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        #7: Slavery Arrives as Colonial Expansion Heads South

        作者:Nancy Steinbach 發布日期:1-23-2013

        VOICE ONE:

        This is Rich Kleinfeldt.

        VOICE TWO:

        And this is Sarah Long with the MAKING OF A NATION, a VOA Special English program about the history of the United States.

        Today, we finish the story about the first thirteen American colonies. We tell about how the southern colonies developed.

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE ONE:

        The most northern of the southern colonies was Maryland. The king of England, Charles the First, gave the land between Virginia and Pennsylvania to George Calvert in sixteen thirty-two. George Calvert was also called Lord Baltimore. He was a Roman Catholic.

        在南部殖民地中,馬里蘭是最靠北邊的一個。英國國王查理一世1632年將介于維吉尼亞和賓夕法尼亞之間的土地賜給了喬治·卡爾弗特。喬治·卡爾弗特又被稱為巴爾的摩勛爵,是羅馬天主教徒。

        George Calvert wanted to start a colony because of religious problems in England. Catholics could not openly observe their religion. They also had to pay money to the government because they did not belong to the Anglican Church, which was the Church of England.

        喬治·卡爾弗特希望建立一個殖民地,是因為當時在英國,天主教徒無法公開信教,而且由于他們不屬于英國圣公會,所以必須向政府交錢。

        George Calvert never saw the colony that was called Maryland. He died soon after he received the documents. His son Cecil Calvert became the next Lord Baltimore, and received all the land. He had the power to collect taxes, fight wars, make laws and create courts in Maryland. Cecil Calvert named his brother Leonard as the colony's first governor.

        不過,喬治·卡爾弗特沒能親眼看到馬里蘭的形成。他收到賜地文件后不久就去世了。他的兒子塞西爾·卡爾弗特繼承了巴爾的摩勛爵的頭銜和土地,有權在馬里蘭征稅、打仗、立法和建立法庭,他還任命他的兄弟倫納德為第一任總督。

        Cecil Calvert, center, the second Lord of Baltimore, in a work by artist James Barry
        Cecil Calvert, center, the second Lord of Baltimore, in a work by artist James Barry

        Cecil Calvert believed that English Catholics could live in peace in Maryland with people who believed in Protestant religions. So he urged Catholics to leave England. To get more settlers, he permitted them to own their farms and gave them some power in local politics. Some Catholics did go to Maryland, but not as many as expected. Protestants were in the majority. In sixteen forty-nine, Lord Baltimore accepted a Toleration Act passed by the local government. It guaranteed freedom of religion, but only for Christians.

        塞西爾·卡爾弗特相信,英國的天主教徒在馬里蘭可以跟新教徒和睦相處。他因此呼吁天主教徒離開英國。為了吸引更多的定居者,他還讓定居者擁有自己的農場, 甚至讓他們在地方政治中享有一定的權力。這些措施確實吸引了一些天主教徒,但沒有預計的那么多,馬里蘭還是以新教信徒為主。1649年,巴爾的摩勛爵接受 了當地政府通過的“容忍法案”,保證宗教自由,但是只適用于基督徒。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE TWO:

        King Charles the Second of England gave away more land in America in sixteen sixty-three. This time, he gave to eight English lords the land known as Carolina. It extended south from Virginia into an area known as Florida. Spain controlled Florida. Spain also claimed the southern part of Carolina.

        英國國王查理二世1663年又將維吉尼亞以南、一直延伸到佛羅里達的大片土地賞賜給了英國的八位勛爵。這片土地被稱為卡羅來納。當時,卡羅來納南部和佛羅里達地區被西班牙人控制著。

        Spanish, French and English settlers had tried to live in that area earlier. But they were not successful. But the eight new owners promised forty hectares of land to anyone who would go to Carolina to live. They also promised religious freedom. The first successful Carolina settlers left England in sixteen seventy. They built a town in an area where two rivers met. They called it Charles Town, for King Charles. Spanish ships attacked the port city many times, but the settlers kept them away.

        在此之前,西班牙、法國和英國人曾試圖在那個地區定居,但都沒有成功。接受封地的八位英國勛爵為了吸引定居者,不僅允諾給每人 撥地40公頃,而且保證定居者享受宗教自由??_來納的第一批英國定居者是1670年離開英國的,他們在卡羅來納兩條河流交匯的地方建立了一個小鎮,把小 鎮命名為查理鎮。西班牙艦船多次對小鎮發動襲擊,都被查理鎮的居民擊退。

        The settlers planted all kinds of crops to see what would grow best. They found rice was just right for the hot, wet land. Their pigs and cattle did so well that settlers in Carolina started selling meat to the West Indies. Many of Charles Town's settlers came from Barbados, a port used in the West Indies slave trade. The settlers began buying black slaves to help grow the rice. By seventeen-oh-eight, more blacks than whites lived in southern Carolina. The work of slaves made possible a successful economy.

        卡羅來納的定居者嘗試種植各種糧食,結果發現當地炎熱潮濕的土地最適合種植稻米。他們還成功養殖了豬、牛,并開始向西印度群島銷售豬肉和牛肉。查理鎮的很 多居民都是從西印度群島一個進行奴隸交易的港口城鎮巴巴多斯來的。他們開始購買黑奴,把他們帶到卡羅來納的農場種植稻米。到1708年,卡羅來納南部黑人 的人數已經超過了白人,黑奴的工作創造了經濟的輝煌。

        VOICE ONE:

        Northern Carolina grew much more slowly than the southern part of the colony. Many settlers to this area were from nearby Virginia. People who did not agree with the Anglican Church were not welcome in Virginia. Some of them moved south to the northern part of Carolina. History experts say that the area that became North Carolina may have been the most democratic of all the colonies. The people generally did not get involved in each other's lives. They permitted each other to live in peace. They faced danger together from pirates who made the North Carolina coast their headquarters.

        卡羅來納北部的發展要比南部慢得多。這個地區的很多定居者都是從北面的維吉尼亞搬來的。他們因為不接受圣公會,在維吉尼亞不受歡迎,所以只好南下,來到卡羅來納。歷史學家說,后來成為美國北卡羅來納州的這塊地方可能是所有殖民地里最民主的。這里的居民大家互不干涉,和睦相處,一起對付在北卡羅來納沿海一帶集結的海盜。

        Experts say the people in northern Carolina were independent thinkers. In sixteen seventy-seven, some of them rebelled against England. They did not like England's Navigation Acts. These laws forced people in Carolina to pay taxes to England on goods sold to other colonies. Some northern Carolina settlers refused to pay this tax. They even set up their own government and tried to break free of England. But the English soldiers in the colonies stopped the rebellion by arresting its leader.

        卡羅來納北部的定居者善于獨立思考。英國《航海法》規定,卡羅來納的定居者向其他殖民地出售商品,必須向英國納稅,其中一些人對此不滿,拒不納稅,甚至建立了自己的政府,要跟英國決裂,結果遭到鎮壓。

        The differences between the people of northern Carolina and southern Carolina became too great. The owners of the colony divided Carolina into two parts in seventeen twelve.

        卡羅來納南北地區居民的差距越來越大,1712年被正式一分為二。

        VOICE TWO:

        James Oglethorpe was a rich member of Parliament who used his own money to settle the new colony of Georgia
        James Oglethorpe was a rich member of Parliament who used his own money to settle the new colony of Georgia

        The last English colony founded in the New World was Georgia. It was established in seventeen thirty-two, under King George the Second. Georgia was the idea of a man named James Oglethorpe. He wanted to solve the debtor problem in England. Debtors are people who cannot re-pay money they owe. At that time, debtors were placed in prison. This made it impossible for them to earn the money needed to pay their debts. Oglethorpe wanted to create a colony where debtors could go instead of going to prison. He wanted it to be a place where people could have good lives.

        喬治亞是1732年在英國國王喬治二世任期內建立的。當時在英國,負債累累的人會被投入大牢,但是這樣一來,他們就更沒辦法賺錢還債了。為了解決這個問 題,一個叫詹姆士·歐格雷梭皮的人提出,與其把這些人送進監獄,不如把他們送到殖民地去,給他們一個重新開始的機會。

        But not many debtors wanted to go to Georgia. The people who settled there were much like the people in the other colonies. They did not agree with all of Oglethorpe's ideas. They wanted to do things he did not believe were right, like drinking alcohol and owning slaves. The settlers won in the end. They did not accept Oglethorpe's ideas about how they should live.

        然而,沒有多少欠債的人愿意到喬治亞去,所以,真正在那里定居的人其實和其他殖民地沒有太大的區別。他們不能全盤接受歐格雷梭皮的觀點,做了很多歐格雷梭皮認為不應該做的事情,比如喝酒、再比如購買奴隸。不過,最后還是喬治亞的定居者們占了上風。

        Life was not easy in Georgia. Spaniards and pirates captured ships of all nations along the coast. Spain controlled Florida and also claimed Georgia and the Carolinas. Border fights were common. Oglethorpe lost all his money trying to establish Georgia. King George took control of the colony in seventeen fifty-two.

        然而,在喬治亞的生活并不輕松。西班牙人和海盜經常在沿海劫掠船只。西班牙人不僅控制著佛羅里達地區,而且聲稱喬治亞和卡羅來納也是他們的,使喬治亞邊界 地區沖突不斷。歐格雷梭皮為了建立喬治亞,把自己的錢花了個精光。國王喬治因此于1752年接管了對喬治亞的控制權。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE ONE:

        As all these new colonies were being established nearby, the colony of Virginia was growing. A way of life was developing there that was very different from that found in the north. Most people in Virginia at this time were members of the Church of England. Religion was not as important a part of their lives as it was to the people in the north. In the New England colonies, the clergy were considered the most important people in town. In the southern colonies, rich land owners were more important.

        與此同時,維吉尼亞逐漸壯大,并形成了一種跟北部殖民地截然不同的生活方式。當時,維吉尼亞大部分居民都是英國圣公會成員,宗教對他們來說并不象對北方殖 民者那么重要。在新英格蘭,牧師神父是鎮里最重要的人物,但是在南方,最顯赫的卻是有錢的農場主。

        People in Virginia did not live in towns, as people did in Massachusetts. They lived along rivers on small farms or on large farms called plantations. Living on a river made it easy to send goods to other nations by ship. Virginians were sending large amounts of tobacco to England on those ships. It was the crop that earned them the most money.

        麻薩諸塞的定居者住在鎮里,但是維吉尼亞的定居者卻住在河邊的農場里,這樣一來,他們就可以很方便地將商品通過水路運出去,當然,最賺錢的還是煙草。

        VOICE TWO:

        Growing tobacco destroys the elements in the soil that support plant life. After a few years, nothing grows well on land that has been planted with tobacco. A farmer has to stop planting anything on the land every few years. That means he needs a lot of land. He also needs many workers. So tobacco farmers in Virginia began to buy land and workers.

        種植煙草會破壞土壤里的很多元素,一塊地種過幾年煙草,就什么也不長了,所以煙草種植者每隔幾年就要換一塊土地。這就意味著大量的土地和人手。因此,維吉尼亞的煙草種植者開始購買土地和工人。

        At first, they bought the services of poor people who had no money or jobs. These people were called indentured servants. They made an agreement to work for a farmer for a period of four to seven years. Then they were freed to work for themselves.

        他們最初是雇傭那些被稱為“契約工”的窮人。根據契約,契約工替農場主干四到七年,然后就可以為自己工作了。

        Slaves preparing dried tobacco to be shipped to England from Jamestown
        Slaves preparing dried tobacco to be shipped to England from Jamestown

        In sixteen nineteen, a Dutch ship brought some Africans to Jamestown. They had been kidnapped from their homes by African traders and sold to the ship's captain. He sold them to the Virginia settlers. Those first blacks may have been treated like indentured servants. Later, however, colonists decided to keep them as slaves so they would not have to continue paying for workers. Indians did not make good slaves because they could run away. Blacks could not. They had no place to go. Slowly, laws were approved in Virginia that made it legal to keep black people as slaves. By seventeen fifty, there were more Africans in Virginia than any other group.

        1619年,一艘荷蘭船帶著一些非洲黑人來到了詹姆斯鎮。這些人都是從家鄉被綁架來的,船長把他們賣給維吉尼亞定居者。起初,這些黑人的身份跟契約工類 似,但是后來,殖民者為了不再花錢雇人,決定把黑人當作奴隸。印第安人不適合做奴隸,因為他們隨時可能逃走,但是黑人不一樣,他們無處可去。再后來,維吉尼亞頒布了法律,使蓄奴合法化。到1750年的時候,黑人已經成了維吉尼亞最大的族群。

        VOICE ONE:

        History experts continue to debate if slavery caused prejudice in America or prejudice caused slavery. No one knows the answer. Most Europeans of the seventeenth century felt they were better than African people. The reasons for this included the Africans' different customs, religion and the black color of their skin. Europeans believed the color black represented danger and death.

        Slavery in the American south affected the history of the United States for many years. It divided the people and led to a great civil war.

        是奴隸制的出現導致了歧視,還是歧視造成了奴隸制的出現,至今仍然是歷史學家爭論的話題。答案是什么,沒有人知道。十六世紀的大部分歐洲人都覺得自己比非洲人優越,主要是因為非洲的習俗、宗教和非洲人黑色的皮膚。歐洲人認為,黑色代表危險和死亡。美國南部的奴隸制對美國歷史造成了深刻的影響,并導致了美國的南北戰爭。

        But slavery did not start in America. That will be our story next week.

        VOICE TWO:

        This MAKING OF A NATION program was written by Nancy Steinbach. This is Sarah Long.

        VOICE ONE:

        And this is Rich Kleinfeldt. Join us again next week for another VOA Special English program about the history of the United States.

        網友的學習評論(8條):
        作者:華晨
        2-4-2013 17:34:53
        Planting Tobacco was the most profit indusry in the south. However,growing tobacco destroyed the element in the soil that support plant life. A farmer has to stop planting anything on the land every few years. Therefore ,he needs many workers and a lot of land. That is the economic driving force for slavery syestem.
        作者:流櫻豪
        2-19-2013 12:51:41
        a lot of land
        作者:雅喬
        3-25-2013 19:41:5
        If slavery caused prejudice or prejudice caused slavery? No one knows the answer.Anyway, having the strength and wisdom is the most important!
        作者:Kane
        1-26-2014 5:25:39
        The civil war~~
        作者:photon
        7-12-2014 19:6:21
        Numerous hectares of land were granted to attract English settlers to live in Carolina.People began to trade slaves in Carolina since late 19th century.Slavery emerged in Virginia after a Dutch captain shipped a batch of African to North America. The Northern Carolina inhabitants refused to pay taxes and a rebellion broke out. Their leader was arrested.Spain held the Florida, and had fights with English colonies. At last, be good to the slaves, for they can be the later Presidents.
        作者:Melody
        1-2-2015 16:22:54
        The trade of slaves was illegal and terrible in history . The initial slaves were African who have no freedom to choose his life style not even speech in public . The number of owning slaves became the measure of wealth of the rich .
        作者:Melody
        1-2-2015 16:23:2
        Slavery cause the prejudice in America . The white felt the color black represent the danger and death . How can they judgy people by the color of skin ? It is unfair ! Slavery in American soutch affected the history of the US for many years and it devided the people and led to a great Civil war .
        作者:hliu
        7-6-2015 9:20:37
        Since black slaves generally become the majority of colonies that permit slavery, why they are so vulnerable and obedient that they stand up together to fight for their freedoms? it's explicitly elusive that those settlers pursue religion and claim to follow the God while doing such bloody dirty and evil slavery things? liars!!
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