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        #75: Zachary Taylor Is Elected President in 1848

        作者:Frank Beardsley 發布日期:4-27-2013

        ANNOUNCER:

        Welcome to the MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

        General Zachary Taylor
        General Zachary Taylor

        The Whig Party considered four candidates for the presidential election of eighteen forty-eight: Senator Henry Clay of Kentucky, General Zachary Taylor, General Winfield Scott and Senator Daniel Webster of Massachusetts.

        1848年總統大選前,輝格黨推舉了四位人選,他們分別是:扎卡里·泰勒將軍、亨利·克萊參議員、溫菲爾德·斯科特將軍和麻薩諸塞州參議員丹尼爾·韋伯斯特。

        Clay was seventy years old. He knew it would be his last chance to get into the White House. He worked hard to get the support of party leaders. But they did not give Clay their support. They wanted to win the election, and they felt they had a better chance for victory with a military hero like General Taylor.

        克萊參議員當時已經70高齡,他知道,要想入主白宮,這是自己的最后一次機會了,所以竭盡全力,爭取輝格黨領袖的支持。然而,輝格黨人并沒有鼎立支持克萊。他們覺得,戰斗英雄泰勒將軍的勝算更大。

        Now, with this week's program in our series, here are Doug Johnson and Gwen Outen.

        VOICE ONE:

        Taylor was sixty-three years old. He had almost no formal education. He had spent almost forty years in the West as an Indian fighter and commander of small army posts.

        泰勒將軍63歲,沒受過多少正規教育。他一輩子將近四十年都在西部打印第安人,擔任哨所指揮官。

        A number of politicians did not believe he had the ability to be president. General Taylor's supporters put great energy into their campaign for his nomination. They tried to sell the idea that the old general was the only man who could defeat the candidate of the Democratic Party.

        一部分政界人物覺得泰勒并不具備總統的素質。然而,泰勒的支持者們全力以赴,推動他的提名,把他說成是擊敗民主黨候選人的唯一人選。

        On the first vote of the convention, Taylor got the most votes. But no candidate got the necessary majority. On the fourth vote, all of Webster's supporters and many of Clay's supporters gave their votes to Taylor. He finally won the Whig Party's nomination for president.

        大會第一輪表決結果,泰勒得到了大部分選票,但是沒有獲得所需要的多數。到第四輪投票的時候,韋伯斯特的所有支持者和克萊的一部分支持者都把選票投給了泰勒,使泰勒贏得了提名。

        VOICE TWO:

        Lewis Cass, the Democratic presidential candidate
        Lewis Cass, the Democratic presidential candidate

        The Democratic Party's candidate for president was Senator Lewis Cass of Michigan. Many Americans did not like either candidate, because of the candidates' policies on slavery. Lewis Cass saw nothing wrong with slavery if that was what the people wanted. Zachary Taylor was a slave owner.

        與此同時,民主黨總統候選人是密西根州參議員劉易斯·卡斯。很多美國人對這兩位候選人都不滿意。劉易斯·卡斯主張,只要大家同意接受,蓄奴也沒什么不好,而泰勒本人就是奴隸主。

        In Ohio, a group of men decided to form a new political party. They called it the Free Soil Party, because they believed in free land for free settlers. They wanted no further spread of slavery.

        俄亥俄的一批人因此決定另立門戶,稱之為“自由土地黨”,因為他們主張,自由定居者應該免費獲得土地,同時反對奴隸制度的進一步推廣。

        The Free Soil leaders proposed a convention of all who supported their ideas. Ten thousand people went to the convention in Buffalo, New York.

        自由土地黨領袖召集所有支持這一理念的人在紐約布法羅開會,結果有一萬人出席。

        For two days, the delegates debated the slavery issue and discussed their choice of a candidate for president. They also worked on a platform -- a statement of their party's purpose.

        與會代表用了兩天的時間討論蓄奴問題,推舉總統候選人,并制定出了自己的政治綱領。

        VOICE ONE:

        The platform declared that slavery was an institution of the states, not the nation. It said Congress had no right to help spread slavery by permitting it in the new western territories. The platform declared that the issue should be faced with firmness. No more slave states. No more slave territory. No more compromises with slavery, anywhere.

        政治綱領宣稱:奴隸制度不是國家,而是各州的體制,國會無權允許西部新增土地上實行蓄奴的政策,并以此促進奴隸制的進一步推廣。自由土地黨的政治綱領還宣布,在蓄奴問題上一定要堅決,不能讓更多的奴隸州,讓更多的奴隸地域出現,在任何地方都不能對蓄奴問題上做出絲毫妥協。

        Convention delegates then voted on candidates. They chose former President Martin Van Buren as candidate for president.

        與會代表隨后投票表決,推舉前總統范布倫為自由土地黨的總統候選人。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE TWO:

        The people of the nation voted on November seventh. It was the first time a presidential election was held on the same day in all parts of the country. Zachary Taylor won both the popular and electoral votes. He became the twelfth president of the United States.

        1848年11月7號,美國舉行總統大選,這也是全美各地第一次在同一天舉行大選。普選和選舉人票的計票結果顯示,勝利者都是扎卡里·泰勒,泰勒當選為美國第12位總統。

        Congress met a few weeks after the election, long before Taylor took office. It faced serious problems. Territorial governments were needed for the areas won in the war against Mexico.

        大選結束幾周后,泰勒尚未就職前,國會開會討論在墨西哥戰爭中新增土地上建立地方政府的問題。

        California, especially, needed help. Gold had been discovered in California. Thousands were moving there. A government was needed to protect the lives and property of the new population.

        加利福尼亞地區的問題尤其緊迫。因為加利福尼亞剛剛發現了金礦,成千上萬的人在那里安家落戶,他們的生命和財產需要政府的保護。

        VOICE ONE:

        The dispute over slavery had prevented Congress from acting earlier. Southerners wanted the right to take slaves into the new territories. Northerners wanted to keep slavery out.

        然而,蓄奴的爭議讓國會舉步維艱。南方人希望把奴隸帶到新增土地上去,但是北方人極力反對。

        Then there was the question of laws forcing northern states to return escaped slaves to their owners. The laws were not always obeyed. Southerners wanted a new law that would be easier to enforce.

        與此同時,根據法律,北方各州必需將逃亡奴隸遣送給他們的奴隸主,但是北方很少有人遵守這項法律。南方人希望能制定一項更加便于執行的新法。

        Congress found it difficult to act on these problems. The House of Representatives was controlled by members of the Free Soil Party, which opposed slavery. The Senate was controlled by southerners, who supported slavery. The two houses found it almost impossible to agree on anything.

        在上述問題上,國會遇到了很大的阻力。國會眾議院由反對蓄奴的自由土地黨人控制,國會參議院則在支持蓄奴的南方人的掌握之中。參眾兩院幾乎很難在任何問題上達成共識。

        Early in January, eighteen forty-nine, a congressman proposed a bill to first limit, and then end, slavery in the District of Columbia. The bill would free all slaves in the district who were born after a certain time. It would permit the federal government to buy slaves and then free them.

        1849年1月,一位國會議員建議在哥倫比亞特區限制并逐步消除奴隸制度。根據議案,凡是特定日期以后出生的奴隸一律可以成為自由人。議案允許聯邦政府出錢收購奴隸,然后給他們自由。

        VOICE TWO:

        Opposition to the bill was strong. It was amended. The new bill would simply close all places in the District of Columbia where slaves were bought and sold.

        議案在國會遭到了強烈反對,修改后的議案只要求關閉哥倫比亞特區一切出售和購買奴隸的場所。

        Southern congressmen disliked the bill, even as amended. They organized a committee representing every one of the southern states. Senator John C. Calhoun of South Carolina said the committee should write a declaration explaining the position of the South. The committee agreed, and Calhoun wrote most of the declaration himself.

        即便如此,來自南方的國會議員還是對這項議案十分不滿。他們組織了一個代表南部各州的委員會,南卡羅來納州參議員約翰·卡爾霍恩說,委員會應該撰寫宣言,闡明南方立場。委員會成員表示同意??柣舳魇沁@份宣言的主要作者。

        VOICE ONE:

        The southern declaration accused the North of many aggressions. The South, it said, faced many dangers. Soon there would be enough free states to control both the House and the Senate. And then the Constitution would be changed and all slaves would be freed.

        這份南方宣言歷數北方罪責。宣言說,南方面臨很多危險,用不了多久,非奴隸州就會控制國會參眾兩院,接下來,憲法就會被修正,所有奴隸都會獲得自由。

        And this, said the southern declaration, would lead to bitter hostility and war between North and South. The declaration called on the people of the South to unite and be firm in their opposition to the North.

        宣言說,這種情況將會引起南北雙方的敵對和戰爭。宣言號召南方人團結一致,堅定地反對北方的立場。

        VOICE TWO:

        With this new firmness, southern lawmakers fought to make slavery legal in the new territories. They effectively blocked proposals for territorial governments in California and New Mexico.

        國會南方議員帶著這種決心,竭盡全力在新領土上實現蓄奴的合法化,并有效阻止了在加利福尼亞和新墨西哥建立地方政府的提案。

        Congress ended its session on March fourth, eighteen forty-nine, without any progress. Zachary Taylor was sworn-in as president that same day.

        1849年3月4號國會休會時,在新增領土上設立地方政府的問題毫無進展。扎卡里·泰勒同一天宣誓就職。

        The new president believed it would be easier to get statehood for California and New Mexico than to create territorial governments for them. Taylor, as we have said, was a slaveholder. But he believed that both California and New Mexico should be free states.

        泰勒認為,讓加利福尼亞和新墨西哥成為美國的州,要比在當地建立地方政府更容易辦到。泰勒本人雖然是奴隸主,但他認為,加利福尼亞和新墨西哥應該成為自由州。

        VOICE ONE:

        An 1850 cartoon of Zachary Taylor trying to balance southern and northern interests on the question of slavery
        An 1850 cartoon of Zachary Taylor trying to balance southern and northern interests on the question of slavery

        During these years around eighteen fifty, the people of the United States were becoming more and more involved in the dispute over slavery. In the North, more people joined the anti-slavery campaign. Even those who did not wish to end slavery in the South felt that slavery should not spread further.

        1850年前后,有關蓄奴問題的大辯論在美國風起云涌。越來越多的北方人加入反對蓄奴的運動,即使是南方一些不希望結束蓄奴的人也反對奴隸制度的進一步推廣。

        In the South, many people felt that the constitutional equality of fifteen southern states was being questioned. Sixteen hundred million dollars worth of slave property was threatened by Abolitionists. Southerners felt that if the campaign against slavery was successful, everything they believed in would be destroyed.

        南方很多人覺得,憲法賦予美國十五個州的平等權利受到了質疑,廢奴主義者讓價值十六億美元的奴隸財產受到威脅。南方人感覺,反對蓄奴的成功,就意味著他們信仰的全盤毀滅。

        People hoped that President Taylor would be able to bring the North and South together again. But his message to Congress showed no signs of such leadership.

        大家都希望,泰勒總統能促使南方和北方團結起來,但是泰勒向國會的表態絲毫沒有顯示出人民所希望的這種領導風范。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE TWO:

        Taylor asked Congress to give statehood to California immediately. He reported that California leaders had written a state constitution. The constitution banned slavery. Settlers from both the North and South supported the document.

        泰勒要求國會立即給予加利福尼亞州的編制,他告訴國會說,加利福尼亞領導人編寫了州憲法,禁止蓄奴,得到了來自南方和北方定居者的一致支持。

        The president also reported that the people of New Mexico would be asking for statehood soon. He said it would be best to let the people themselves decide if New Mexico would be a slave or free state. Taylor's opponents described these proposals as his "no action plan."

        泰勒還告訴國會,新墨西哥居民不久也會申請成為一個州,他表示,新墨西哥是否允許蓄奴,最好由當地人自己決定。泰勒的反對者說,這些提案是泰勒的“無為計劃”。

        VOICE ONE:

        President Taylor really had no policy. He could not support a bill to keep slavery out of the territories. That might start a quick revolt among the southern states. He could not support a bill to let slavery spread into the territories. That would make the North rise in anger.

        泰勒總統確實沒有明確的政策。如果支持在新領地上禁止蓄奴,就會引起南方各州的激烈反抗;與此同時,他又不能支持奴隸制度向新領地的推廣,因為這樣無疑會引起北方人的憤怒。

        Taylor tried to be neutral. He hoped the problem of slavery would solve itself. But the problem would not solve itself. The division between North and South grew wider. That will be our story next week.

        泰勒努力保持中立。他希望蓄奴問題的爭議會自然消失,結果事與愿違,南方和北方在蓄奴問題上的分歧越來越大。

        (MUSIC)

        ANNOUNCER:

        Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Doug Johnson and Gwen Outen. Transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our programs, along with historical images, are at www.squishedblueberries.com. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

        ___

        This is program #75 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

        網友的學習評論(2條):
        作者:Alumni
        9-8-2013 20:12:36
        yes, in this section i have learned that the Gold Rush had happened in California around in 1840es.and the issue of the slavery is more and more serious. so the Civil War would broke out before long.
        作者:鄭烈波
        3-13-2014 9:44:4
        balance is difficult .usa how to load?
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