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        #83: The Struggle Over Slavery in the Kansas Territory

        作者:Christine Johnson 發布日期:5-5-2013

        Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

        The most difficult national problem facing the administration of President Franklin Pierce was the situation in Kansas. The territory struggled with the issue of slavery.

        奴隸制的存廢是美國歷史上第14位總統富蘭克林·皮爾斯政府面臨的最棘手的問題。

        Franklin Pierce
        Franklin Pierce

        Pro-slavery settlers elected a representative to Congress. Then they won a majority of seats in the territorial legislature. An investigation found that people from the neighboring state of Missouri had voted in the elections illegally. Yet the results were accepted.

        堪薩斯地區主張蓄奴的定居者成功地將自己的代表送進了國會,在堪薩斯地區議會里也占據了多數席位。雖然后來經調查發現,堪薩斯邊上的密蘇里州居民跨過邊界,非法投票,但是選舉結果并沒有因此作廢。

        The new Kansas lawmakers did not like the territorial governor. They demanded that President Pierce dismiss him. Pierce agreed.

        堪薩斯州議會議員對堪薩斯總督不滿,要求皮爾斯總統換人,皮爾斯同意了。

        This week on our series, Ray Freeman and Steve Ember continue the story of the presidency of Franklin Pierce. And they talk about the presidential election of eighteen fifty-six.

        VOICE ONE:

        Anti-slavery settlers in Kansas felt they could not get fair treatment from either the president or the new governor. So they took an extreme step. They formed their own government in opposition to the elected government of the territory.

        堪薩斯地區主張廢奴的人覺得,皮爾斯總統和新總督都不會一碗水端平,因此決定采取極端行動,成立了自己的政府,跟法定政府對著干。

        Their political group was known as the Free State Party. Party members wrote their own constitution and chose their own governor.

        他們的政治團體取名“自由州黨”,自由州黨的成員制定了自己的憲法,并推舉出自己的總督。

        VOICE TWO:

        Territory of Kansas
        Territory of Kansas

        President Pierce said the actions of the Free State Party seemed revolutionary. He warned against violence. He said if party members attacked any officials or property of the territory or the federal government, party leaders should be charged with treason.

        皮爾斯總統說,自由州黨的行動類似反叛,并警告說,如果自由州黨人對當地政府或是聯邦政府的官員或財產發動襲擊的話,該黨領袖就會以叛國罪受到起訴。

        The president gave the pro-slavery governor of Kansas control of troops at two army bases in the territory. Many people feared that the governor would use the troops to arrest the leaders of the Free State government.

        皮爾斯總統還授權堪薩斯主張蓄奴的總督,可以調遣當地兩個駐地的兵力。很多人擔心,堪薩斯總督會武力逮捕自由州黨的政府領導人。

        VOICE ONE:

        Fighting between the two sides almost began when a Free State man was killed by a pro-slavery man. Free State settlers gathered in the town of Lawrence and organized a defense force. At the same time, hundreds of pro-slavery men crossed the border from Missouri. They planned to go to Lawrence and burn it to the ground.

        后來,一個自由州黨人被蓄奴主義者打死,差點兒引發雙方的沖突。自由州黨人在勞倫斯鎮集結,組織起了防御部隊。與此同時,數百名蓄奴主義者從密蘇里州進入堪薩斯,打算殺到勞倫斯鎮,一把火將那里夷為平地。

        The pro-slavery governor and the Free State governor agreed to hold an emergency meeting. They negotiated a settlement, and the men on both sides went home. The truce did not last long.

        主張蓄奴的總督和自由州總督同意召開緊急會議,經過協商,終于達成協議,雙方人馬才紛紛散去,但是?;饹]能持續多久。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE TWO:

        John Brown
        John Brown

        In the weeks that followed, a number of attempts were made to stop or arrest the leaders of the Free State government. Pro-slavery officials urged private citizens to help. Once again, hundreds of men -- including many from Missouri -- gathered in Kansas. Once again, their target was the town of Lawrence. This time, however, there was no truce.

        事后幾個星期,自由州政府官員多次被攔截,并險些被逮捕。主張蓄奴的官員號召民眾行動起來,包括密蘇里州的數百人再次趕往堪薩斯,襲擊目標再次指向勞倫斯鎮。暴力沖突終于爆發了。

        The pro-slavery mob attacked and burned several buildings. A number of people were killed. The violence might have ended quickly. But one of the men defending the town believed that the battle against the forces of slavery must continue. And he believed that God had chosen him to lead it. The man was John Brown.

        主張蓄奴的暴民對幾處建筑發動襲擊,還放火焚燒,造成幾人喪生。沖突本來可以很快終止,但是保衛勞倫斯鎮的人里有一位老兄,覺得跟蓄奴勢力的斗爭必須要繼續下去,他相信,上帝選擇由他來領導這場戰斗,此人就是約翰·布朗。

        VOICE ONE:

        John Brown heard that five Free State men had died in the attack on Lawrence. So he said five pro-slavery men must die in return. He led a group that seized and killed five people. The civil disorder in Kansas continued. Settlers were forced off their land. Houses were burned. More people were killed. The territory became known as "Bleeding Kansas."

        約翰·布朗聽說,勞倫斯鎮受到襲擊時,有五個自由州黨人被打死,因此宣稱,要拿五個蓄奴主義者償命。他率領一群人,殺死了五個人,使堪薩斯地區的暴力沖突愈演愈烈。定居者被迫外出避難。房屋被焚毀,死亡人數不斷增加,當地得名“流血的堪薩斯”。

        VOICE TWO:

        It was clear that there were deep differences between the northern and southern American states. The differences involved their economies, their systems of labor, and their way of life.

        美國南、北雙方在經濟模式、勞動力分配和生活方式上都存在嚴重分歧。

        The civil disorder caused by these differences was the chief issue in the presidential election of eighteen fifty-six. Three political parties offered candidates: the Democrats, the Republicans and the Know-Nothings.

        這些分歧引起的社會動蕩是1856年總統選舉的主要議題。參加1856年總統大選的有三個政黨:民主黨、共和黨,還有一個就是所謂的“一無所知黨”。

        The Whig Party did not offer a candidate. The party had gone out of existence by then. Its members had split over the question of slavery in the western territories. The split could not be healed. Most southern Whigs joined the Democratic Party. Most northern Whigs joined the Know-Nothing Party.

        輝格黨當時已經不復存在,自然沒有推舉候選人。輝格黨人圍繞西部新增土地上奴隸存廢的問題發生分裂,因為無法調解而宣告解散,大多數南方的輝格黨人加入了民主黨,大多數北方輝格黨人加入了“一無所知黨”。

        VOICE ONE:

        The Know-Nothing Party began as a secret anti-immigrant organization. It feared that too many people from other countries were coming to live in the United States.

        一無所知黨成立之初是一個秘密的反移民團體。他們不希望看到太多的人移民美國。

        Members did not want to admit that they belonged to the group. When asked, they said, "I know nothing." And that is how the organization got its name.

        一無所知黨成員不愿對外承認自己是該黨成員,有人問到這個問題時,他們都說,“我一無所知”,該黨因此而得名。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE TWO:

        The Democratic Party was led by President Franklin Pierce. Pierce wanted to run for re-election. Many northern Democrats, however, objected to his support of the pro-slavery legislature in Kansas. Other Democrats did not think he was the strongest candidate. As a result, Pierce faced competition for the party's nomination.

        當時的美國總統皮爾斯本人是民主黨人。皮爾斯希望參選連任,但是北方很多民主黨人對皮爾斯支持堪薩斯傾向蓄奴的議會感到不滿。另外一些民主黨人則覺得他軟弱無力。因此,皮爾斯在黨內提名的過程中遇到了挑戰。

        One opponent was Senator Stephen Douglas of Illinois. Douglas had great political ability. He also had many political enemies. He was the man most responsible for gaining congressional approval of the bill that opened Kansas to slavery.

        對手之一是伊利諾伊州參議員史蒂文·道格拉斯。道格拉斯政治能力很強,但是樹了很多政敵。國會批準堪薩斯地區允許奴隸的存在,在很大程度上要歸功于道格拉斯。

        VOICE ONE:

        James Buchanan
        James Buchanan

        Pierce's other opponent for the Democratic nomination was James Buchanan of Pennsylvania. Buchanan was a northerner who would probably leave the South alone.

        皮爾斯的另一位對手是賓夕法尼亞州的詹姆斯·布坎南。布坎南是一個不干涉南方事務的北方人。

        "I am not friendly to the idea of slavery," he said. "but the rights of the South -- under our constitution -- should have as much protection as the rights of any other part of our Union. "

        他曾表示,“我不贊成奴隸制,但根據憲法,南方權利受到的保護應該跟其它地區一樣多。”

        VOICE TWO:

        The Democratic Party met in the city of Cincinnati, Ohio. It was the first time a national political convention was held that far west.

        民主黨在俄亥俄州的辛辛那提市召開代表大會,這是美國政黨第一次選擇在偏遠的西部地區開會。

        Candidates needed two-thirds of the votes to win the nomination. After several days of voting, no candidate had received enough. So, in an effort to unite the party, Stephen Douglas offered to withdraw. James Buchanan got his votes and the nomination.

        參選人需要得到與會代表三分之二多數的支持才能贏得提名。幾天的投票都沒能產生提名人選。為了民主黨的黨內團結,道格拉斯宣布退出,布坎南這才贏得了提名需要的多數票。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE ONE:

        The Republican Party was a new political party. Its members opposed slavery for either moral or economic reasons.

        共和黨是一個新成立的政黨,該黨成員出于道義或是經濟上的原因,反對奴隸制度。

        Many Republicans were Abolitionists. They wanted to ban slavery everywhere in the United States. The majority of Republicans, however, were not Abolitionists. They had no interest in ending slave labor in the South. They simply did not want slavery to spread to other areas.

        不少共和黨人都是廢奴主義者,希望在美國徹底取締奴隸制度。然而,大多數共和黨人并不是廢奴主義者。他們對結束南方的奴隸制不感興趣,唯一關心的是不想看到奴隸制度蔓延到其它地區。

        The Republican Party held its presidential nominating convention in Philadelphia. For months, party members had spoken of just one man. He was John Fremont. Fremont had explored the American west. He had been a senator from California. He was young and exciting. Republicans thought he was the right man to lead their young and exciting party.

        共和黨在費城召開總統候選人提名大會。幾個月來,共和黨人談論的只有一個人,他就是約翰·弗蒙特,弗蒙特是西部探險家,當過加州參議員,年輕而充滿活力。共和黨人覺得,他是領導一個年輕而充滿活力的共和黨的最佳人選。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE TWO:

        The Know-Nothing Party had a divided nominating convention. Northern and southern members agreed on policies that denounced immigrants. But they split on the issue of slavery. Northern members opposed it. Southern members supported it.

        一無所知黨在提名大會上出現了意見分歧。南部和北部地區成員都支持反移民政策,但是在奴隸制問題上無法達成共識。北方人反對蓄奴,南方人支持蓄奴。

        Delegates to the convention chose a candidate who seemed to support the party's policies. Yet he was not even a member of the party. He was a Whig, former president Millard Fillmore.

        與會代表最后選擇了一個并非一無所知黨成員的總統候選人。他就是輝格黨人、前總統菲爾莫爾。

        Northern members refused to support Fillmore. They broke away from the Know-Nothing Party and supported the Republican candidate, John Fremont.

        北方成員拒絕支持菲爾莫爾,宣布退出一無所知黨,轉而支持共和黨候選人約翰·弗蒙特。

        VOICE ONE:

        John C. Fremont
        John C. Fremont

        Fremont could not expect to win any votes in the slave states of the South. He would have to get all of his support in the North. He would have to win the votes of the big states, including Pennsylvania. And Pennsylvania was the home of the Democratic candidate, James Buchanan.

        弗蒙特不能指望南方奴隸州的選票,因此必須得到北方所有人的支持。他要勝選,就一定要拿下包括賓夕法尼亞在內的大州,而賓夕法尼亞州恰恰是民主黨候選人布坎南的家鄉。

        Buchanan had said that the constitutional rights of the southern states should be protected. So he could expect to win some votes there. When all the votes were counted, Buchanan was elected. Now he would have to deal with the problems that presidents before him had not been able to solve.

        布坎南曾經說過,南方各州的憲法權利應該受到保護,因此贏得了一些南方的支持。布坎南當選后,要面對他的前任們沒有解決的難題。

        VOICE TWO:

        James Buchanan was sixty-five years old. He had served in the House of Representatives and in the Senate. He had served as secretary of state and as ambassador. He was a good diplomat. But he was not considered a strong political leader.

        布坎南當時65歲,曾擔任過國會參、眾兩院議員,還擔任過國務卿和駐外大使。他是一位很優秀的外交官,但不是一位強有力的政治領袖。

        Buchanan usually supported the southern position in the dispute about slavery. He said the North should stop interfering with the South. He even said the South had good reason to leave the Union, if northern Abolitionists continued their anti-slavery campaign.

        在奴隸問題的爭執中,布坎南往往站在南方一邊。他表示,北方不應該干涉南方事務,他甚至說過,如果北方廢奴主義者繼續推動廢奴運動,南方就有理由退出聯邦。

        As president, Buchanan believed he could solve the slavery question by keeping the Abolitionists quiet. He wanted a cabinet that shared and supported this idea.

        身為總統,布坎南覺得,只要讓廢奴主義者閉嘴,就能解決奴隸的問題。他希望組建一個跟自己看法一致的內閣。

        We will tell about James Buchanan's administration in our next program.

        (MUSIC)

        ANNOUNCER:

        Our program was written by Christine Johnson. The narrators were Ray Freeman and Steve Ember. Transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our programs can be found along with historical images at www.squishedblueberries.com. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

        ___

        This is program #83 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

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