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        #77: The South Asks for Justice, Simple Justice

        作者:Frank Beardsley 發布日期:4-29-2013

        Welcome to the MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

        During the first half of the nineteenth century, leaders of the United States could find no answer to the question of slavery. The dispute grew more threatening after the war with Mexico in eighteen forty-nine.

        十九世紀上半葉,美國政治領袖在蓄奴還是廢奴問題上尋找答案。1849年美墨戰爭結束后,這一爭議引起的威脅日益加深。

        Northern states refused to permit slavery in the new territories of California and New Mexico. Southern states declared that they had a constitutional right to bring slaves into the new lands. The South was ready to secede -- leave and break up the Union of states.

        北方州拒絕讓奴隸進入新增領土加利福尼亞和新墨西哥。南方州則宣稱,根據憲法,他們有權把奴隸帶來那里去。南方威脅說,如果無法解決糾紛,就會脫離聯邦,讓國家分裂。

        Then, in eighteen fifty, Senator Henry Clay of Kentucky offered a compromise to avoid secession, and a likely war between the North and the South. He said the Union was permanent and created for all future Americans. He attacked the South's claim that it had the right to leave. He warned that the war which would follow southern secession would be long and bloody.

        關鍵時刻,肯塔基州的聯邦參議員亨利·克萊挺身而出??巳R1850年提出了一項妥協方案,努力避免國家分裂和內戰的爆發??巳R說,美國聯邦是永久的,是為子孫后代建立的。他指責南方無權脫離聯邦,并警告說,如果南方脫離聯邦,勢必會爆發一場持久和傷亡慘重的戰爭。

        This week in our series, Jack Moyles and Lew Roland continue the story of the Compromise of Eighteen Fifty.

        General Zachary Taylor
        General Zachary Taylor

        VOICE ONE:

        Extremists on both sides opposed Clay's compromise proposals. So did President Taylor. The president had hoped that Webster, Clay, and other Whig Party leaders would support his own limited plan of statehood for California. The president's feelings were hurt when none of the party leaders thought that his idea was important.

        克萊的妥協方案遭到了南北雙方極端勢力和總統泰勒的反對。泰勒原本希望韋伯斯特參議員、克萊參議員和其他輝格黨領袖支持他所提出的讓加利福尼亞成為美國一個州的計劃,但是沒有人理會他的提議,讓他的自尊心深受傷害。

        The president's chief adviser, Senator Seward of New York, was also against Clay's proposals. Seward strongly opposed slavery and did not believe it was right to compromise on it.

        泰勒總統的首席顧問,紐約州聯邦參議員蘇厄德也反對克萊的提案。蘇厄德堅決反對蓄奴,認為不應該在這個問題上做出任何妥協。

        One week after Clay spoke, Senator Jefferson Davis of Mississippi explained his position. He did not say much about Clay's proposed compromise. Davis was sure that no good would result from it, not even from stronger laws on the return of escaped slaves. He said these laws would not be enforced in states where people opposed slavery.

        克萊講話一周后,密西西比州的聯邦參議員杰斐遜·戴維斯闡明了自己的立場。他沒有過多談及克萊的妥協方案。戴維斯堅信,這一方案對南方沒有多少好處,即便是加強遣返逃亡奴隸的法律,因為這樣的法律在自由州很難得到落實。

        VOICE TWO:

        Senator Davis said that what was needed was a change in the North's policy toward the South. He said the North must recognize the rights of southerners, especially the right to take slave property into territories of the United States.

        戴維斯參議員說,真正需要的,是北方改變對南方的政策。他說,北方必需承認南方的權利,尤其是南方人讓自己的奴隸進入美國領地的權利。

        Davis said Congress had no right to destroy or limit this right. He admitted that the old Missouri compromise of eighteen twenty had limited the right to take slaves into the territories. He said the eighteen twenty compromise worked -- not because Congress passed it -- but because the states agreed to it.

        戴維斯說,國會無權取消或是限制這種權利。他承認,1820年密蘇里協定對新增領土上蓄奴的權利設立了限制,但表示,1820年密蘇里協定奏效,不是因為國會的批準,而是因為各州的接受。

        Senator Davis said the North was responsible for the growing split, because the North was trying to get complete control of the South. He said if these efforts were not stopped, the North some day would be powerful enough to change the Constitution and end slavery everywhere. Davis warned that the South would never accept this.

        戴維斯參議員說,國家日益分裂是北方的責任,因為他們試圖徹底控制南方。他說,如果不制止這種發展趨勢的話,有朝一日,北方的勢力就會強大到改變憲法,徹底取消奴隸制度。戴維斯警告說,這是南方絕對不會接受的。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE ONE:

        John Calhoun
        John Calhoun

        Three weeks later, the Senate heard another southern leader, Senator John C. Calhoun. For years, Calhoun was the voice of the South. He now was sixty-eight years old and a sick man. He would die within a month. Calhoun had been too ill to hear Clay's speech. He spent the last week in February writing what he believed to be the true position of the South.

        三個星期后,另外一位南方領袖,南卡羅來納州的聯邦參議員卡爾霍恩在參議院發表講話。多年來,卡爾霍恩一直是南方利益的代言人。當時,卡爾霍恩已經68歲,患有重病。

        On Sunday, March third, it was announced that Calhoun would speak in the Senate the next day. Most understood that it would be his last speech. The Senate was crowded when Calhoun entered.

        One by one, friends came up to speak to him. The old man's long, gray hair fell to his shoulders. His face was thin and white. But his eyes were bright and his jaw firm. Calhoun was too weak to read his speech. He asked Senator Mason to read it for him.

        VOICE TWO:

        Calhoun said that for a long time he had believed that the dispute over slavery -- if not settled -- would end in disunion. Calhoun said it was clear now to everyone that the Union was breaking apart, that the ties that had held the North and South together were breaking, one by one.

        Three churches, once united across the nation, now were split between North and South. The two major political parties, he declared, were divided in the same way. Calhoun said the North was responsible for all this, because it had destroyed the political balance between the two parts of the country.

        As the population of the North had grown large, he noted, that part of the country had seized political and economic control. The North had passed tariff bills that the South opposed. It had filled most of the offices in the federal government. It closed the new territories to southern slaveholders. And, said Calhoun, it had viciously attacked the southern institution of slavery.

        VOICE ONE:

        The situation was so bad, Calhoun said, that the South could not -- with honor and safety -- remain in the Union. "How can the Union be saved?" he asked. "Not by the compromise proposed by the senator from Kentucky. There is but one way. A full and final settlement, with justice, of all the questions disputed by the two sections.

        "The South asks for justice, simple justice, and less she ought not to take. She has no compromise to offer but the Constitution, and no concession or surrender to make. She has already surrendered so much that she has little left to surrender."

        Then Calhoun listed the things the North must do to satisfy the South. He said it must give the South an equal right in the new territories of the West. It must make people obey the laws on the return of runaway slaves. It must agree to an amendment to the constitution that would return political balance to North and South. And it must stop the attacks against slavery.

        If all these things were not done, Calhoun said, then it would be better to separate, to part in peace. But if the North refused a peaceful separation, then the South would be faced with the choice of surrender or fight. "The South will know what to do," said Calhoun.

        VOICE TWO:

        When Calhoun finished his speech to the Senate, southern lawmakers crowded around the old man, congratulating him. But many of them could not agree with his extreme demands and the violence of his words. His appeal was too late. Most southerners believed that Clay's proposals were a reasonable way to settle the difference and protect the union.

        Clay was worried that his compromise might be defeated by northern votes. Many in the North felt slavery was wrong. They opposed the compromise, because it might permit slavery in the New Mexico territory, and because it called for stronger laws on the return of slaves who had escaped to the North.

        但是克萊擔心,他的妥協提案會受到北方的抵制。很多北方人都覺得,奴隸制是錯誤的。他們反對妥協,因為妥協可能會讓新墨西哥成為蓄奴地區,也因為妥協要求加強對逃亡奴隸的遣返。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE ONE:

        Eight days before he first proposed the compromise, Clay visited Senator Daniel Webster of Massachusetts. A friend of Webster's described the meeting in these words: "Mister Clay came to Mister Webster's house and had a long talk with him about the best way to settle the difficulties growing out of slavery and the new territories. I heard part of their conversation."

        克萊向參議院提出妥協方案的八天前,曾去拜訪麻薩諸塞州聯邦參議員丹尼爾·韋伯斯特。韋伯斯特的一位朋友記錄了倆人的會面。他是這樣寫的:“克萊先生到韋伯斯特先生家拜訪,倆人就蓄奴和新增領土引起的問題的最佳解決方式進行了長談,我聽到了談話的部分內容。”

        "Mister Clay left after about an hour. Mister Webster called me to his side and spoke to me of Mister Clay in words of great kindness. He said he agreed generally with Mister Clay, that he thought Mister Clay's purpose was great and highly patriotic."

        他說,“克萊大約一小時后離開。韋伯斯特把我叫到身邊,對克萊贊譽有加,說他大致同意克萊的看法,覺得克萊的目的崇高,愛國。”

        "He said Mister Clay seemed to be very weak and had a very bad cough, that he was sure Mister Clay wanted to do something for the good of his country during the little time he had left on Earth. Mister Webster said further that he thought Mister Clay's plan was one that should be satisfactory to the North and to the reasonable men of the South. He said he believed that he could support all of it and would work for its approval in the Senate."

        他說克萊看上去十分虛弱,咳嗽得很厲害,克萊肯定是想在自己的最后一段時間里為國家做點貢獻。他還說,“韋伯斯特進一步表示,他覺得克萊的計劃應該能被北方人和南方的有識之士所接受。他表示,他會支持克萊的提案,推動提案在參議院里獲得通過。”

        VOICE TWO:

        Webster planned to speak in support of Clay's proposal. But he would wait until the best time for declaring it. He decided to make it on March seventh, just three days after Calhoun's speech was read to the Senate. Webster was sixty-eight years old, as old as Calhoun. His voice was weaker now. But his words rang with the same strength as years earlier.

        韋伯斯特計劃公開支持克萊的提案,但是一直在等待最佳時機。3月7號,也就是卡爾霍恩在參議院發表講話的三天后,韋伯斯特終于站了出來。韋伯斯特跟卡爾霍恩一樣,也是68歲,雖然聲音很弱,但是講話擲地有聲,份量不減當年。

        (MUSIC)

        ANNOUNCER:

        Our story of the Compromise of Eighteen Fifty continues next week. Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Jack Moyles and Lew Roland.

        Transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our series can be found, along with historical images, at www.squishedblueberries.com. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

        ___

        This is program #77 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

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