<em id="0i93o"></em>
<sub id="0i93o"></sub>
<meter id="0i93o"></meter>
      1. <form id="0i93o"></form>

        官方APP下載:英語學習播客(支持蘋果手機、安卓手機)
        創辦于2003年
        UNSV記不???那就記中文諧音“憂安思?!卑?!
          Slow and Steady Wins the Race!
        UNSV英語學習頻道 - Slow and steady wins the race!
        公眾微信服務號(英語全能特訓)
        英語全能特訓(微信公眾服務號)
        UNSV英語學習頻道淘寶網店
        客服短信:18913948480
        客服郵箱:web@unsv.com
        初級VIP會員
        全站英語學習資料下載。
        ¥98元/12個月

        #71: Texas Statehood Is Chief Issue in 1844 Campaign

        作者:Frank Beardsley 發布日期:4-23-2013

        Welcome to the MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

        In eighteen forty-three, Texas was a major issue in American politics. President John Tyler wanted to make Texas a state in the Union. But his secretary of state, Daniel Webster, was cool toward the idea. Webster was a northerner who opposed having another slave-holding state in the Union.

        1843年,德克薩斯地區的前途是美國政治面臨的一個主要問題。美國當時的總統約翰.泰勒希望吸收德克薩斯加入聯邦,但是國務卿丹尼爾.韋伯斯特對此十分冷淡,因為韋伯斯特是北方人,反對讓美國聯邦增加更多的奴隸州。

        Tyler did not push the issue. He needed Webster's political support. Then, Webster resigned. The president replaced him with a southerner, Abel Upshur. Four months later, Upshur began negotiations to bring Texas into the Union. But a few weeks before those talks were completed, Upshur died in an accident.

        泰勒在政治上需要韋伯斯特的支持,所以并沒有積極推動德克薩斯加入聯邦一事。韋伯斯特辭職后,泰勒選擇南方人阿貝爾.厄普舍接替國務卿一職。走馬上任四個月后,厄普舍立即開始圍繞德克薩斯加入聯邦一事舉行談判,可就是談判結束幾周前,厄普舍在一次意外中喪生。

        John Tyler
        John Tyler

        President Tyler was a member of the Whig Party. But he made a Democrat -- John C. Calhoun -- his new secretary of state. Calhoun wanted Texas in the Union. But Tyler also had another reason for wanting his help. Tyler, though a Whig, hoped to get nominated in eighteen forty-four as the presidential candidate of the Democrats.

        泰勒本人雖然是輝格黨人,但是他卻提名民主黨人約翰.卡爾霍恩接替國務卿的職務。一方面,卡爾霍恩支持德克薩斯加入聯邦,另一方面,泰勒選擇卡爾霍恩還有另外一個原因,那就是,雖然泰勒是輝格黨人,但是他希望在1844年的總統大選中,能夠成為民主黨的總統候選人。

        This week in our series, Maurice Joyce and Stewart Spencer talk about the election of eighteen forty-four.

        VOICE ONE:

        Calhoun completed the talks that Upshur had begun. And the treaty with Texas was signed April twelfth, eighteen forty-four. A few days later, a letter from Calhoun to the British minister in Washington was made public. The letter was Calhoun's answer to a British note saying that Britain wished to end slavery wherever it existed.

        卡爾霍恩完成了前國務卿厄普舍進行到一半的談判,1844年4月12號跟德克薩斯簽署協議。幾天后,卡爾霍恩寫給英國駐華盛頓使節的一封回信被公諸于眾??柣舳髟谛胖袑τ岢龅慕Y束奴隸制度的愿望做出了答復。

        Calhoun defended slavery in the American south. He said that what was called slavery was really a political institution necessary for the peace, safety, and economic strength of those states where it existed. Calhoun said that statehood for Texas was necessary to the peace and security of the United States. He said that ending slavery in Texas would be a danger to the American south and to the Union itself.

        卡爾霍恩在信中為美國南方的奴隸制度做出了辯護。他說,所謂的奴隸制度,其實是確保奴隸州的和平、安全和經濟實力的必不可少的一種政治機制??柣舳髡f,吸收德克薩斯加入聯邦是保證美國和平與安全的必需,結束德克薩斯的奴隸制度會對美國南方和整個聯邦構成威脅。

        VOICE TWO:

        John Calhoun
        John Calhoun

        Calhoun made it seem that the United States wanted Texas -- not because of some great national interest -- but only to protect slavery in the south. The letter created great opposition to Texas statehood in the north. People called on their senators to vote against the acceptance of Texas.

        卡爾霍恩這樣寫,給人的感覺是,美國吸收德克薩斯并不是出于重大的國家利益,而是為了保護南方的奴隸制度。這份信引起了美國北方對德克薩斯加入聯邦的強烈反對。選民們紛紛要求代表自己的參議員投票反對這一協議。

        President Tyler sent the treaty with Texas to the Senate on April twenty-second, eighteen forty-four.

        泰勒總統1844年4月22號將德克薩斯加入聯邦的議案送交參議院。

        This was just nine days before the Whig party opened its national convention in Baltimore. Everybody was sure that the Whigs would choose Senator Henry Clay as their presidential candidate. Clay had been working hard for the nomination for more than two years. The Democrats were to hold their convention a month later. Former President Martin Van Buren was the choice of most Democrats.

        短短九天后,輝格黨全國代表大會就在馬里蘭州的巴爾的摩召開了。所有人都相信,亨利.克萊參議員會成為輝格黨的總統候選人,因為克萊兩年多來一直在努力爭取提名。與此同時,民主黨全國代表大會定于一個月后召開,前總統范布倫是大多數民主黨人的選擇。

        VOICE ONE:

        Both Clay and Van Buren opposed statehood for Texas. Clay said it would lead to war with Mexico. Van Buren agreed. As expected, Clay was chosen as the Whig Party's candidate for president. But Van Buren was given a surprise.

        克萊和范布倫都反對德克薩斯加入美國聯邦??巳R認為,這樣做會引起美國跟墨西哥之間的戰爭。范布倫同意這種看法。不出所料,克萊當選輝格黨總統候選人??墒欠恫紓悈s遇到了麻煩。

        The Democrats adopted a rule that their candidate must receive at least two-thirds of the votes -- one hundred and seventy-seven of the two-hundred and sixty-six delegates to the convention. Van Buren won a majority of the votes -- one hundred and forty-six. But that was not enough.

        這是因為民主黨人實行了一項新規定,要求候選人必需得到全國代表大會三分之二以上的選票,也就是說,在與會代表266人中,最少要得到177人的支持,才能成為總統候選人。范布倫得到了146張選票,雖然超過半數,但是不足以贏得提名。

        The convention voted again. But Van Buren still fell short of the necessary two-thirds. The delegates voted again and again without giving Van Buren the number he needed. After a time, Van Buren began to lose votes.

        大會重新投票,但是范布倫還是沒有得到三分之二的支持。與會代表一次接一次的投票表決,但范布倫始終沒有得到足夠的票數。數次投票后,范布倫得到的支持開始動搖。

        None of the names nominated seemed able to win the necessary two-thirds. At last, another name was proposed: James K. Polk. Polk was at one time governor of Tennessee and Speaker of the House of Representatives. He was a supporter of statehood for Texas.

        其他候選人似乎也無法得到提名必需的三分之二選票。最后,出現了一個新的人選:詹姆斯.波爾克。波爾克曾擔任田納西州州長和國會眾議院議長,支持德克薩斯加入聯邦。

        VOICE TWO:

        James Polk
        James Polk

        The convention delegates voted for the eighth time. Polk got only forty-four votes. Then they voted again. This time, Polk received all two-hundred sixty-six votes. Senator Silas Wright of New York was chosen as candidate for the vice-presidency. But he refused to accept, because he did not support making Texas a state. The Democrats then chose Senator George Dallas of Pennsylvania.

        大會代表第八次投票,波爾克只得到了44票。第九次投票,波爾克全票通過。民主黨人推舉紐約州參議員賽勒斯.賴特為副總統候選人。但是賴特拒絕接受提名,因為他不支持德克薩斯加入聯邦。民主黨人只好選擇賓夕法尼亞州的參議員喬治.達拉斯。

        Two other parties offered candidates in the eighteen forty-four elections. President Tyler formed a party of his supporters and government workers. They met and nominated him for president. A fourth group, the Liberty Party, was organized by northeastern Abolitionists after the Democratic and Whig parties refused to oppose slavery. Representatives from six states met at Albany, New York. They chose James Birney for president.

        參加1844年總統大選的,還有另外兩個政黨。一個是由現總統泰勒組建的,包括泰勒的支持者和一些政府工作人員,提名泰勒為候選人;另外一個是自由黨,是在民主黨人和輝格黨人拒絕反對奴隸制度后由美國東北部一些主張廢除奴隸制度的人組建的。自由黨來自六個州的代表在紐約奧爾巴尼開會,推舉詹姆斯.伯尼為總統候選人。

        VOICE ONE:

        Texas was the chief issue of the eighteen forty-four campaign. President Tyler had sent the treaty with Texas to the Senate for approval. The Senate received it just one week after the democratic convention. Those senators who had supported Martin Van Buren were still bitter over the party's failure to nominate him as its candidate. They joined with the Whigs to defeat the treaty: thirty-five to sixteen.

        德克薩斯地區加入美國聯邦的問題是1844年總統大選中的一個主要議題。泰勒總統領導的政府跟德克薩斯地區簽署協議后,提交參議院批準。參議院開始討論的時候,民主黨全國代表大會剛剛結束一個星期。很多參議員因為范布倫沒有獲得黨內提名而耿耿于懷。他們跟參議院的輝格黨人一道,以35比16票,否決了協議。

        Tyler still hoped to get statehood for Texas. James K. Polk, the Democratic candidate, also campaigned on promises to get Texas for the United States. The Whig candidate, Henry Clay, at first opposed statehood for Texas. But this position began to cost him support in the South. Then he said statehood might be possible if most of the people wanted it. This satisfied the slave owners of the South who wanted Texas in the Union as a slave state.

        泰勒不愿放棄,民主黨的總統候選人波爾克也承諾要讓德克薩斯成為美國的一個州。輝格黨總統候選人克萊起初反對德克薩斯加入聯邦,這一立場讓他失去了很多南方的支持??巳R只好改口說,如果大多數人同意,也不是不可能。這種說法安撫了希望讓德克薩斯作為奴隸州加入聯邦的南方奴隸主。

        Clay angered many people in the North because he softened his opposition to Texas. Some of these began supporting the Liberty Party candidate, James Birney. The Democrats were able to get President Tyler to withdraw as a candidate. They told him that he would take votes from the Democrats and might make Clay president.

        然而,克萊立場的變化激怒了很多北方人。其中一些人開始轉而支持自由黨候選人詹姆斯.伯尼。民主黨人勸泰勒說,他的參選會分裂民主黨人的選票,最終讓克萊當選。泰勒決定退出。

        Wild campaign charges were made against both Polk and Clay. Clay was called a gambler, a duelist, a man of dishonest deals. Stories were told about Clay's use of strong language and his love of card games. Whig newspapers reported that a traveler saw a group of slaves being sold in Tennessee. Burned into the skin of each of the slaves, the papers said, were the letters JKP -- the initials of James K. Polk.

        競選期間,針對兩位候選人的各種指責滿天飛。反對者說克萊是賭徒,喜歡決斗,私下里骯臟交易,言語粗俗,酷愛玩紙牌。與此同時,輝格黨的報紙報導說,一個旅行家在田納西州看到一群待售的奴隸,他們身上打著JKP的標志,是詹姆斯.K.波爾克名字的縮寫。

        The election was very close. Two million seven hundred thousand people voted. Polk received only thirty-eight-thousand votes more than Clay. But Polk got one-hundred-seventy electoral votes. Clay got only one-hundred-five.

        這次大選非常激烈,共有270萬人參加投票。計票結果顯示,波爾克比克萊只多得了三萬八千張選票,如果按照選舉人票計算的話,波爾克得票170張,克萊只得到了105張。

        A political cartoon showing James Polk, on the far right, welcoming the arrival of Texas, shown as a boat
        A political cartoon showing James Polk, on the far right, welcoming the arrival of Texas, shown as a boat

        VOICE TWO:

        The election was really decided in New York state. Clay lost the state's thirty-six electoral votes. But he did so by just fifty-one hundred votes. He might have won the state had not James Birney received more than fifteen thousand votes in New York.

        這次大選的主戰場是紐約州??巳R因為五千一百張選票之差,失去了紐約州的36張選舉人票。如果不是詹姆斯.伯尼得到一萬五千多張選票的話,紐約州的選舉人票本來應該是克萊的。

        President Tyler believed Polk's victory showed that the American people wanted statehood for Texas. But he knew that he could never get the Senate's approval of a Texas statehood treaty. It would take two-thirds of the Senate vote to do so.

        泰勒總統認為,波爾克當選說明美國人民希望讓德克薩斯加入聯邦。但是他知道,肯定無法讓德克薩斯加入聯邦的協議在參議院獲得三分之二多數的支持并得到通過。

        So Tyler proposed other action to make Texas a state. When Congress met in December, he proposed that Texas be given statehood through a joint resolution by both the House and Senate. Such a resolution needed only a simple majority for approval.

        因此,泰勒決定另覓溪徑。國會12月份開會時,他提出,由國會參眾兩院通過聯合決議,讓德克薩斯成為美國的一個州。這一決議只需要半數以上的支持就能獲得通過。

        A resolution calling for the annexation of Texas was passed by the house in January, eighteen forty-five, and by the Senate on February twenty-seventh. Tyler signed the bill on March first -- just three days before he stepped down as president.

        國會眾議院1845年1月通過了吸收德克薩斯的決議案,參議院也于2月27號通過。泰勒總統3月1號在議案上簽字生效。泰勒三天后卸任總統。

        VOICE ONE:

        The resolution invited Texas to join the Union as a state. It gave Texas the right to split itself into as many as four more states when its population was large enough. Texas could keep its public lands. But it had to pay its own debts. And Texas could enter the Union as a slave state.

        這項決議邀請德克薩斯加入美國聯邦,成為美國的一個州,決議還規定,如果德克薩斯今后人口膨脹的話,可以最多分裂為四個州。決議還說,德克薩斯可以繼續保留自己的公共土地,但是必需自己償還債務,德克薩斯可以作為奴隸州加入聯邦。

        The Mexican minister to Washington protested the resolution. He called it an act of aggression against his country. He demanded his passport and returned to Mexico. Britain and France tried to prevent Texas from becoming a state. They got Mexico to agree to recognize Texas independence, but only if Texas would not join the United States.

        墨西哥駐華盛頓使節對這項決議提出抗議。他稱之為對墨西哥的侵略行徑,并起身返回墨西哥。英國和法國努力防止德克薩斯加入美國,它們說服墨西哥,承認德克薩斯獨立,條件是德克薩斯不得加入美國。

        VOICE TWO:

        Texas thus had two choices. It could become a state in the United States. Or it could continue as a republic with its independence recognized by Mexico. The Texas Congress chose statehood. President Polk looked even farther to the west for more new territory.

        德克薩斯因此面臨兩種選擇:第一,可以成為美國的一個州,第二,可以成為得到墨西哥承認的獨立共和國。德克薩斯國會最后選擇加入美國。與此同時,新總統波爾克繼續向西,尋找擴張領土的機會。

        (MUSIC)

        ANNOUNCER:

        Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Maurice Joyce and Stewart Spencer. Transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our programs, along with historical images, can be found at www.squishedblueberries.com. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

        ___

        This is program #71 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

        網友的學習評論(1條):
        作者:Alumni
        9-3-2013 21:30:2
        here we know that John Polk was elected for eleventh President and Texas would be a state of the United States. speaking of the slavery, i don't know still why the notherners were against it. we know that slavery benefited the South extremely, so they were for it. but what for the north? why they were against it deadly? slavery might be no harm to them. might it be of jealous?it couldn't. maybe there was something in it that i dont know yet.
        版權所有©2003-2019 南京通享科技有限公司,保留所有權利。未經書面許可,嚴禁轉載本站內容,違者追究法律責任。 互聯網經營ICP證:蘇B2-20120186
        網站備案:蘇公網安備 32010202011039號蘇ICP備05000269號-1中國工業和信息化部網站備案查詢
        廣播臺
        又粗又大又黄又爽的免费视频