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        #87: Brigham Young Leads His Mormons to a New Home

        作者:Frank Beardsley 發布日期:5-9-2013

        Welcome to the MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

        In the eighteen twenties, in the state of New York, a man named Joseph Smith started the Mormon religion. Smith based it on what he said were God's words to the ancient people of America.

        十九世紀二十年代,紐約州一個名叫約瑟夫.史密斯的年輕人開創了摩門教。摩門教的基礎是史密斯所說的上帝對古代美洲居民的訓導。

        An early photograph of Nauvoo in Illinois
        An early photograph of Nauvoo in Illinois

        Many people became members of the new church. Others, however, laughed at some of the beliefs of the Mormons. This led to trouble. Smith had to move his people many times. For a while, they settled in the state of Illinois, in a town they built and called Nauvoo.

        摩門教吸引了很多教徒加入,但是另外一些人則對摩門教的教義不以為然,最終引起了摩門教徒和非摩門教徒之間的矛盾。史密斯為此不得不多次率眾搬遷,最終在伊利諾伊州安頓下來。摩門教徒自己動手興建了一個城鎮,取名諾伍。

        The church split when Joseph Smith said that Mormons could have more than one wife. The split led to violence and public opposition to the Mormons. Smith was arrested and put in jail. A mob attacked the jail and killed Smith and his brother. The governor of Illinois ordered the Mormons to leave the state.

        后來,史密斯宣布,摩門教徒可以實行一夫多妻制,這引起教會分裂,進而導致暴力沖突,使摩門教徒成為眾矢之的。史密斯和他的兄弟被逮捕后,暴民沖擊監獄,將史密斯兄弟雙雙打死。伊利諾伊州長勒令摩門教徒離開伊利諾伊。

        This week on our series, Sarah Long and Richard Rael discuss relations between the Mormons and the federal government.

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE ONE:

        Brigham Young became the new leader of the Mormons. He told his people that he had seen their new home in a dream. He said it was a wide, beautiful valley in the West. He said he would recognize it when he saw it.

        摩門教徒推舉楊伯翰擔任教會的新領袖。楊伯翰告訴追隨者說,他在夢里看到了摩門教的新家。楊伯翰說,他們的新家在西部一個寬廣美麗的峽谷。他說,只要到了那里,他就能認得出來。

        The Mormons left Illinois in the spring of eighteen forty-six. There were more than fifteen thousand people, and many wagons and farm animals. The trip west was hard. Many of the people died. After months of slow travel, they stopped to make their winter camp.

        摩門教徒1846年啟程離開伊利諾伊,包括一萬五千多人,外加很多馬車和牲畜。西行之路困難重重,很多人死在了路上。長途跋涉幾個月后,他們停下來安營扎寨,準備過冬。

        VOICE TWO:

        Settler wagons enter the valley of the Great Salt Lake in Utah
        Settler wagons enter the valley of the Great Salt Lake in Utah

        Explorers visited the camp. They told Brigham Young about a great salt lake in a wide valley on the western side of the Rocky Mountains. From the way they described it, young believed it was the valley of his dream.

        楊伯翰聽探險家說,洛磯山脈西側一個寬廣的峽谷里有一個大鹽湖。楊伯翰聽后覺得,這就是他夢里到過的地方。

        He started to move his people toward the Great Salt Lake as soon as the winter snows melted. They arrived in the summer of eighteen forty-seven. Brigham Young looked out over the valley. "This," he said, "is the right place."

        冬天的積雪一融化,楊伯翰就率領摩門教徒向大鹽湖的方向進發。1847年夏天,他們終于抵達了目的地。楊伯翰眺望峽谷后說,“就是這里”。

        VOICE ONE:

        The Mormons wasted no time. Two hours after arriving, they began to prepare the ground for planting. The lake water was too salty to use. So they built a system of canals to bring water down from the mountains.

        摩門教徒們分秒必爭,到達兩小時后,就開始為播種做準備。鹽湖的水鹽分太高,不能用于灌溉。他們就修筑運河,引水下山。

        The first few years were difficult. Cold weather and insects destroyed their crops. Yet the Mormons continued to work hard to make their settlement a success. They refused to think of leaving.

        最初幾年遇到了重重困難,寒冷的天氣和病蟲害毀壞了莊稼。但是摩門教徒百折不撓,絕不離開,決心堅守下去。

        VOICE TWO:

        At first, the Mormons were ruled only by the laws of their church and by their leader. Then gold was discovered in California. Many non-Mormons passed through the Salt Lake area on their way to the gold fields. Some of them stayed. It soon became clear that new laws were needed to govern the growing population.

        起初,摩門教徒只受教義和教會領袖的管理。后來,加州發現了金礦。一些途徑大鹽湖地區去淘金的人留了下來,當地人口不斷增加,因此需要制定新的法律,管理越來越多的人口。

        The Mormons asked Congress to approve a territorial government for their land. They called the land Deseret. That was a Mormon word meaning honeybee.

        摩門教徒要求國會批準他們在大鹽湖地區建立一個地方政府。他們給當地取名Deseret,意思是“蜜蜂”。

        The Mormons claimed a large area. It stretched from the mountains of Colorado west to the mountains of California; from Arizona north to Oregon.

        摩門教占據了很大一片地方,從科羅拉多山脈向西,一直延伸到加利福尼亞山脈,從亞利桑那向北,一直延伸到俄勒岡。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE ONE:

        Congress rejected the large claim of Deseret and made it a much smaller territory. It also refused to accept the name Deseret. Instead, Congress called it Utah, after the Ute tribe of Native American Indians that lived there. As a compromise, Brigham Young was named governor of the new Utah territory. Most of the new territorial officials were Mormons, too. Four were not Mormon.

        然而,國會只批準給他們很小一片地區,而且不能叫蜜蜂,而要叫猶他,因為印第安原住民的猶他部落曾經居住在那里。與此同時,國會也做出妥協,任命楊伯翰為新猶他地區的總督,當地大部分官員都是摩門教徒,只有四個人例外。

        VOICE TWO:

        Governing the territory would not be easy. There were disputes during the administrations of several American presidents. As a result of one dispute, the four non-Mormon officials returned to Washington. The Mormons then formed their own territorial government with a legislature and courts.

        管理猶他并非易事。美國接連幾屆總統任職期間,都曾出現過爭議,其中一次爭議迫使四名非摩門教官員離開猶他,返回華盛頓。摩門教徒于是組建了自己的地方政府、議會和法院。

        Other federal officials were sent to Utah. Some of them were not prepared for the job. Usually, they did not stay long.

        后來又有聯邦官員被派往猶他,但是很多人并未為在那里工作做好充分準備,往往待不了多長時間。

        VOICE ONE:

        Brigham Young
        Brigham Young

        Some of the officials made many charges against Brigham Young and other Mormon leaders. They said Mormons refused to recognize the power of the federal government. They said Mormons put the words of Young above the laws of Congress. They said the church had a secret organization to take the lives and property of those who questioned the power of the church.

        非摩門教徒的官員很難在猶他久留。其中一些人指責楊伯翰等摩門教領導人拒絕承認聯邦政府的權力。他們說,摩門教徒視楊伯翰的話高于國會法律。他們還說,摩門教會有一個秘密機構,對懷疑教會權力的人,一律處死并剝奪財產。

        There were charges that Mormons had burned the papers of the Supreme Court of the territory. And there were charges that Mormons were responsible for Indian attacks on some officials.

        有人指責摩門教徒焚毀了聯邦最高法院有關猶他地區的法律文件;有人指責摩門教徒是印第安人襲擊政府官員的幕后黑手。

        President Franklin Pierce decided he should make someone else governor of Utah. The man he chose, however, did not want the job. Instead, he urged the president to let Brigham Young remain. President Pierce agreed.

        皮爾斯總統決定撤換猶他總督。但他任命的人不愿意接受這份工作,主張讓楊伯翰留任,皮爾斯也只好同意。

        VOICE TWO:

        Relations between the Mormons and the government did not improve in the next three years. Territorial officials resigned. They charged that the Mormons were in open rebellion against the federal government.

        接下來三年里,摩門教徒和聯邦政府的關系沒有改善。一些地方官員宣布辭職,指責摩門教公然跟聯邦政府對著干。

        The next president, James Buchanan, dismissed Brigham Young as governor. He ordered more than one thousand soldiers to go to Utah to put down the rebellion. He also sent a new governor, Alfred Cumming, with the soldiers. The Mormons prepared to fight.

        新總統布坎南解除了楊伯翰的總督職務,調遣一千多名士兵前往猶他,鎮壓暴亂。布坎南還派遣新總督艾爾弗雷德.卡明隨軍前往。摩門教徒也做好了戰斗的準備。

        A small group of Mormon men attacked and destroyed the army's supply wagons. They forced the soldiers to stop for the winter before reaching the Salt Lake Valley. The soldiers could do nothing until spring.

        一小群摩門教徒襲擊了政府軍的供給車輛,迫使政府軍在抵達鹽湖地區前安營扎寨,準備過冬。

        VOICE ONE:

        James Buchanan
        James Buchanan

        In Washington, efforts were made to settle the dispute. A man named Thomas Kane asked President Buchanan to let him go to Utah. Kane was an old friend of the president. He also was a friend of the Mormons. He had spent much time with them during their long trip to Utah ten years earlier.

        與此同時,在華盛頓,一個名叫托馬斯.凱恩的人要求布坎南總統允許他到猶他去。凱恩是布坎南總統的老朋友,跟摩門教關系也很密切。十年前,摩門教徒長途跋涉前往猶他途中,他曾經跟他們一起度過了很長一段時間。

        Kane feared what might happen to his Mormon friends if fighting started. He told President Buchanan that he did not want a job or money. He only wanted a chance to be useful. The president agreed to let him try to settle the dispute.

        凱恩擔心戰斗打響會對他的摩門教朋友不利。他告訴布坎南總統說,他不想要職位,也不想要金錢,只想有一個出力的機會。布坎南同意給他一次機會,設法化解雙方的糾紛。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE TWO:

        Thomas Kane arrived in Salt Lake City, the territorial capital, early in eighteen fifty-eight. He found that the Mormons had decided not to fight. Instead, they were preparing to search for a new home. They talked of moving to Mexico or perhaps to an island in the South Pacific.

        托馬斯.凱恩1858年年初抵達猶他地區首府鹽湖城。他發現,摩門教徒已經決定不使用武力對抗,而是起身去尋找一個新家,正考慮搬到墨西哥去,或是搬到南太平洋的一個島嶼上去。

        Kane talked with Brigham Young. Then he went to the army camp to talk with Governor Cumming. The governor agreed to go to Salt Lake City with Kane. The two men went alone, without any soldiers.

        凱恩見過楊伯翰后,又去軍營找新總督卡明??魍飧黄鹑}湖城,兩人只身前往,沒帶一兵一卒。

        VOICE ONE:

        The Mormons welcomed Cumming, but continued their preparations to leave. Cumming called a public meeting.

        摩門教徒對卡明來訪表示歡迎,但同時繼續為遷移做準備??鳑Q定召集一次民眾大會。

        He said he was in Utah to represent the federal government. He said he was there to make sure the people of the territory obeyed the constitution and the laws of the United States. He said he would not use military force until every other way had failed.

        卡明說,他代表聯邦政府來到猶他,目的是保證當地居民遵守美國的憲法和法律,不到萬不得已,他不會使用武力。

        Above all, said Cumming, he would not interfere with the Mormon religion. He urged the Mormons not to leave the land they had worked so hard to build. Brigham Young agreed to stay.

        卡明強調,他不干涉摩門教的宗教信仰,他敦促摩門教徒不要離開自己耕耘多年的土地。楊伯翰同意留下來。

        VOICE TWO:

        Governor Cumming returned to the army camp. He told the commander that the Mormons had accepted him. He said military force would not be needed. A few days later, two representatives of President Buchanan arrived. They brought news that the president would not act against Mormons who accepted the rule of the United States government.

        卡明總督返回軍營,告訴軍事指揮官說,他已經被摩門教徒所接受,不再需要武力鎮壓。幾天過后,布坎南總統的兩名特使抵達,傳達總統的意思,只要摩門教徒接受美國政府的法律,就不對摩門教徒采取軍事行動。

        Brigham Young and the other Mormon leaders made a statement. They said they wished to live in peace under the Constitution and the laws of the United States. The dispute was over. Brigham Young continued to lead the Mormon church. But the governor ruled the territorial government. The two jobs were separate and would remain that way.

        楊伯翰等摩門教領袖發表聲明,表示愿意在美國憲法和法律的框架下和平生活,這就意味著爭議的終結。楊伯翰繼續領導摩門教會,總督負責地方政府,二者互不相干,直到今天。

        VOICE ONE:

        Congressional elections were held in the United States in eighteen fifty-eight. One political race created national interest. It was for one of the two Senate seats representing the state of Illinois. The candidate of the Democratic Party was Stephen Douglas. He was running for re-election. His opponent was a lawyer and member of the Republican Party. His name was Abraham Lincoln.

        1858年美國舉行國會選舉。其中,伊利諾伊州兩個參議員席位中一個席位的選舉引起了全國關注。民主黨候選人史蒂文.道格拉斯準備參選連任,挑戰者是共和黨籍的律師亞伯拉罕.林肯。

        That will be our story next time.

        (MUSIC)

        ANNOUNCER:

        Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Sarah Long and Richard Rael. Transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our programs are online, along with historical images, at www.squishedblueberries.com. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

        ___

        This is program #87 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

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