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        #85: The Effort to Make Kansas a Slave State

        作者:Frank Beardsley 發布日期:5-7-2013

        Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

        Early in eighteen fifty-seven, the United States Supreme Court announced one of its most important rulings. The high court decided the case of a slave named Dred Scott.

        1857年初,美國聯邦最高法院針對黑奴斯科特一案宣布了重要裁決。

        This week in our series, Harry Monroe and Leo Scully tell us about the ruling, and the continuing national debate over slavery.

        VOICE ONE:

        Dred Scott
        Dred Scott

        Dred Scott lived in Missouri, where slavery was legal. Then he was sold to a man who took him to Illinois and Wisconsin, where slavery was not legal. After four years, he was returned to Missouri. Dred Scott demanded his freedom, because of the years he had spent in places where slavery was illegal. Congress had banned slavery in those places under the Missouri Compromise Act of Eighteen Twenty.

        德雷德斯科特原本生活在密蘇里州,密蘇里州是一個蓄奴州。后來,他被賣給一名軍醫,隨主人前往伊利諾伊和威斯康辛居住了四年,后來又回到密蘇里。根據國會1820年通過的密蘇里協定,伊利諾伊和威斯康辛不實行奴隸制。斯科特提出,既然他在自由地區居住過四年,就應該成為自由人。他把官司一路打到聯邦最高法院。

        The Supreme Court ruled that Congress did not have the power to close territories to slavery. It said the Missouri Compromise was a violation of the United States Constitution, and that Dred Scott was not a free man.

        最高法院裁決,國會無權禁止奴隸進入任何地區,1820年的密蘇里協定違反了美國憲法,斯科特不能成為自由人。

        VOICE TWO:

        James Buchanan
        James Buchanan

        James Buchanan was sworn-in as president at the time of the Dred Scott case. Buchanan believed the Supreme Court's decision would put an end to the dispute over slavery. He believed that Americans -- North and South -- would accept the decision as the final word in the dispute.

        詹姆斯布坎南宣誓就職美國總統正趕上最高法院宣布裁決。布坎南以為,不論是南方人還是北方人都會接受最高法院的裁決,給奴隸制度引起的爭議劃上句號。

        This did not happen. The Dred Scott decision did not calm the storm that divided the nation. Instead, it increased its fury.

        然而事與愿違,斯科特一案的裁決不僅沒有平息風暴,反而激化了矛盾。

        VOICE ONE:

        New trouble threatened to break out in the territory of Kansas between pro-slavery and anti-slavery settlers. In the past few years, the two sides had argued and fought over their opinions. They even had formed two separate governments. The pro-slavery forces controlled the legal government. The anti-slavery forces controlled an opposition government which had no power.

        堪薩斯地區定居者分為兩派,一派支持蓄奴,一派反對蓄奴。過去幾年里,兩派勢力互不相讓,甚至各自組建政府,合法政府由支持蓄奴的人控制,反對派政府則代表廢奴主義者的聲音。

        Supporters of slavery wanted to organize a constitutional convention that could put Kansas into the Union as a slave state. The pro-slavery legislature passed a bill calling for such a convention. The bill gave supporters of slavery every chance to control the election of delegates to the convention. And it gave the convention complete freedom to make its own rules. The bill provided no way for the people of Kansas to vote on their own constitution.

        支持蓄奴的人希望召開憲法大會,讓堪薩斯成為美國的一個奴隸州。他們通過議案,由蓄奴主義者決定大會代表人選,讓大會享受立法的全權自由,剝奪了堪薩斯居民對自己憲法的表決權。

        VOICE TWO:

        A Civil War period photograph of John Geary
        A Civil War period photograph of John Geary

        The governor of the Kansas territory, John Geary, vetoed the bill. But the legislature quickly overruled his veto. Pro-slavery men called for Geary to get out of Kansas. Some talked of shooting him if he did not leave.

        堪薩斯地區的總督約翰吉爾里否決了議案,但是他的否決馬上又被議會推翻。支持蓄奴的人讓吉爾里滾出堪薩斯,有些人甚至聲稱,如果他不肯離開的話,就要開槍打死他。

        Governor Geary had been living under extreme tension for months. He had worked hard to keep Kansas peaceful. He was angry, because he could get no help from the federal government. He sent his resignation to President Buchanan.

        幾個月來,堪薩斯地區的局勢極端緊張。吉爾里總督努力維持當地的和平,但是絲毫得不到聯邦政府的支持,這種情況讓他感到十分氣餒,因此向布坎南總統提交了辭呈。

        Then the former governor spoke publicly. He said most of the settlers in Kansas were peace-loving people. He said only a small group was responsible for the trouble there. Geary said a few powerful men hoped to make Kansas a slave state. If this failed, Geary said, they hoped their actions would produce civil war.

        吉爾里辭職后公開表示,堪薩斯的大多數定居者都是熱愛和平的,只有極少數人制造事端。他還說,一小群權貴希望讓堪薩斯成為美國的一個奴隸州,如果失敗,他們就希望挑起內戰。

        VOICE ONE:

        President Buchanan appointed a new governor for Kansas. Buchanan told him that slavery in the territory must be decided on the votes of the people of the territory. And he said the people must be given a fair chance to approve or reject a constitution for statehood.

        布坎南總統任命了一個新總督,告訴他說,堪薩斯地區奴隸制度的存廢一定要由當地居民投票決定,當地居民必須享有公平的機會,決定接受還是拒絕讓堪薩斯成為美國一個州的新憲法。

        The new governor arrived in Kansas at the end of May, eighteen fifty-seven. He explained his policies in a speech to the people of Kansas. The new governor promised to enforce the laws of the pro-slavery legislature -- but only those laws which were constitutional. He urged everyone to vote in the coming election of delegates to the constitutional convention.

        1857年5月底,堪薩斯地區新總督走馬上任。他向堪薩斯居民發表政策講話,保證執行蓄奴主義者掌控下的議會所通過的法律,但前提條件是,這些法律必須符合美國憲法。他敦促所有人參加投票,推舉即將召開的憲法大會的代表人選。

        He said he was hopeful that the convention would offer its constitution to the people for their approval or rejection. He added that Congress would not accept Kansas as a slave state, or a free state, until the people had voted on the question of slavery.

        新總督說,他希望憲法大會能夠產生憲法草案,讓堪薩斯居民投票表決。他補充說,堪薩斯居民就奴隸制存廢的問題表決前,國會不會讓堪薩斯成為一個州,不論是奴隸州還是自由州。

        VOICE TWO:

        On June fifteenth, the election was held for delegates to the constitutional convention. Most anti-slavery men did not vote, because their names had been kept off the voting lists by pro-slavery officials. Others refused to vote, because they believed the election was unfair.

        1857年6月15號,定居者投票推舉大會代表。然而,大多數廢奴主義者并沒有參加投票,原因有兩個:要么是主張蓄奴的政府官員把他們的名字從選民名單上刪除了,要么是他們自己覺得選舉不公正,所以拒絕投票。

        Sixty delegates were elected. All supported slavery. They planned to meet in the autumn to begin work on a constitution for Kansas.

        最后選舉產生的六十名憲法大會代表,全都支持蓄奴。他們計劃秋天開會,籌措起草堪薩斯地區的憲法草案。

        Most of the delegates were wild, rough men who found it difficult to read and write. But these men were sure of one thing. They wanted Kansas to be a slave state.

        這次制憲大會的大多數代表都是粗人,不讀書,不識字,但是有一點毫無疑問,他們都希望讓堪薩斯成為一個奴隸州。

        VOICE ONE:

        Territory of Kansas
        Territory of Kansas

        The delegates began the constitution by claiming that the right of property was higher than any constitutional power. They said a slave-owner had as much right to his property as the owner of any other kind of property.

        他們撰寫的憲法草案一上來就宣稱,私有財產所有權高于憲法,奴隸主對奴隸的所有權絲毫不亞于人們對任何其他財產的所有權。

        Then they wrote the different parts of the document. One part of the constitution severely limited the right of the legislature to free slaves. Another part barred free negroes from entering Kansas. And another prevented the constitution from being changed for seven years.

        憲法草案的其它內容包括:嚴格限制給奴隸自由;禁止獲得自由的黑奴進入堪薩斯;規定憲法七年內不得更改。

        VOICE TWO:

        Most of the delegates to the Kansas constitutional convention wanted to send the document directly to Congress for approval. They did not want to give the people of Kansas a chance to vote on it. They were sure that the majority of the population would reject a constitution that made slavery legal.

        制憲大會的大多數代表都希望直接將憲法草案遞交國會批準,他們不想讓堪薩斯居民就草案投票表決,因為他們相信,一份承認奴隸制度合法性的憲法一定會遭到大多數居民的反對。

        Some delegates, however, knew that Congress would not approve statehood for Kansas unless the people voted on the constitution. The two sides finally agreed on a compromise.

        不過,也有少數代表知道,除非憲法草案得到堪薩斯居民的支持,否則國會不會批準堪薩斯成為美國的一個州。兩派勢力最終達成如下妥協。

        VOICE ONE:

        The constitution itself would not be offered to the people. Instead, the people would vote only on the question of slavery. They could vote for the constitution with slavery or the constitution without slavery.

        那就是:堪薩斯居民可以就奴隸制度的存廢投票表決,但是不就憲法草案本身投票。

        If the voters approved the constitution with slavery, then Kansas would be open to new slaves. If they approved the constitution without slavery, then Kansas would be closed to new slaves. Slaves already in the territory could be kept there.

        如果選民贊成奴隸制度,堪薩斯就對新的奴隸開放;如果選民不贊成奴隸制度,堪薩斯就不再接受新的奴隸,但是現有奴隸可以繼續保留。

        This compromise brought a cry of anger from opponents of slavery in Kansas. They said the constitutional convention had only given them the right to vote for limited slavery or unlimited slavery. It had not given them the right to vote for freedom.

        這一妥協方案遭到了堪薩斯地區廢奴主義者的強烈反對。他們指出,憲法大會這樣做,讓他們只能就有限的奴隸制度還是無限的奴隸制度進行投票,徹底剝奪了廢除奴隸制度的自由選項。

        VOICE TWO:

        President Buchanan had promised the people of Kansas that they would have a fair chance to vote on their constitution. But members of his cabinet told him to forget this promise. They said Americans were tired of the dispute in Kansas and would accept any settlement.

        布坎南總統曾保證,要讓堪薩斯居民有機會就自己的憲法投票表決。但是內閣官員告訴他說,不要去管先前的承諾,因為美國人民已經厭倦了堪薩斯爭端,會贊成任何解決方案。

        They told Buchanan that approval of the constitution would end the Kansas problem. It would satisfy the South, they said, and the North would soon forget about Kansas.

        他們還告訴布坎南說,憲法草案的通過就意味著堪薩斯問題的解決,南方人會感到滿意,用不了多長時間,北方人就會將堪薩斯的事情拋在腦后。

        Under this pressure, President Buchanan made his decision. He would ask Congress to accept the pro-slavery Kansas constitution and make the territory a slave state.

        布坎南迫于內閣壓力,終于決定要求國會接受堪薩斯憲法草案,讓堪薩斯成為一個奴隸州。

        VOICE ONE:

        In Kansas, the vote on slavery was held. Most opponents of slavery did not vote. They were waiting until they could vote against the complete statehood constitution.

        與此同時,堪薩斯地區就奴隸制度的存廢進行投票。大多數廢奴主義者沒有投票,堅持要對整個憲法草案表決。

        Many of the votes were illegal. Still, Kansas officials declared that slavery had been approved. They urged Congress to make Kansas a state under this condition. Shortly after, President Buchanan sent Congress a similar message.

        盡管很多票都不合法,堪薩斯官員還是宣布,奴隸制度得到了批準。他們敦促國會立即接受堪薩斯成為一個州。沒過多久,布坎南總統也向國會傳達了同樣的意思。

        Buchanan's chief opponent on the statehood bill was a member of his own Democratic Party, Senator Stephen Douglas of Illinois. Douglas did not oppose slavery. But he believed that the people of a territory had the right to make their own decision to accept or reject slavery.

        布坎南的主要反對者是同屬民主黨的伊利諾伊州參議員史蒂文道格拉斯。道格拉斯并不反對奴隸制度,但是他堅信,堪薩斯當地人民在這個問題上,有權做出自己的取舍。

        VOICE TWO:

        Stephen Douglas
        Stephen Douglas

        Stephen Douglas united other Democrats and members of the anti-slavery Republican Party to fight against the bill in the Senate. He lost. The Senate approved the bill to make Kansas a state where slavery was legal.

        道格拉斯參議員聯合了參議院里的民主黨人和反對奴隸制度的共和黨人,一起反對堪薩斯議案,結果以失敗告終。參議院最終還是同意接受堪薩斯做為一個奴隸州加入聯邦。

        The House of Representatives, however, rejected the bill. Instead, it approved a bill to let the people of Kansas vote again on their statehood constitution. The Senate approved a compromise version of this House bill.

        然而,國會眾議院拒絕接受這份議案,并決定,要由堪薩斯人民就憲法草案進行投票,參議院沒辦法,只好妥協。

        VOICE ONE:

        So the people of Kansas got another chance to show that they did not want a pro-slavery constitution. They voted and rejected the constitution by a large majority.

        這樣一來,堪薩斯當地的居民終于贏得了表決權,最終以壓倒性多數票否決了制憲大會提出的主張蓄奴的憲法草案。

        The pro-slavery statehood constitution was dead. Kansas would continue as a territory for a few more years. But there would be no further attempt to make it a slave state.

        堪薩斯最終沒能做為一個奴隸州加入聯邦。

        (MUSIC)

        ANNOUNCER:

        Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Harry Monroe and Leo Scully. Transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our programs can be found, along with historical images, at www.squishedblueberries.com. And you can follow our series on Twitter at twitter.com/voalearnenglish, spelled as one word. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

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