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        #78: The Fresh Air of Liberty and Union

        作者:Frank Beardsley 發布日期:4-30-2013

        ANNOUNCER:

        Welcome to the MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English.

        Daniel Webster
        Daniel Webster

        In eighteen fifty, the United States faced the threat of a split between northern and southern states. The two sides disagreed strongly over the issue of slavery. At that time, owning slaves was legal in the southern states. But the question remained: should slavery be legal in new territories in the western part of the country?

        1850年,美國面臨南北分裂的危險。南北雙方在廢奴還是蓄奴的問題上水火不容。當時,在南方可以合法擁有奴隸,主要問題在于,美國西部新增領土上是否應該允許奴隸的存在。

        The issue needed to be settled. There was a danger of civil war between the North and the South. Senator Henry Clay of Kentucky offered a compromise. Conservative southern lawmakers rejected it. Other lawmakers supported it; they believed it was the only way to save the union of states.

        由于在這個問題上的分歧,南北雙方日益走向內戰的邊緣??纤萋摪顓⒆h員亨利·克萊提出了一項妥協方案,遭到南方保守派國會議員的反對,但是得到了其他地區議員的支持。他們相信,這是維護聯邦完整的唯一途徑。

        This week in our series, Warren Scheer and Sarah Long continue our story of the Compromise of Eighteen Fifty.

        VOICE ONE:

        One of the nation's top political leaders, Senator Daniel Webster of Massachusetts, supported Henry Clay's compromise. Webster believed that slavery was evil. Yet he believed that national unity was more important. He did not want the nation to divide. He did not want to see the end of the United States of America.

        當時一位非常重要的政治領袖、麻薩諸塞州聯邦參議員丹尼爾·韋伯斯特支持克萊提出的妥協方案。韋伯斯特認為奴隸制度是邪惡的,但是國家統一更重要。他不希望看到國家分裂,不希望看到美國聯邦分崩離析。

        Daniel Webster spoke to other members of the Senate. His speech was an appeal to both sides in the dispute.

        丹尼爾·韋伯斯特在參議院發表演講,希望說服爭議雙方。

        "I speak today," he said, "to save the Union. I speak today out of a concerned and troubled heart. I speak for the return of a spirit of unity. I speak for the return of that general feeling of agreement which makes the blessings of this union so special to us all."

        他說:“我今天講話是為了挽救聯邦。我今天帶著沉重的心情在這里講話,希望能夠重新喚起團結的熱情,重新喚起意見的一致,因為正是共同的理念讓聯邦給我們帶來福祉。”

        VOICE TWO:

        Senator Webster spoke of how he hated slavery. He spoke of his fight against the spread of slavery in America. But he disagreed with those who wanted laws making slavery illegal in new territories. It would not be wise to pass such laws, he said. They would only make the South angry. They would only push the South away from the Union.

        韋伯斯特談到了他對奴隸制度的痛恨,談到了他為阻止奴隸制度在美國進一步蔓延而進行的斗爭,但是他不同意通過立法禁止在新增領土蓄奴。他說,這樣做不明智,只會激怒南方各州,只會讓他們在脫離聯邦的道路上越走越遠。

        Then Webster spoke about the things the North and South had done to make each other angry.

        韋伯斯特還談到了南北雙方激怒對方的一些所作所為。

        VOICE ONE:

        One, he said, was the failure of the North to return runaway slaves. He said the South had good reason to protest. It was a matter of law. The law was contained in article four of the national constitution.

        首先,北方沒有將逃亡奴隸送還給他們的奴隸主,南方有權提出抗議,因為聯邦憲法第四款里對此有具體規定。

        "Every member of every northern legislature," Webster said, "has sworn to support the constitution of the United States. And the constitution says that states must return runaway slaves to their owners. This part of the constitution has as much power as any other part. It must be obeyed."

        韋伯斯特說,“北方各州每一位議會成員都曾發誓,保證支持聯邦憲法。憲法里明確規定,各州要將逃亡奴隸還給他們的奴隸主,憲法里的這一規定跟其他規定具有同等效力,必需遵守。”

        VOICE TWO:

        Next, Webster spoke about the Abolition societies. These were organizations that demanded an end to slavery everywhere in the country.

        韋伯斯特接下來談到廢奴社團。

        "I do not think that Abolition societies are useful," Webster said. "At the same time, I believe that thousands of their members are honest and good citizens who feel they must do something for liberty. However, their interference with the South has produced trouble."

        他說,“我不認為廢奴社團有什么用。數以千計的社團成員都是誠實善良的公民,覺得要為自由做些貢獻,但是他們干預南方事務,反而帶來了麻煩。”

        As an example, Webster spoke about the state of Virginia. Slavery was legal there. Webster noted that public opinion in Virginia had been turning against slavery until Abolitionists angered the people. After that, he said, no one would talk openly against slavery. He said Abolitionists were not ending slavery, but helping it to continue.

        韋伯斯特舉例說,維吉尼亞是蓄奴州,當地人本來已經轉向反對蓄奴,但是廢奴主義者的言論激起了公憤,結果是,沒人再愿意公開反對蓄奴。韋伯斯特說,廢奴主義者不是在結束奴隸制,而是在幫助奴隸制繼續下去。

        VOICE ONE:

        Then Webster said the North also had a right to protest about some things the South had done.

        韋伯斯特指出,南方也有讓北方不滿的地方。

        He said the South was wrong to try to take slaves into new American territories. He said attempts to do this violated earlier agreements to limit slavery to areas where it already existed.

        南方試圖把奴隸制推廣到美國新增領土,這種做法是錯誤的,違背了先前達成的將奴隸制度限制在現存區域內的協議。

        Webster said the North also had a right to protest statements by southern leaders about working conditions in the North. Southerners often said that slaves in the South lived better lives than free workers in the North.

        另外,南方人常說,北方自由勞工的生活條件還不如南方奴隸的生活條件優越,北方人有權就這種說法表示抗議。

        VOICE TWO:

        Webster appealed to both sides to forgive each other. He urged them to come to an agreement. He said the South could never leave the Union without violence.

        韋伯斯特懇請南北雙方彼此諒解,設法達成協議。他表示,不通過暴力手段,南方是無法脫離聯邦的。

        Webster said the two sides were joined together socially, economically, culturally, and in many other ways. There was no way to divide them. No Congress, he said, could establish a border between the North and South that either side would accept.

        南北雙方在社會、經濟、文化等方方面面都有著千絲萬縷的聯系,無法分割。國會絕對無法劃分一道讓雙方都能接受的邊界。

        VOICE ONE:

        Daniel Webster
        Daniel Webster

        In general, Webster's speech to the Senate was moderate. He wanted to appeal to reason, not emotion. Yet it was difficult for him to be unemotional. His voice rose as he finished.

        韋伯斯特在參議院的演講總體上還是溫和的。他希望曉之以理,而不是動之以情。然而,講到最后,韋伯斯特還是難以控制情緒,他激動地高喊:

        "Secession!" He called out. "Peaceable secession! Your eyes and mine will never see that happen. There can be no such thing as peaceable secession. We live under a great constitution. Is it to be melted away by secession, as the snows of a mountain are melted away under the sun?

        “脫離聯邦!和平脫離聯邦!這是我們永遠不會看到的。絕不能讓和平脫離聯邦成為現實。”韋伯斯特繼續說,“我們在一個偉大的憲法下共存,難道能讓它因為南方的脫離,象陽光下的積雪一樣融化消失嗎?”

        "Let us not speak of the possibility of secession. Let us not debate an idea so full of horror. Let us not live with the thought of such darkness. Instead, let us come out into the light of day. Let us enjoy the fresh air of liberty and union."

        我們最好不要去討論南方脫離聯邦的可能性,不要去討論如此可怕的想法,不要有這種陰暗的念頭。讓我們走進光明,享受自由和聯邦帶來的新鮮空氣吧。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE TWO:

        Northern Abolitionists quickly criticized Daniel Webster's speech. They called him a traitor. Yet most people of the North accepted Webster's appeal for compromise. His speech cooled the debate that threatened a complete break between the North and South.

        The dispute about slavery continued in the United States. It would, in time, lead to civil war. But historians say Webster's support for the compromise of eighteen fifty probably helped delay that crisis.

        圍繞蓄奴問題展開的辯論并未消失,最終引發了一場內戰。然而歷史學家認為,韋伯斯特對1850年妥協方案的支持有效延緩了危機的爆發。

        VOICE ONE:

        Daniel Webster's speech was not the end of debate on the compromise. Four days later, Senator William Seward of New York rose to speak.

        韋伯斯特參議員的演講沒能給圍繞妥協展開的辯論劃上句號。四天過后,紐約州參議員威廉·蘇厄德起身發言。

        Seward said he opposed any compromise with the South. He said he did not want slavery in the new western territories. And he urged a national policy to start ending slavery everywhere -- peacefully.

        蘇厄德說,他反對跟南方的任何妥協。他不想在西部新增領土上看到奴隸制度,并敦促制定全國性政策,在美國境內,以和平手段徹底取締奴隸制度。

        Seward criticized Daniel Webster for speaking against the Abolition societies. He said such groups represented a moral movement that could not be stopped. He said the movement would continue until all the slaves in America were free.

        蘇厄德對韋伯斯特指責廢奴社團的講話提出批評。蘇厄德說,廢奴社團代表了一種道義運動,勢不可擋,直到美國所有奴隸全部獲得自由的那一天。

        VOICE TWO:

        John C. Calhoun
        John C. Calhoun

        Seward then criticized another senator, John C. Calhoun of South Carolina. He denounced Calhoun's demands for a political balance between the North and South. He said this would change the United States from a united, national democracy to an alliance of independent states. In such a system, he said, the minority would be able to veto actions of the majority.

        隨后,蘇厄德又把矛頭指向南卡羅來納州參議員卡爾霍恩,譴責卡爾霍恩關于南方和北方保持政治平衡的訴求。他指出,這會把美國從一個統一的全民民主體制轉變為一個獨立的各州聯盟。蘇厄德說,在這種體制下,少數人能夠否決多數人的行動。

        VOICE ONE:

        Many lawmakers seemed to support the idea of Clay's compromise. But they could not agree on which parts of it to pass first. Southern supporters were afraid that if a statehood bill for California was passed first, then northerners would refuse to pass the other parts of the compromise. So, southerners wanted to include all parts in one bill.

        很多議員都贊成克萊提出的妥協方案,但是在先批準哪部分內容的問題上存在意見分歧。南方支持者擔心,如果先批準加利福尼亞成為一個州的話,北方人就會拒絕妥協方案的其它內容。因此,南方人希望把所有內容放在一項議案中。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE TWO:

        Hopes for the compromise increased after the death of John C. Calhoun on the last day of March, eighteen-fifty. Calhoun was pro-slavery. He had refused to compromise on the issue. One newspaper in Calhoun's state of South Carolina said: "The senator's death is best for the country and his own honor. The slavery question will now be settled. Calhoun would have blocked a settlement."

        卡爾霍恩1850年3月31號去世后,達成妥協的可能性增加了,因為卡爾霍恩生前支持奴隸制度,在奴隸制度的問題上始終不肯讓步??柣舳魉诘哪峡_來納州的一份報紙說,“卡爾霍恩參議員去世,對國家和他個人的榮譽都是最好的結局。奴隸制度的問題終于可以解決了。如果卡爾霍恩健在的話,他一定會設法阻攔。”

        VOICE ONE:

        A committee of thirteen men was named to write a bill based on Henry Clay's compromise. The committee had six members from slave states and six from free states. Henry Clay was named to lead it.

        國會任命了一個十三人小組委員會,根據亨利·克萊的妥協方案,撰寫議案。委員會里有六個人來自蓄奴州,六個人來自自由州。亨利·克萊是委員會負責人。

        Three weeks later, the committee offered its bill. It was much like the compromise Clay had first proposed. It made California a free state. It created territorial governments for New Mexico and Utah. It settled the border dispute between Texas and New Mexico. It ended the slave trade in the District of Columbia. And it urged approval of a new law dealing with runaway slaves.

        三個星期過后,草案完成了。草案內容跟克萊最早提出的基本一致:讓加利福尼亞成為一個自由州,在新墨西哥和猶他州建立地方政府;提案還解決了德克薩斯和新墨西哥之間的邊界爭端,終止了哥倫比亞特區的奴隸買賣,并敦促國會批準有關逃亡奴隸的新法。

        VOICE TWO:

        For about a month, the proposed bill seemed to have the support of the administration of President Zachary Taylor. But then, President Taylor made it clear that he would do everything he could to defeat it.

        草案出臺后的頭一個月,似乎得到了泰勒政府的全面支持,但是一個月后,泰勒總統卻明確表示,他會不惜一切代價,阻止草案的通過。

        That will be our story next week.

        (MUSIC)

        ANNOUNCER:

        Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Warren Scheer and Sarah Long. Transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our programs are online, along with historical images, at www.squishedblueberries.com. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

        ___

        This is program #78 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

        網友的學習評論(1條):
        作者:Alumni
        9-12-2013 16:38:40
        the civil war was on its way to the ripe while the two sides--- the noth and south--- couldn't come to agreement on the issue of slavery. so it seems that something that is against one's basic intestests could not come to comprise, never, and then the Civil War broke out and then the "goen with the wind" produced.
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