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        #81: The Kansas-Nebraska Bill Divides the Country

        作者:Frank Beardsley 發布日期:5-3-2013

        ANNOUNCER:

        Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

        Franklin Pierce was elected the fourteenth president in eighteen fifty-two. He was forty-eight years old, one of America's youngest presidents.

        富蘭克林·皮爾斯1852年當選美國第14位總統。當時,皮爾斯只有48歲,是美國歷史上最年輕的總統之一。

        Pierce was the compromise candidate of the Democratic Party. He won the nomination on the forty-ninth ballot at the party's convention. He then won a big victory in the general election over the candidate of the Whig Party, General Winfield Scott. One of Pierce's friends, the writer Nathaniel Hawthorne, helped him with his campaign.

        皮爾斯是民主黨內部兩派力量妥協的產物,民主黨代表大會經過49次投票才最后決定推舉皮爾斯為總統候選人。在總統大選中,皮爾斯以絕對優勢擊敗輝格黨候選人斯科特將軍,高票當選。皮爾斯的好朋友、著名作家霍桑在皮爾斯的競選中鼎力相助。

        This week in our series, Steve Ember and Shirley Griffith talk about the presidency of Franklin Pierce.

        VOICE ONE:

        Franklin Pierce
        Franklin Pierce

        Franklin Pierce was from the northeastern state of New Hampshire. He was a lawyer and former state lawmaker. He also had served in the United States Senate and House of Representatives. He became an officer in the Army during America's war with Mexico in the late eighteen forties.

        富蘭克林·皮爾斯來自美國東北部的新罕布什爾州,是律師出身,曾任州議員和國會參、眾兩院議員,1840年代美墨戰爭期間是軍隊指揮官。

        Pierce had been a public official for more than twenty years when he became president. Yet he was not a strong leader. He also faced a difficult situation in his personal life.

        當選總統時,皮爾斯擔任公職已經20多年了,但他并不是一個強勢領袖,個人生活也不幸福。

        VOICE TWO:

        Two of his children had died when they were babies. A third child was killed in a train accident shortly before Pierce was inaugurated.

        皮爾斯的兩個孩子都在幼年時夭折,第三個孩子也在皮爾斯宣誓就職前不久的一次火車事故中喪生。

        In addition, his wife Jane did not like the city of Washington. She did not support her husband's campaign for president. Years earlier, she had urged him to resign from the Senate and return to New Hampshire. She did not want to go back to Washington, even to be first lady.

        除此以外,皮爾斯的妻子簡不喜歡華盛頓的生活,不支持丈夫當總統。很多年前,簡就曾勸說皮爾斯辭去參議員的職務,回新罕布什爾老家。她不愿意住在華盛頓,即使是作為第一夫人。

        When her husband was elected, she agreed to live there. But she rarely saw anyone. One of her close friends took her place at public events.

        皮爾斯當選后,簡同意搬到華盛頓去,但是很少拋頭露面,每次需要參加公開活動,都是由她的一個好朋友代替。

        VOICE ONE:

        Franklin Pierce was a young man. And his inauguration speech was about a young America. He promised strong support for expanding the territory of the United States. He also promised a strong foreign policy.

        富蘭克林·皮爾斯是一位年輕的總統,他的就職演說也是圍繞一個年輕的美國。他保證繼續拓展美國領土,推行強有力的外交政策。

        In his foreign policy, President Pierce successfully negotiated with Britain to gain American fishing rights along the coast of Canada. However, he was unsuccessful in an attempt to buy Cuba from Spain.

        皮爾斯跟英國交涉,成功地為美國爭取到了加拿大沿海的漁業捕撈權,但是沒能從西班牙手中把古巴買下來。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE TWO:

        Commodore Matthew Perry
        Commodore Matthew Perry

        One of the most important developments in foreign policy during Pierce's administration actually began earlier. Former president Millard Fillmore had sent Navy Commodore Matthew Perry to Asia. Perry finally sailed into Tokyo Bay in eighteen fifty-three. His arrival led to the establishment of diplomatic and trade relations between the United States and Japan.

        皮爾斯政府一項最重大的外交進展其實要追溯到前總統菲爾莫爾任期內。菲爾莫爾派海軍準將佩里到亞洲去。佩里1853年終于抵達東京灣,最終促成了美、日外交和貿易關系的建立。

        VOICE ONE:

        National issues presented President Pierce with more difficult decisions. The Compromise of eighteen fifty had settled the dispute over slavery in the western territories. But it did not end slavery. There was still a chance that the North and South would go to war over the issue.

        皮爾斯在國內面臨更為艱巨的挑戰。1850年的妥協法案解決了西部新增領土圍繞奴隸存廢問題產生的糾紛,但是沒有徹底廢除奴隸制度,美國南、北雙方為此兵戎相見的禍根并未鏟除。

        Another question linked slavery and the western territories. Where should the United States build its new railroads.

        與此相關的另外一個問題是:美國應當在哪里修筑鐵路。

        VOICE TWO:

        As America grew and white settlers moved west, many felt a great need for good transportation. They wanted railroads that reached across the continent from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean. Engineers decided that four new rail lines would be possible.

        隨著領土的擴大和白人定居者的西進,很多人都感到了改善交通的迫切性。他們希望看到從大西洋直通太平洋、貫穿美國大陸的鐵路線,工程人員提議,可以修筑四條鐵路。

        One could cross the northern part of the country, connecting the cities of Saint Paul and Seattle. Another could cross the middle, connecting Saint Louis and San Francisco. A third could connect Memphis and San Francisco. And a fourth could be far to the south, connecting New Orleans and San Diego.

        四條路線分別是:一條橫跨美國北部,連接圣保羅和西雅圖;一條橫跨中部,連接圣路易斯和舊金山;一條連接孟菲斯和舊金山;一條在南部,連接新奧爾良和圣迭哥。

        VOICE ONE:

        Stephen Douglas
        Stephen Douglas

        Democratic Senator Stephen Douglas of Illinois proposed that three lines be built. He said the government could give land to the railroad companies. The companies could then sell the land to get the money they needed to build the lines.

        伊利諾伊州民主黨參議員史蒂文·道格拉斯建議只修三條,并提出,政府可以把土地撥給鐵路公司,鐵路公司通過出售土地來融資,然后拿這些錢來修筑鐵路。

        A Senate committee discussed the situation. It decided that building three railroads at the same time would be too difficult. It proposed that only one be built. But which one?

        美國國會參議院的一個小組委員會就此展開討論,最后決定,同時修筑三條鐵路可能有困難,最好先修一條,但是修哪條好呢?

        VOICE TWO:

        Many congressmen believed that a southern line would be best. There would be little snow in winter. And the railroad would cross lands already organized as states or official territories. A northern or central line would face severe winter weather. And it would have to cross a wild area called Nebraska. Nebraska was neither a state nor a territory.

        很多國會議員認為,在南方修筑鐵路最合適,那里冬天不下雪,區域劃分也都已經得到了聯邦政府的認可。如果在北方或是中部修鐵路的話,難免遇到暴風雪的天氣,而且一定要經過內布拉斯加,當時的內布拉斯加還是一片荒蕪地帶,既不是一個州,也不是一塊領地。

        In trying to settle the question of railroads, the issue of slavery rose once again.

        選擇鐵路路線時,奴隸存廢問題再次浮出水面。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE ONE:

        Nebraska lay north of the Missouri compromise line, which had been established in eighteen twenty. Slavery was not permitted there.

        內布拉斯加位于1820年確立的密蘇里妥協界線以北,不允許奴隸的存在。

        The state of Missouri lay next to Nebraska. Missouri was a slave state. Slave-holders in Missouri did not want the Nebraska area to become a free territory. They were afraid their slaves would flee to it. They felt threatened by the free states and free territories all around them.

        但是內布拉斯加旁邊的密蘇里州則是一個奴隸州。密蘇里州的奴隸主不希望讓內布拉斯加成為一個自由區。他們擔心,這樣的話,自己的奴隸就會跑到內布拉斯加去。周圍出現任何自由州或是自由領地,都會讓他們覺得自身利益受到威脅。

        VOICE TWO:

        For years, Congressmen from Missouri had defeated all attempts to make Nebraska an official territory. When Congress met in eighteen fifty-three, it considered a new bill on Nebraska. Instead of creating one large territory, the bill would create two. The northern part would be called the Nebraska territory. The southern part would be called the Kansas territory. The proposal to split them was called the Kansas-Nebraska bill.

        多年來,密蘇里州國會議員一直有效地阻止了讓內布拉斯加正式成為一塊領土的所有努力。1853年國會開會,討論一項有關內布拉斯加的新議案。議案建議,將內布拉斯加一分為二,北邊叫內布拉斯加領土,南邊叫堪薩斯領土。這份議案因此被稱為堪薩斯-內布拉斯加議案。

        The bill did not clearly say if slavery would be legal, or illegal, in the two new territories.

        議案沒有明確說明奴隸制度在這兩個地區內是合法還是非法。

        VOICE ONE:

        A map of the United States from 1856. Slave states are shown in gray, free states in pink and territories in green.
        A map of the United States from 1856. Slave states are shown in gray, free states in pink and territories in green.

        The purpose of the Kansas-Nebraska bill reportedly was to settle differences among opposing railroad interests in the area. Yet many Americans believed the real purpose was to permit the spread of slavery.

        議案表面上的目的是為了解決該地區各方在修鐵路問題上的分歧,但很多美國人都覺得,議案的真正目的是允許奴隸制進一步擴張。

        A group of anti-slavery Senators denounced the bill. They said it was part of a southern plan to spread slavery wherever possible. They also said it was being used by Senator Stephen Douglas for political purposes. They said he was trying to gain southern support for himself in the next presidential election. When the Senate began debate on the Kansas-Nebraska bill, Stephen Douglas was the first to defend it.

        參議院里一批主張廢奴的議員反對堪薩斯-內布拉斯加議案,說議案是南方推廣奴隸制度的行動方案的一部分。他們還說,這份議案被伊利諾伊州參議員道格拉斯用來達到政治目的,為自己參選下屆總統爭取南方的支持。參議院圍繞議案進行討論,道格拉斯第一個站出來為議案提出辯護。

        VOICE TWO:

        Douglas said the bill would give people in the Kansas and Nebraska territories the right to decide if slavery would be permitted. He said the same right had been given to people in New Mexico and Utah by the compromise of eighteen fifty. And he said that same right was meant for people of all future territories.

        道格拉斯說,議案將奴隸制的存廢權交給了堪薩斯和內布拉斯加地區居民。他說,1850年妥協法案讓新墨西哥和猶他地區居民享有了同樣的權利,今后所有新增土地上的人也都應該享受。

        In the past, he noted, the national government had tried to divide free states from slave states by a line across a map. He said a geographical line was not the answer. He said the people of a state or territory had the right to decide for themselves.

        道格拉斯還說,聯邦政府過去一直試圖在地圖上把自由州和奴隸州區分開來,但是地理劃界不能從根本上解決問題。他說,這個問題還是應該由各州或是各地區的居民自行做出選擇。

        Douglas argued that the compromise of eighteen fifty took the place of the earlier Missouri compromise of eighteen twenty. The new Kansas-Nebraska bill, he said, simply recognized the fact that the Missouri compromise was dead.

        道格拉斯說,1850年妥協法案取代了1820年密蘇里協定,而新的堪薩斯-內布拉斯加議案只不過是明確了密蘇里協定壽終正寢的事實。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE ONE:

        Opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska bill quickly rejected the Senator's argument. They said Douglas was not honest in his statements about the eighteen fifty compromise. True, they said, the compromise gave the people of Utah and New Mexico the right to decide about slavery. But they said it did not give that right to the people of all future territories.

        堪薩斯-內布拉斯加議案的反對者立即提出反駁。他們表示,道格拉斯有關1850年妥協法案的說法不準確。沒錯,法案確實是將奴隸存廢的選擇權交給了猶他和新墨西哥居民,但是沒說今后所有新增土地上的居民都能享受這種權利。

        VOICE TWO:

        Opposition to the Kansas-Nebraska bill was extremely strong in the northern United States. In city after city, big public meetings were held. Businessmen organized many of the meetings. They were angry at Senator Douglas because he had re-opened the dispute about slavery. They feared that the dispute would hurt the economy.

        反對堪薩斯-內布拉斯加議案的勢力在北方非常強大,他們在很多城市組織公開集會。商人們也召集了多次大會。他們對道格拉斯參議員非常不滿,因為道格拉斯重新挑起了圍繞奴隸制度的爭議。生意人擔心,這種情況會傷害到美國經濟。

        Northern churchmen also united against the Kansas-Nebraska bill. Thousands signed protests and sent them to Congress. Senator Douglas criticized the churchmen. He said they should stay out of politics.

        北方很多教會領袖也聯合起來反對堪薩斯-內布拉斯加議案。數以千計的人簽署抗議書,送交國會。道格拉斯批評教會領袖,說他們不應該參與政治。

        In the southern United States, the Kansas-Nebraska bill caused little excitement. Most southerners were not greatly interested in it. They believed it might help the cause of slavery. But they also believed it might lead to trouble.

        堪薩斯-內布拉斯加議案在南方沒有引起什么反響,大多數南方人對此不感興趣。他們相信,這個議案有助于奴隸制度的繼續,但是他們同時也覺得,議案可能會帶來麻煩。

        VOICE ONE:

        Senate debate on the bill continued for more than a month. Senator Stephen Douglas was sure it would be approved. We will continue the story of the Kansas-Nebraska bill, and the administration of President Franklin Pierce, next time

        參議院圍繞堪薩斯-內布拉斯加議案的辯論持續了一個多月。史蒂文·道格拉斯參議員以為,議案一定能通過。

        (MUSIC)

        ANNOUNCER:

        Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Steve Ember and Shirley Griffith. Transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our programs can be found along with historical images at www.squishedblueberries.com. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

        ___

        This is program #81 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

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