<em id="0i93o"></em>
<sub id="0i93o"></sub>
<meter id="0i93o"></meter>
      1. <form id="0i93o"></form>

        官方APP下載:英語學習播客(支持蘋果手機、安卓手機)
        創辦于2003年
        UNSV記不???那就記中文諧音“憂安思?!卑?!
          Slow and Steady Wins the Race!
        UNSV英語學習頻道 - Slow and steady wins the race!
        公眾微信服務號(英語全能特訓)
        英語全能特訓(微信公眾服務號)
        UNSV英語學習頻道淘寶網店
        客服短信:18913948480
        客服郵箱:web@unsv.com
        初級VIP會員
        全站英語學習資料下載。
        ¥98元/12個月

        #88: The Story of the Lincoln-Douglas Debates of 1858

        作者:Frank Beardsley 發布日期:5-10-2013

        Welcome to the MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

        In the summer of eighteen fifty-eight, two candidates campaigned across the state of Illinois for a seat in the United States Senate. That seat belonged to Stephen Douglas from the Democratic Party. He was seeking re-election. His opponent was a lawyer from the newly established Republican Party. His name was Abraham Lincoln.

        1858年夏天,兩位候選人激烈爭奪伊利諾伊州參議員的位置。候選人之一是民主黨籍的現任參議員史蒂文·道格拉斯,他的競爭對手是新成立的共和黨籍的律師亞伯拉罕·林肯。

        This week in our series, Frank Oliver and Larry West tell us about this campaign of statewide but also national importance.

        VOICE ONE:

        Abraham Lincoln
        Abraham Lincoln

        Abraham Lincoln proposed that he and Stephen Douglas hold several debates. The rules for each debate would be the same. One man would speak for an hour. His opponent would speak for an hour and a half. Then the first man would speak for half an hour to close the debate. Douglas agreed.

        林肯提議公開辯論,每次辯論包括三個部分,第一部分一小時,由一位候選人發言,第二部分一個半小時,由另一位候選人發言;第三部分半小時,由第一位候選人做補充說明,然后辯論結束。道格拉斯接受了林肯的建議。

        There were seven debates in all. They were held in towns throughout Illinois. In some places, there was great interest in what the two candidates had to say. Thousands of people attended.

        林肯和道格拉斯兩人在伊利諾伊州各地一共舉行了七場辯論。民眾表現出極大的興趣,有時多達數千人出席。

        Douglas was a short, heavy man. One reporter said he looked like a fierce bulldog. Douglas's friends and supporters called him "the little giant."

        道格拉斯參議員身材矮小,敦實。有記者說,他就像是一頭兇猛的斗牛犬,道格拉斯的朋友和支持者稱他為“小巨人”。

        Lincoln was just the opposite. He was very tall and thin, with long arms and legs. His clothes did not fit well. And he had a plain face, one which many thought was ugly. He looked more like a simple farmer than a candidate for the United States Senate.

        林肯則恰恰相反。他身材高大消瘦,長手長腿,衣服也不合身。有人覺得他其貌不揚,看起來更象是一個頭腦簡單的農民,并非參議員候選人。

        VOICE TWO:

        The Lincoln-Douglas debates covered party politics and the future of the nation. But everything the two men discussed was tied to one issue: slavery.

        林肯跟道格拉斯的辯論涉及政黨政治和國家前途,但是什么話題都離不開奴隸制的存廢。

        Douglas spoke first at the first debate. He questioned a statement made in one of Lincoln's campaign speeches. Lincoln had said that the United States could not continue to permit slavery in some areas, while banning it in others. He said the Union could not stand so divided. It must either permit slavery everywhere -- or nowhere.

        林肯在競選演講中曾表示,美國不能繼續在某些地方允許奴隸制的存在,在另外一些地方卻禁止奴隸制,不能這樣長久分裂下去,要么全面允許蓄奴,要么徹底廢除奴隸制。

        Douglas did not agree. He noted that the country had been half-slave and half-free for seventy years. Why then, he asked, should it not continue to exist that way. The United States was a big country. What was best for one part might not be best for another.

        道格拉斯在首場辯論中率先發言,對林肯的上述觀點提出置疑。他表示,七十年來,美國一直是處于這種一半廢奴、一半蓄奴的狀態,為什么不能繼續下去呢?美國疆域遼闊,適合一個地方的制度,對其它地方并不一定是最佳選擇。

        VOICE ONE:

        Stephen Douglas
        Stephen Douglas

        Then Douglas questioned Lincoln's statement on the Supreme Court's Dred Scott decision. Lincoln had said he opposed the decision, because it did not permit Negroes to enjoy the rights of citizenship.

        接下來,道格拉斯又對林肯關于聯邦最高法院斯科特一案裁決的看法提出異議。林肯反對最高法院的裁決,因為這一裁決剝奪了黑人的公民權。

        Douglas said he believed the decision was correct. He said it was clear that the government had been made by white men, for white men. He said he opposed Negro citizenship.

        道格拉斯說,他贊成裁決,因為很顯然,美國政府是由白人建立的,是為白人服務的。道格拉斯說,他反對讓黑人享受公民的權利。

        "I do not accept the Negro as my equal," Douglas said. "And I deny that he is my brother. However," he said, "this does not mean I believe that Negroes should be slaves. Negroes should enjoy every possible right that does not threaten the safety of the society in which they live."

        道格拉斯說:“我無法接受讓黑人跟我平起平坐,我不承認他們是我的兄弟。不過,這并不意味著我認為黑人一定得是奴隸。黑人應該享受所有不對社會安全構成威脅的各項權利。”

        "Every state and territory must decide for itself what these rights will be. Illinois decided that Negroes will not be citizens, but that it will protect their life, property, and civil rights. It keeps from Negroes only political rights, and refuses to make Negroes equal to white men. That policy satisfies me," Douglas said. "And, it satisfies the Democratic Party."

        道格拉斯還說:“每個州、每個地區必須自行決定這些權利的內容。伊利諾伊州規定,黑人不是公民,但是州政府會保護他們的生命、財產和民權,州政府唯一不讓他們享受的就是政治權利,不承認他們跟白人平起平坐。這種政策讓我感到滿意,也讓民主黨感到滿意。”

        VOICE TWO:

        Then Lincoln spoke.

        Detail of a painting by Robert Marshall of the Lincoln-Douglas debate at Charleston, Illinois
        Detail of a painting by Robert Marshall of the Lincoln-Douglas debate at Charleston, Illinois

        First, he denied that the Republican Party was an Abolitionist party." I have no purpose," he said, "either directly or indirectly, to interfere with slavery where it exists. I believe I have no legal right to do so. Nor do I wish to do so. I do not," Lincoln said, "wish to propose political and social equality between the white and black races."

        道格拉斯發言完畢,輪到林肯了。林肯否認共和黨是廢奴主義政黨。他說,我不準備直接或是間接地干涉現存的奴隸制度。我知道,根據法律,我無權這樣做,我也不想這樣做。我沒打算提議在白人和黑人之間實現政治和社會平等。

        "But," he went on, "there is no reason in the world why Negroes should not have all the natural rights listed in the Declaration of Independence. The right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.

        “但是,”林肯話鋒一轉繼續說,“黑人沒有理由不能享受獨立宣言里列舉的所有與生俱來的權利,生命權、自由權和追求幸福的權利”。

        "I agree with Judge Douglas," Lincoln said, "that the Negro is not my equal in many ways -- certainly not in color, perhaps not mentally or morally. But in the right to eat the bread that his own hand earns, he is my equal and the equal of Judge Douglas, and the equal of every living man."

        林肯說,“我同意道格拉斯法官的看法,黑人在很多方面不能跟我相提并論,膚色就不用說了,可能思維能力或道義水準上也不一樣,但是,黑人吃自己親手賺來的面包的權利,跟我、跟道格拉斯法官、跟所有人,都是平等的。”

        VOICE ONE:

        Lincoln then defended his statement that the United States could not continue half slave and half free.

        林肯在辯論中為自己所說的美國不能長期維持半蓄奴、半廢奴的狀態提出辯護。

        He said he did not mean that customs or institutions must be the same in every state. He said it was healthy and necessary for differences to exist in a country so large. He said different customs and institutions helped unite the country, not divide it.

        他說,他并不認為每個州的習俗和政府機制必須千篇一律,在美國這樣一個地域廣闊的國家里,差異的存在是有益的,也是必要的,不同的習俗和機制有利于國家的團結,而不是分裂。

        But Lincoln questioned if slavery was such an institution. He said slavery had not tied the states of the Union together, but had always been an issue that divided them.

        但是,林肯認為,奴隸制度并沒有起到團結各州的作用,反而一直是各州走向分歧的癥結所在。

        How had the country existed half-slave and half-free for so many years, Lincoln asked. Because, he said, the men who created the government believed that slavery was only temporary. Once people understood that slavery was not permanent, the crisis would pass.

        既然如此,美國怎么又能在這種半蓄奴、半廢奴的狀態下存在這么多年呢?林肯回答說,這是因為建國元勛們相信,奴隸制度只是暫時的,一旦大家明白,奴隸制度不是永久的,危機就會過去。

        Slavery could be left alone in the South until it slowly died. That way, Lincoln said, would be best for both the white and black races.

        南方的奴隸制度可以任其自然消亡,這樣對黑人和白人都是最佳選擇。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE TWO:

        Stephen Douglas and Abraham Lincoln were campaigning for a Senate seat from the state of Illinois. But their debates had national importance, too.

        道格拉斯和林肯爭奪的雖然只是伊利諾伊州參議員的位置,可兩人辯論的重要性卻要深遠得多。

        Douglas expected to be the Democratic candidate for president in eighteen sixty. His statements could win or lose him support for that contest. Whenever possible, he tried to show that he was a man of the people, like Lincoln. He tried to show that his Democratic Party was a national party, while the Republican Party was a party only of the North. And he tried to show that Lincoln's policies would lead to civil war.

        道格拉斯希望成為1860年總統大選的民主黨候選人,因此希望通過跟林肯的辯論,爭取支持。道格拉斯尋找一切機會,顯示自己跟林肯一樣,是人民的公仆,他努力把自己所在的民主黨描繪為一個全國性政黨,說共和黨只是一個北方人的政黨,批評林肯的政策只會引起內戰。

        VOICE ONE:

        Lincoln, for his part, may have looked like a simple farmer. But he was a very smart lawyer and politician. He asked questions which he knew would cause trouble for Douglas. He wanted to create a split between Douglas and his supporters in the South.

        林肯雖然看似一個頭腦簡單的農民,但實際上卻是一個聰明過人的律師和政治家。他提出了很多給道格拉斯帶來麻煩的問題,目的是要在道格拉斯和他的南方支持者之間制造裂痕。

        Lincoln also wanted to keep alive the debate over slavery. "That," he said, "is the real issue. That is the issue that will continue in this country when these poor tongues of Judge Douglas and myself are silent. It is the eternal struggle between right and wrong."

        林肯希望讓圍繞奴隸制度的辯論繼續下去。他表示,“這才是核心問題。我跟道格拉斯法官停止辯論后,這個問題還會繼續存在下去。這個問題代表了是與非之間的永恒斗爭。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE TWO:

        In Illinois in eighteen fifty-eight, the state legislature chose the men who would represent the state in the national Senate. So Stephen Douglas and Abraham Lincoln had to depend on legislative support to get to Washington.

        1858年的時候,聯邦參議員由州議會選舉產生,因此,道格拉斯和林肯的命運掌握在州議會的手中。

        On election day, the legislative candidates supporting Lincoln won four thousand more popular votes than the candidates supporting Douglas. But because of the way election areas had been organized, the Douglas Democrats won a majority of seats. The newly elected legislature chose him to be senator.

        議會選舉結果,支持林肯的議會代表比支持道格拉斯的議會代表多得了四千多張選票,但是由于選區的劃分,道格拉斯所在的民主黨反而贏得了多數議席,道格拉斯因此當選連任。

        VOICE ONE:

        Lincoln was sad that he had not won. But he said he was glad to have tried. The campaign, he said, "gave me a hearing on the great question of the age, which I could have had in no other way. And though I now sink out of view and shall be forgotten, I believe I have made some marks which will tell for the cause of civil liberty long after I have gone."

        林肯對參選失敗感到失望,但表示,還是很高興能有這次經歷。他說,這次選舉“讓我有機會對當前最重要的問題發表看法,否則是完全不可能的。雖然我很快會被大家遺忘,但是我相信,我的言行會向后人講述爭取民權自由的努力”。

        Many people, however, did not think Abraham Lincoln would be forgotten. His campaign speeches had been published everywhere in the East. His name was becoming widely known. People began to speak of him as a presidential candidate.

        然而,很多人并不認為林肯會被遺忘。他的競選演講傳遍了美國東部,林肯也成了一個家喻戶曉的名字,大家開始談論他參加下屆總統大選的可能性。

        To win the presidential election of eighteen sixty, the Republican Party had decided it needed a man of the people. He must be a good politician and leader. He must be opposed to slavery, but not too extreme. Many people thought Lincoln could be that man.

        共和黨覺得,要想在1860年總統大選中獲勝,候選人就必須是一個人民公仆、一個優秀的政治家,兼俱領袖才能。他必須反對奴隸制度,但又不能過于極端。很多人覺得林肯是最佳人選。

        VOICE TWO:

        After the election in Illinois, Lincoln made several speaking trips in the western states. In none of his speeches did he say he might be a candidate for president in eighteen sixty.

        伊利諾伊州參議員選舉結束后,林肯幾次前往西部各州發表演講,但從沒公開表示,有意參加1860年的總統大選。

        If anyone said anything about "Lincoln for president," he would answer that he did not have the ability. Or he would say there were better men in the party than himself.

        如果有人提出,“支持林肯當總統”,他不是說自己沒有這個能力,就是說共和黨內還有更合適的人選。

        Lincoln said: "Only events can make a president." He would wait for those events.

        林肯說過,“時勢造英雄”。林肯需要等待時機。

        (MUSIC)

        ANNOUNCER:

        Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Frank Oliver and Larry West. Transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our programs are online, along with historical images, at www.squishedblueberries.com. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

        ___

        This is program #88 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

        網友的學習評論(1條):
        作者:Alumni
        9-21-2013 11:9:11
        Lincoln said: "Only events can make a president." He would wait for those events. yes, event does, but not wait for , just seek for.
        版權所有©2003-2019 南京通享科技有限公司,保留所有權利。未經書面許可,嚴禁轉載本站內容,違者追究法律責任。 互聯網經營ICP證:蘇B2-20120186
        網站備案:蘇公網安備 32010202011039號蘇ICP備05000269號-1中國工業和信息化部網站備案查詢
        廣播臺
        又粗又大又黄又爽的免费视频