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        #80: Pierce, New President, Is Friendly but Weak

        作者:Frank Beardsley 發布日期:5-2-2013

        Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English.

        Millard Fillmore
        Millard Fillmore

        In eighteen fifty, President Zachary Taylor died after serving about a year and a half in office. Taylor's vice president, Millard Fillmore, took his place. Early in his administration, President Fillmore signed the Compromise of Eighteen Fifty. That compromise helped settle a dispute over slavery and the western territories. It ended a crisis between northern and southern states. It prevented a civil war.

        1850年,美國總統扎卡里·泰勒任職一年半就不幸病逝,副總統菲爾莫爾繼任后,迅速簽署了1850年妥協法案,解決了圍繞蓄奴問題和西部新增領土存在的分歧,化解了南北雙方的一場危機,防止了內戰的爆發。

        The eighteen fifty compromise did not, however, end slavery in the United States. So the issue was not really settled. It continued to affect the nation. And it was the most important issue of Millard Fillmore's presidency.

        然而,1850年妥協法案并沒有取締奴隸制度,沒有觸及問題的根本。因此,蓄奴問題仍舊影響著美國,也是菲爾莫爾任期內最重要的議題。

        Here are Kay Gallant and Harry Monroe with this week's program in our series.

        VOICE ONE:

        A copy of
        A copy of

        In eighteen fifty-two, an American woman published a book about slavery. She called it "Uncle Tom's Cabin." The woman, Harriet Beecher Stowe, wrote the book for one reason. She wanted to show how cruel slavery was. Stowe's words painted a picture of slavery that most people in the North had never seen. They were shocked.

        1852年,美國女作家斯托發表了《湯姆叔叔的小屋》一書。斯托寫這本書目的只有一個,就是要揭露奴隸制度的殘忍。斯托用文字描繪了一幅北方大多數人從未見過的圖景,讓他們深感震撼。

        Public pressure to end slavery grew strong. Abolitionists wanted to free all slaves immediately. Even if that could be done, there was the question of what to do with the freed slaves. Their rights as citizens were limited. Some states closed their borders to negroes. Other states permitted negroes, but said they could not vote.

        社會上要求取締奴隸制度的呼聲高漲。廢奴主義者希望立即給奴隸自由。然而,即使這樣做,奴隸自由后還是會帶來很多問題。他們做為公民的權利是有限的。有些州不許奴隸入境,另外一些州雖然接受他們,但是不給他們投票權。

        In many places, it seemed impossible that negroes and whites could live together peacefully, in freedom. The best answer, many people thought, was to free the slaves and help them return to Africa.

        在某些地方,自由的黑人和白種人幾乎完全不可能和睦相處。很多人覺得,最好的辦法是還奴隸自由,然后讓他們回到非洲去。

        VOICE TWO:

        It was not a new idea. Forty years earlier, a group of leading Americans had formed an organization for that purpose. They called it the American Colonization Society.

        這種想法并不新鮮。早在四十年前,就有一批美國人,組建了以此為目的的“美國殖民協會”。

        In eighteen twenty, the Society began helping send negroes to Africa. The negroes formed a government of their own. In eighteen forty-seven, they declared themselves independent. They called their new country the Republic of Liberia. The new country had a constitution like that of the United States.

        1820年,美國殖民協會開始協助黑人返回非洲。這些奴隸組建了自己的政府,1847年宣布獨立,建立了利比里亞共和國,制定了類似美國的憲法。

        By eighteen fifty-four, nine thousand negroes from the United States had been sent to Liberia. Some had technical skills. They knew how to make iron. They knew how to use steam engines and other machinery. The Colonization Society hoped these negroes would use their skills to help improve life for the people of Africa. The Society's plan ended a cruel life of slavery for many negroes.

        到1854年的時候,美國已經有9千名黑人被送往利比里亞,他們當中有些人懂技術,知道如何煉鐵,會用蒸汽機和其它機械。殖民協會希望這些黑人利用自己的技能改善非洲人的生活。美國殖民協會的計劃確實幫助很多黑人擺脫了奴隸的悲慘生活。

        But it could not be denied that the plan was a way to get black people out of the United States. Many whites refused to accept the fact that most free negroes did not want to go to Africa. The negroes had grown up in the United States. It was their home.

        不可否認的是,這項計劃也是為了把黑人趕出美國。一個很多白人不愿接受的事實是,大部分獲得自由的黑人并不想回非洲。他們生在美國,長在美國,美國才是他們的家。

        VOICE ONE:

        Negro slaves took great chances to escape to freedom. Many gained their freedom through the so-called "underground railroad." That was not a real railroad. It was an organization of people who secretly helped slaves escape to the North.

        黑人奴隸為了獲得自由,甘愿承擔巨大的風險。很多黑奴都是通過所謂的“地下鐵路”獲得自由的。“地下鐵路”并非真正的鐵路,而是一個秘密幫助奴隸逃往北方的組織。

        An escaped slave would be hidden during the day by a member of the organization. Then at night, the negro would be taken to another hiding place farther north. The process was repeated every day and night until the escaped slave was safe in New England or even Canada.

        逃亡的黑奴白天被“地下鐵路”的成員掩護起來,夜間出發,向更靠北的地方轉移,直到抵達新英格蘭,或者甚至是加拿大,才算安全。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE TWO:

        The year eighteen fifty-two was a presidential election year in the United States. The eighteen fifty compromise was a major issue in the campaign. A number of men wanted to be the presidential candidate of the Democratic Party. They included senators Lewis Cass of Michigan and Stephen Douglas of Illinois. Another was former secretary of state James Buchanan. Cass and Douglas supported the idea of letting the people of a territory decide if slavery would be permitted in that territory. Buchanan opposed the anti-slavery movements of the north. Because of this, he had many supporters in the South.

        1852年是大選年,核心議題之一就是1850年妥協法案。民主黨角逐提名的人包括密西根州參議員路易斯·卡斯、伊利諾伊州參議員史蒂文·道格拉斯,以及前國務卿詹姆斯·布坎南??ㄋ购偷栏窭苟贾鲝?,奴隸制度的存廢可以由當地居民自行決定。布坎南反對北方的廢奴運動,因此贏得了很多南方人的支持。

        VOICE ONE:

        Franklin Pierce
        Franklin Pierce

        The Democrats opened their presidential nominating convention in Baltimore on the first of June, eighteen fifty-two. The delegates agreed that a man must win two-thirds of the convention's votes to be the party's candidate.

        1852年6月1號,民主黨人在巴爾的摩開會推舉候選人。與會者一致同意,候選人必須贏得三分之二大會代表的支持。

        On the first ballot, no one got two-thirds of the vote. So the voting continued. Finally, on the forty-seventh ballot, support began to increase for one of the minor candidates. His name was Franklin Pierce. Pierce was from the northeastern state of New Hampshire. He had served as a congressman and senator. On the forty-ninth ballot, Pierce won. He would be the Democratic Party's candidate for president.

        但每輪投票,都沒有人贏得三分之二的選票,因此只好一遍遍地重來。直到第47輪投票,才有一名原來并不被不看好的候選人脫穎而出。此人名叫富蘭克林·皮爾斯,來自東北部的新罕布什爾州,當過參議員和眾議員。皮爾斯在第49輪投票時當選,被提名為1852年總統大選的民主黨總統候選人。

        VOICE TWO:

        The Whig party held its presidential nominating convention in Baltimore two weeks after the Democrats. Three Whigs wanted to be nominated: President Millard Fillmore, Secretary of State Daniel Webster and General Winfield Scott.

        兩個星期過后,輝格黨也在巴爾的摩舉行總統候選人提名大會,參選人有三個,分別是現任總統菲爾莫爾、現任國務卿韋伯斯特和斯科特將軍。

        The same thing that happened at the Democratic convention now happened at the Whig convention. Delegates voted over and over again. But no man got enough votes to win. It took fifty-three ballots before one of the men -- General Scott -- won the nomination.

        跟民主黨代表大會一樣,輝格黨人同樣無法取得一致,直到第53次投票,斯科特將軍才勝出。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE ONE:

        General Winfield Scott
        General Winfield Scott

        The presidential campaign lasted about five months. The election was in November. Pierce, the Democrat, won a crushing victory over Scott, the Whig. The Democratic victory was so great that many people thought the Whig Party was finished. In fact, many Whigs themselves hoped their party had been destroyed.

        總統選戰持續了大約五個月。在11月總統大選中,民主黨候選人皮爾斯以壓倒多數擊敗輝格黨候選人斯科特。民主黨的勝利讓很多人覺得,輝格黨恐怕完蛋了。事實上,很多輝格黨人都暗自希望自己的政黨解體。

        Northern Whigs wanted to form a new anti-slavery party. And southern Whigs wanted to form a party that would better represent their interests. The Democrats won the election, because they were able to bridge the differences between their northern and southern members. The Whigs were not able to do that.

        北方的輝格黨人希望成立一個新的廢奴黨,南方的輝格黨人也希望成立一個更能代表自身利益的政黨。民主黨人之所以能贏得大選,恰恰是因為他們成功彌合了南北雙方之間的分歧。

        VOICE TWO:

        The new president, Franklin Pierce, was a charming man. He made friends easily. Those who knew Pierce best worried about this. They knew that under all his friendly charm, he was a weak man. They feared that the duties and problems of the presidency would be too great for him to deal with. As president in eighteen fifty-three, Pierce was forced to choose between two policies on the issue of slavery.

        新總統皮爾斯很有魅力,特別善于交朋友,而這也正是了解他的人最擔心的,因為他們知道,在友好的外表下,皮爾斯是一個十分軟弱的人,他們擔心皮爾斯難以承擔總統的重任。皮爾斯上臺后,被迫在奴隸的存廢問題上做出選擇。

        He could support the Compromise of Eighteen Fifty and declare it to be the final settlement of the problem. That would lead to a fight with northern and southern extremists. Or he could compromise with the extremists and give them jobs in his administration. That would be the easy way to satisfy their demands. And that was the policy Pierce chose.

        一種選擇是,支持1850年妥協法案,宣布這一方案是問題的最終解決,但這樣做可能會引起南北雙方極端勢力的沖突。另外一種選擇是向極端份子妥協,吸收他們進入政府就職。后者是滿足極端勢力的最簡單的辦法,也是皮爾斯的選擇。

        VOICE ONE:

        Jefferson Davis
        Jefferson Davis

        In putting together his cabinet, President Pierce tried to include men from every group in the Democratic Party. He named William Marcy of New York to be secretary of state. Marcy opposed the spread of slavery and all talk of splitting the Union.

        皮爾斯在組建內閣時,努力把民主黨內的各派勢力都包括進來。他任命紐約的威廉·馬西擔任國務卿。馬西反對奴隸制度的蔓延,也反對任何主張分裂聯邦的言論。

        Jefferson Davis of Mississippi was named secretary of war. Davis, more than any other man, represented the southern extremists. He had threatened to take the South out of the Union if any limits were put on slavery.

        皮爾斯任命密西西比的杰斐遜·戴維斯擔任戰爭部長。戴維斯是南方極端勢力的代表人物。他曾經威脅說,如果奴隸制度受到任何限制,他就要帶領南方脫離聯邦。

        Caleb Cushing of Massachusetts was named attorney general. Although a northerner, Cushing was a friend of many southern extremists. He was a very able man, but his loyalties were not clear. James Buchanan of Pennsylvania was named Minister to Britain.

        皮爾斯提名麻薩諸塞州的凱萊布·顧盛為司法部長。顧盛雖然是北方人,但卻結交了很多南方極端份子。他精明強干,但是立場并不明確。此外,皮爾斯還任命賓夕法尼亞州的詹姆斯·布坎南出任美國駐英國大使。

        VOICE TWO:

        All of these men had strong ideas about the future of the United States. President Pierce found it difficult to control them.

        皮爾斯的內閣成員對美國的前途各持己見,讓皮爾斯難以駕馭。

        One senator said the administration should not have been called the Pierce administration, because Pierce did not lead it. He said it was an administration of enemies of the Union who used the president's name and power for their own purposes.

        曾有一位參議員說,這屆政府不應該被稱為皮爾斯政府,因為皮爾斯并非政府領袖。他說,這屆政府應該被稱為聯盟敵人的政府,他們利用總統的名義和權力,來實現自己的目的。

        VOICE ONE:

        For a time, things were peaceful. The dispute over slavery had cooled. But thoughtful people did not believe that peace would last long. No permanent solution had been found to settle differences over slavery and the right of states to leave the Union.

        短期內,一切似乎風平浪靜,奴隸問題引發的爭議暫時得到了緩解。但是有頭腦的人都清楚,和平持續不了多久。圍繞奴隸制度和各州是否有權脫離聯邦的紛爭并沒有得到徹底解決。

        One northerner wrote: "It was said hundreds of years ago that a house divided against itself cannot stand. The truth of this saying is written on every page in history. It is likely that the history of our own country may offer fresh examples to teach this truth to future ages."

        We will continue our story of the presidency of Franklin Pierce next week.

        (MUSIC)

        ANNOUNCER:

        Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Kay Gallant and Harry Monroe. Transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our programs can be found along with historical images at www.squishedblueberries.com. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

        ___

        This is program #80 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

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