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        #8: By 1750, Almost One in Four People in the Colonies Were Slaves

        作者:Nancy Steinbach  發布日期:1-24-2013

        VOICE ONE:

        This is Rich Kleinfeldt.

        VOICE TWO:

        And this is Sarah Long with THE MAKING OF A NATION, a VOA Special English program about the history of the United States.

        Today, we tell about slavery, and how it affected the history of the United States.

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE ONE:

        Slavery is one person controlling or owning another. Some history experts say it began following the development of farming about ten thousand years ago. People forced prisoners of war to work for them. Other slaves were criminals or people who could not re-pay money they owed.

        奴隸制度是一個人對另一個人的控制和占有。有歷史學家認為,奴隸制是一萬年前農業發展的產物,戰俘、罪犯、和欠債不還的人淪為奴隸。

        Experts say the first known slaves existed in the Sumerian society of what is now Iraq more than five thousand years ago. Slavery also existed among people in China, India, Africa, the Middle East and the Americas. It expanded as trade and industry increased.

        有關專家說,目前已知的 最早的奴隸出現在五千多年前的蘇美爾社會中,也就是今天的伊拉克一帶。此外,中國、印度、非洲、中東和美洲地區也都出現過奴隸制。

        This increase created a demand for a labor force to produce goods for export. Slaves did most of the work. Most ancient people thought of slavery as a natural condition that could happen to anyone at any time. Few saw it as evil or unfair. In most cities, slaves could be freed by their owners and become citizens.

        貿易和工業的發展增加了對勞動力的需求,從而進一步帶動了奴隸制的膨脹。古代很多文化都認為,奴隸制是一種很自然的狀況,可能發生在任何人身上,沒有人覺得奴隸制是邪惡和不公正的。在大多數城市里,奴隸主可以給奴隸自由,讓他們成為公民。

        In later times, slaves provided the labor needed to produce products that were in demand. Sugar was one of these products. Italians established large sugar farms beginning around the twelfth century. They used slaves from Russia and other parts of Europe to do the work. By the year thirteen hundred, African blacks had begun to replace the Russian slaves. They were bought or captured from North African Arabs, who used them as slaves for years.

        奴隸為生產需要的商品提供了必要的勞動力。蔗糖就是一個例子。意大利人在12世紀前后建立了種植蔗糖的大農場,使用來自俄羅斯和歐洲其他地方的奴隸。到1300年的時候,來自非洲的黑奴逐漸取代俄羅斯奴隸。

        By the fifteen hundreds, Spain and Portugal had American colonies. The Europeans made native Indians work in large farms and mines in the colonies. Most of the Indians died from European diseases and poor treatment. So the Spanish and Portuguese began to bring in people from West Africa as slaves. France, Britain and the Netherlands did the same in their American colonies.

        到十六世紀的時候,西班牙和葡萄牙人已經在美洲建立了殖民地。歐洲人讓印第安土著人在殖民地的農場 和礦場里做工,大多數印第安人都死于虐待和歐洲疾病。西班牙人和葡萄牙人因此開始從西非進口奴隸。法國、英國和荷蘭在美洲殖民地的做法大同小異。

        VOICE TWO:

        In 1660, Charles II gave the Royal African Company the right to secure a trade monopoly in West Africa. From there, the company began supplying slaves to England's American colonies.
        In 1660, Charles II gave the Royal African Company the right to secure a trade monopoly in West Africa. From there, the company began supplying slaves to England's American colonies.

        England's southern colonies in North America developed a farm economy that could not survive without slave labor.

        北美南部的英國殖民地形成的農場經濟完全依靠奴隸。

        Many slaves lived on large farms called plantations. These large farms produced important crops traded by the colony, crops such as cotton and tobacco. Each plantation was like a small village owned by one family. That family lived in a large house, usually facing a river. Many separate buildings were needed on a plantation. For example, a building was needed for cooking. And buildings were needed for workers to produce goods such as furniture that were used on the plantation. The plantation business was farming. So there also were barns for animals and buildings for holding and drying crops. There was a house to smoke meat so could be kept safely. And there was a place on the river from which goods were sent to England on ships.

        農場上住著很多奴隸,種植棉花和煙草等作物,用于殖民地的對外貿易。每個農場歸一個家庭所有,他們往往住在一棟面對河流的大房子里。農場里還有很多不同用途的房子,比如廚房、家具作坊、牲畜圈、谷物晾曬場、以及熏肉的地方,還有就是設在河邊的碼頭,貨物裝船運往英國前就存放在那里。

        VOICE ONE:

        The plantation owner controlled the farm and saw that it earned money. He supervised, fed and clothed the people living on it, including the slaves.

        農場主負責農場的經營,并且管理農場里包括奴隸在內的所有人,給他們提供食宿和衣服。

        Big plantations might have two hundred slaves. They worked in the fields on crops that would be sold or eaten by the people who lived on the plantation. They also raised animals for meat and milk.

        大農場里的奴隸有時會多達兩百人,他們種植作物,用于出售和農場的消耗,他們還要養殖牲畜以此得到肉和奶。

        Field slaves worked very long and hard. They worked each day from the time the sun rose until it set. Many of these slaves lived in extremely poor conditions in small houses with no heat or furniture. Sometimes, five or ten people lived together in one room.

        在地里干活的奴隸非常辛苦,他們日出而做,日落而息。很多奴隸都住在沒有家具和供暖的小房子里,條件極其惡劣,有時候,一個房間里要擠五個,甚至是十個人。

        House slaves usually lived in the owner's house. They did the cooking and cleaning in the house. House slaves worked fewer hours than field slaves, but were more closely supervised by the owner and his family.

        家宅奴隸通常住在主人的房子里,負責煮飯和打掃房間,他們工作的時間相對較短,但是無時無刻不在主人的監督之下。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE TWO:

        Slaves preparing dried tobacco to be shipped to England from Jamestown
        Slaves preparing dried tobacco to be shipped to England from Jamestown

        Laws approved in the southern colonies made it illegal for slaves to marry, own property or earn their freedom. These laws also did not permit slaves to be educated, or even to learn to read. But some owners permitted their slaves to earn their freedom, or gave them money for good work.

        美洲南部殖民地通過法律,不允許奴隸結婚、擁有財物或是獲得自由,也不允許奴隸接受教育,甚至讀書認字。但是有些奴隸主卻讓表現出色的奴隸獲得自由,或是用金錢的方式獎勵他們。

        Other owners punished slaves to get them to work. These punishments included beatings, withholding food and threatening to sell members of a slave's family. Some plantation owners executed slaves suspected of serious crimes by hanging them or burning them alive.

        另外一些奴隸主則用毆打、不讓吃飯、或是威脅把其家庭成員賣掉的方式來懲罰不聽話的奴隸。有些農場主還會用絞刑或是活活燒死的辦法 處決那些被懷疑犯有嚴重罪行的奴隸。

        History experts say that people who were rich enough to own many slaves became leaders in their local areas. They were members of the local governments. They attended meetings of the legislatures in the capitals of their colonies usually two times a year. Slave owners had the time and the education to greatly influence political life in the southern colonies, because the hard work on their farms was done by slaves.

        歷史學家說,大奴隸主往往都是當地的領袖,在地方政府里任職,每年兩次到殖民地首府參加立法會議。正是由于奴隸承擔了農場里的艱苦勞動,農場主才會有時間和知識去影響南部殖民地的政治生活。

        VOICE ONE:

        Today, most people in the world condemn slavery. That was not true in the early years of the American nation. Many Americans thought slavery was evil, but necessary. Yet owning slaves was common among the richer people in the early seventeen hundreds. Many of the leaders in the colonies who fought for American independence owned slaves. This was true in the northern colonies as well as the southern ones.

        今天,世界上大多數人都不認同奴隸制度,然而在那個年代,很多人覺得奴隸制度雖然邪惡,但卻十分必要。十八世紀早期,有錢人擁有奴隸是司空見慣的事情,北部和南部的殖民地都是這樣。很多為美國獨立而戰的殖民地領袖們也是奴隸主。

        Benjamin Franklin
        Benjamin Franklin

        One example is the famous American diplomat, inventor and businessman Benjamin Franklin. He owned slaves for thirty years and sold them at his general store. But his ideas about slavery changed during his long life. Benjamin Franklin started the first schools to teach blacks and later argued for their freedom.

        大家都知道美國著名的外交家、發明家和商人本杰明·富蘭克林。他對奴隸制度的看法就經歷了巨大的變化。他一生中當了三十年的奴隸主,還在自己開的商店里出售奴隸,但后來,他卻率先開辦了教黑人讀書的學校,并為黑人爭取自由。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE TWO:

        Slavery did not become a force in the northern colonies mainly because of economic reasons. Cold weather and poor soil could not support such a farm economy as was found in the South. As a result, the North came to depend on manufacturing and trade.

        奴隸制度在北部殖民地之所以沒有形成氣候,主要是經濟方面的原因。北方寒冷的氣候和貧瘠的土壤排除了南方農場經濟出現的可能性。因此,北方殖民地主要依靠制造業和貿易。

        Trade was the way colonists got the English goods they needed. It was also the way to earn money by selling products found in the New World. New England became a center for such trade across the seas. The people who lived there became shipbuilders so they could send the products to England. They used local wood to build the ships. They also sold wood and wood products. They became businessmen carrying goods around the world.

        通過貿易,殖民者可以得到自己需要的英國產品,也能通過銷售新大陸的產品賺錢,新英格蘭成了海路貿易的中心。那里的人從事船舶建造,用船把產品運往英國。他們用本地的木材造船,同時也出售木材和木制產品,把產品銷往世界各地。

        The New England shipbuilding towns near the Atlantic Ocean grew quickly as a result. The largest of these towns was Boston, Massachusetts. By seventeen twenty, it had more than ten thousand people. Only two towns in England were larger: London and Bristol.

        因此,大西洋沿岸的新英格蘭建筑船舶的小鎮迅速成長,其中最大的一個是麻薩諸塞的波士頓。到1720年,波士頓的人口已經超過了一萬人,僅次于英國本土的倫敦和布里斯托。

        More than twenty-five percent of the men in Boston had invested in shipping or worked in it. Ship captains and businessmen held most of the public offices.

        波士頓四分之一以上的人口投資或是從事航運業,政府大多數官員都由船長和商人來擔任。

        VOICE ONE:

        A document from the Pennsylvania Society for the Abolition of Slavery, signed by the group's president, Benjamin Franklin.
        A document from the Pennsylvania Society for the Abolition of Slavery, signed by the group's president, Benjamin Franklin.

        The American colonies traded goods such as whale oil, ginger, iron, wood, and rum, an alcoholic drink made from sugarcane. Ships carried these goods from the New England colonies to Africa. There, they were traded for African people.

        美洲殖民地把鯨魚油、姜、鋼鐵、木材、和用蔗糖釀制的朗姆酒運往非洲,換取非洲人。

        The Africans had been captured by enemy tribesmen and sold to African slave traders. The New England boat captains would buy as many as they could put on their ships. The conditions on these ships were very cruel. The Africans were put in so tightly they could hardly move. Some were chained. Many killed themselves rather than live under such conditions.

        這些人都是在敵對部落的戰爭中被俘后賣給奴隸販子的。新英格蘭殖民地的船長們盡可能多地換取奴隸,用船運回去。船上的條件極其惡劣。這些非洲人一個挨一個地擠在一起,幾乎無法移動,有些人還被鎖鏈拴著,很多人因為無法忍受非人的條件而自盡。

        Others died of sicknesses they developed on the ship. Yet many did survive the trip, and became slaves in the southern colonies, or in the Caribbean islands. Black slaves were needed to work on Caribbean sugar plantations. The southern American colonies needed them to work on the tobacco and rice plantations.

        還有人病死在船上。剩下的人抵達美洲南部殖民地或是加勒比海的島嶼后,成為奴隸。

        By seventeen fifty, almost twenty-five percent of the total number of people in the American colonies were black slaves. From the fifteen hundreds to the eighteen hundreds, Europeans sent about twelve million black slaves from Africa to America. Almost two million of them died on the way.

        到1750年的時候,美洲殖民地將近四分之一的人口都是黑奴。在十六世紀到十九世紀期間,歐洲人總共將1200萬黑奴從非洲運到美洲,其中有將近兩百萬人死在途中。

        VOICE TWO:

        History experts say English ships carried the greatest number of Africans into slavery. One slave ship captain came to hate what he was doing, and turned to religion. His name was John Newton. He stopped taking part in slave trade and became a leader in the Anglican Church. He is famous for having written this song, "Amazing Grace".

        歷史學家說,把非洲人送進奴隸制深淵最多的,是英國船只。在美國歷史上,有一個運送奴隸的船長最后因為厭倦了自己的所作所為而轉向宗教。他的名字叫約翰·牛頓,他放棄了奴隸交易,成為圣公會的領袖。他還譜寫了著名的歌曲“奇異的恩典”(Amazing Grace)。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE ONE:

        This program was written by Nancy Steinbach and produced by Paul Thompson. This is Rich Kleinfeldt.

        VOICE TWO:

        And this is Sarah Long. Join us again next week for another Special English program about the history of the United States.

        網友的學習評論(12條):
        作者:華晨
        2-5-2013 11:47:0
        Owning slaves was common among the richer people in the early seventeen hundreds . Many of the leaders of the colonies who fought for American independence owned slaves. However, the real social elites will commit to promoting social progress, socail equality and justice,and energetically practice what they have believed. Just as Benjamin Franklin and John Newton did.
        作者:流櫻豪
        2-21-2013 12:47:9
        long long ago,China had slavery too!
        作者:雅喬
        4-25-2013 19:19:26
        Today, many people become a slave to money.
        作者:Kane
        1-27-2014 3:43:48
        Black person~~
        作者:pge
        3-27-2014 12:22:13
        The song Amazing Grace is so untouchable.
        作者:Melody
        1-2-2015 16:48:12
        Slaves were treated as a part of cargoes for selling to the plantation owners . Their lived in poor condition and always had nothing good to eat . They were forced to work from the time the sun rose until it set . They would be supervised and punished by the ownder and his family for not working hard . Meanwhile , they were illegal to marry , own property , not even their freedom , not be educated .
        作者:Melody
        1-2-2015 16:50:57
        People from the world really shold condemn the slavery . Why did we need to devide people into different class ? Why people need to be judged by their color of skin ? Why their voice can't be heard and their right of freedom can't be respected ?
        作者:Melody
        1-2-2015 16:54:58
        I feel very pathetic for the history of slavery in every where of the world . And I just know the song writer of " Amazing Grace " , John Newton .Though he once supported the trade of slaves , he changed his mind by doing good things later .
        作者:Melody
        1-2-2015 16:59:30
        amazing grace how sweet the soundthat saved a wretch like meI once was lost but now i'm foundwas blind but now i seewas grace that taught my heart to fearand grace my fear relievedhow precious did that grace appearthe hour i first believedthrough many dangers toils and snareswe have already comet'was grace that brought us safe thus farand grace will lead us home
        作者:Melody
        1-2-2015 16:59:37
        when we've been there ten thousand yearsbright shining as the sunwe've no less days to sing god's praisethan when we first begunthan when we first begun
        作者:鄭烈波
        3-9-2015 15:6:21
        black slaves were needed to work on caribbean sugar plantations.the southern american colonies needed them to work on the tobacco and rice plantations.
        作者:hliu
        7-7-2015 19:36:33
        In terms of slave, if paraphrased as lacking of freedom, one is a slave to his desire when he cannot control it.
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