯費里的兩座橋梁,然后占領槍械廠和彈藥庫,能抓多少人就抓多少人,政府軍一旦出動,就用這些人質來保護自己。

        VOICE TWO:

        The army had no men near Harpers Ferry. Brown believed he would have all the time he needed. He believed his only opposition might be local groups of militia. He did not fear these civilian soldiers.

        當時,政府在哈珀斯費里附近沒有駐軍,布朗覺得自己有足夠時間,唯一的障礙是當地的民兵,他覺得對付這些民兵,不費吹灰之力。

        The old man thought he and his men could hold Harpers Ferry until slaves in the area rebelled and joined them. Brown knew that Maryland and western Virginia were full of people opposed to slavery. He expected many of them to come to his aid.

        布朗認為,他可以控制住哈珀斯費里,等待周邊奴隸奮起反抗,加入他們的陣營。布朗知道,馬里蘭和維吉尼亞西部有很多反對奴隸制度的人,他估計很多人會來支援他。

        The twenty-two men rested until dark, listening to rain hit the roof of the farm house.

        這22個人養精蓄銳,聽著房頂上滴答滴答的雨聲,等到夜幕降臨。

        VOICE ONE:

        A photograph of Harpers Ferry from the Civil War period
        A photograph of Harpers Ferry from the Civil War period

        About eight o'clock, Brown called his group. "Men," he said, "get your weapons. We are going to the Ferry."

        晚上八點前后,布朗說,“大家拿好武器,出發。”

        A wagon was brought out and a horse tied to it. In the wagon were a few tools and some extra guns. Brown climbed into the wagon and started it toward town. Two of his men stepped out in front of the wagon, leading the way. The others walked behind.

        門口有一輛馬車,車上裝著一些工具和槍支。布朗親自駕車,兩個人在前面開路,其它人跟在后面,一群人直奔哈珀斯費里鎮。

        It was a dark and cold night. A light rain was falling. There was no one else on the road. After a time, they reached the high ground above the Potomac. Below them, across the river, lay the town of Harpers Ferry. Most of the town was sleeping. Only a few lights shone through the rain.

        那是一個黑暗寒冷的夜晚,天上下著小雨,路上一個人也沒有。布朗一行來到俯瞰波托馬克河的一片高地,下面就是沉睡中的哈珀斯費里鎮,只有星星點點的燈火閃爍。

        John Brown was ready for his final struggle against slavery.

        布朗準備動手了。

        (MUSIC)

        ANNOUNCER:

        Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Jack Moyles and Harry Monroe. Transcripts, MP3s, podcasts and archives of our programs are online, along with historical images, at www.squishedblueberries.com. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

        ___

        This is program #89 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

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