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        #69: The Brief Presidency of William Henry Harrison

        作者:Frank Beardsley 發布日期:4-21-2013

        Welcome to the MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

        In November of eighteen forty, the American people elected their ninth president, William Henry Harrison. The election of the retired general was expected. Still, it was a great victory for the Whig Party and a sharply felt loss for the opposing party, the Democrats. They failed to put their man, President Martin Van Buren, in the White House for a second term.

        1840年,威廉.亨利.哈里森當選美國第九任總統。這位退役將軍的勝選本在預料之中,是輝格黨的一大勝利,也是對民主黨人的重大政治打擊,因為他們沒能讓范布倫當選連任。

        William Henry Harrison
        William Henry Harrison

        Whig leaders made most of Harrison's campaign decisions. Some of those leaders, especially senators Henry Clay of Kentucky and Daniel Webster of Massachusetts, believed they could control the newly elected president.

        大選期間,哈里森的大部分競選決策都是由輝格黨領袖做出的。哈里森當選后,一些人覺得可以繼續控制哈里森,特別是肯塔基州參議員亨利.克萊和麻薩諸塞州參議員丹尼爾.韋伯斯特。

        But Harrison saw what was happening. When he made a trip to Kentucky, he made it clear that he did not want to meet with Clay. He felt that such a meeting might seem to show that Clay was the real power in the new administration.

        p>哈里森把這一切都看在眼里。他當選后前往克萊所在的肯塔基州,但明確表示,不想跟克萊見面。哈里森擔心,如果跟克萊見面的話,別人就會覺得,克萊才是新政府里的實權人物。

        But Clay made sure that Harrison was publicly invited to visit him. The newly elected president could not say no to such an invitation. He spent several days at Clay's home in Lexington.

        然而,克萊公開邀請哈里森去他家作客。哈里森無法拒絕,被迫在克萊位于萊克星頓的家里住了幾天。

        This week in our series, Maurice Joyce and Jack Moyles discuss the presidency of William Henry Harrison.

        VOICE ONE:

        Daniel Webster, without even being asked, wrote an inaugural speech for the new president. Harrison thanked him, but said he already had written his speech. Harrison spoke for more than one and a half hours. He gave the speech outside, on the front steps of the Capitol building.

        與此同時,丹尼爾.韋伯斯特自做主張,幫哈里森撰寫了就職演說詞。哈里森婉言謝絕,并表示,自己已經寫好了就職演說詞。哈里森在國會大廈外面的臺階上發表了長達一個半小時的就職演說。

        It was the coldest inaugural day in the nation's history. But Harrison did not wear a coat or hat. Harrison caught a cold, probably from standing so long outside in the bitter weather of inaugural day. Rest was his best treatment. But Harrison was so busy, he had little time to rest.

        這是美國獨立建國以來最寒冷的一個總統就職日,但是哈里森既沒穿大衣,也沒戴帽子。哈里森在宣誓就職那天著了諒,染上風寒,但是就職后繁忙的工作,又讓他片刻不得休息。

        VOICE TWO:

        Hundreds of people demanded to see the new president. They wanted jobs with the government. Everywhere he turned, Harrison was met by crowds of job-hungry people. And there was a problem that worried him. Henry Clay and Daniel Webster were fighting each other for power in the new administration.

        等待總統接見的有好幾百人,他們都希望能在新政府里得到一份工作。哈里森所到之處,總會遇到急著找工作的人。另外一個問題也讓哈里森傷透了腦筋,那就是,亨利.克萊和丹尼爾.韋伯斯特在新政府里爭權奪利。

        Harrison had offered Clay any job he wanted in the cabinet. But Clay chose to stay in the Senate. Harrison then gave the job of Secretary of State to Webster. He also gave Webster's supporters the best government jobs in New York City.

        哈里森曾告訴克萊,內閣里的職務他可以隨便挑選,但是克萊卻選擇留在參議院里。哈里森因此任命韋伯斯特擔任國務卿,還把紐約市政府里最好的職務都給了韋伯斯特的支持者。

        A drawing of William Henry Harrison as he lay dying
        A drawing of William Henry Harrison as he lay dying

        VOICE ONE:

        Clay did not like this. And he told the president so. Harrison accused Clay of trying to tell him -- the president -- how to do his job. Later, he told Clay that he wanted no further words with him. He said any future communications between them would have to be written.

        克萊對此十分不滿,并且直截了當地把自己的怨氣告訴了哈里森。哈里森指責克萊試圖擺布自己,他后來又告訴克萊,跟他沒有什么好說的,今后的一切交流都要通過書面的方式。

        Harrison's health grew worse. Late in March eighteen forty-one, his cold turned into pneumonia. Doctors did everything they could to cure him. But nothing seemed to help. On April fourth, after exactly one month as president, William Henry Harrison died.

        哈里森的健康狀況日益惡化,1841年3月底轉為肺炎,醫生們用盡了辦法,但是絲毫沒有效果,宣誓就職一個月后,哈里森總統不幸病逝。

        Vice President John Tyler was then at his home in Williamsburg, Virginia. Secretary of State Webster sent his son Fletcher on horseback to tell Tyler of the president's death. The vice President was shocked. He had not even known that Harrison was sick. Two hours after he received the news, Tyler was on his way to Washington. He reached the capital just before sunrise on April sixth, eighteen forty-one.

        當時,副總統約翰.泰勒正呆在自己位于維吉尼亞威廉斯堡的家中。國務卿韋伯斯特讓自己的兒子飛馬前去報信。泰勒得知哈里森病逝的消息后深感震驚,因為在此之前,他甚至不知道哈里森身患重病。得知消息兩小時后,泰勒匆匆動身,1841年4月6號太陽落山前返回首都華盛頓。

        VOICE TWO:

        There was some question about Tyler's position. This was the first time that a president had died in office. No one was really sure if the Constitution meant that the vice president was to become president or only acting president. Webster and the other members of the cabinet decided that Tyler should be president and serve until the next election. Tyler also had decided this.

        當時,大家對泰勒的地位存在疑問。因為哈里森是第一個在任期內去世的總統,所有沒有人知道,根據憲法規定,副總統是應該繼任總統的職務,還是應該擔任臨時的代理總統。韋伯斯特和其他內閣成員決定,在下次大選前,應該由泰勒擔任總統,這一決定跟泰勒的看法不謀而合。

        Tyler was sworn-in as the tenth president on April sixth. He was fifty-one years old. No other man had become president at such an early age. Tyler was born and grew up in the same part of Virginia as William Henry Harrison. His father was a wealthy planter and judge who had been a friend of Thomas Jefferson.

        約翰.泰勒4月6號宣誓就職,成為美國第10任總統。泰勒年僅51歲,是當時美國歷史上最年輕的總統。泰勒跟去世的總統哈里森一樣,也是在維吉尼亞出生長大,他的父親是富有的種植園主、法官,是前總統托馬斯.杰斐遜的朋友。

        John completed studies at the college of William and Mary, and became a lawyer. He entered politics and served in the Virginia legislature. Then he was elected a member of Congress and, later, governor of Virginia. He also served as a United States senator.

        約翰.泰勒從威廉和瑪麗大學畢業后,當上了律師,后來從政,當選維吉尼亞州議會議員。再后來,泰勒又先后當選國會議員和維吉尼亞州的州長,他也曾擔任過美國國會參議員。

        John Tyler
        John Tyler

        VOICE ONE:

        Tyler believed strongly in the rights of the states. As a congressman and a senator, he had voted against every attempt to give more power to the federal government.

        泰勒是州權力的堅強捍衛者,每次有關擴大聯邦政府權利的議案,他一律投反對票。

        Tyler's political beliefs were strongly opposed to those of the northern and western Whigs. Henry Clay firmly supported the ideas of a national bank, a protective tax on imports, and federal spending to improve transportation in the states. Tyler was just as firmly against these ideas.

        泰勒的政治理念跟美國北部和西部的輝格黨人截然不同。比如說,輝格黨領袖亨利.克萊堅決支持建立國家銀行、對進口產品征收保護性關稅,使用聯邦資金改善各州的交通系統。然而,這些看法都是泰勒堅決反對的。

        There was something else. Clay expected to be the Whig Party's presidential candidate in eighteen forty-four. If he supported Tyler, then the new president might become too strong politically and win a second term in the White House.

        此外,克萊私下里希望成為輝格黨1844年的總統候選人,如果他支持泰勒,泰勒的政治力量就會過于強大,從而可能會在1844年的大選中當選連任。

        VOICE TWO:

        Tyler quickly established his independence after becoming president. Webster told him that President Harrison had let the cabinet make the decisions of his administration. He said Harrison had only one vote...the same as any member of the cabinet. Webster asked if Tyler wanted this to continue.

        泰勒就職后,迅速鞏固自身地位。國務卿韋伯斯特告訴他說,哈里森在任時,政治決策完全由內閣決定,哈里森總統只有一票,跟其他內閣成員一樣。韋伯斯特問泰勒是否希望繼續這樣做。

        "I do not," said Tyler. "I would like to keep President Harrison's cabinet. But I, alone, will make the decisions. If the cabinet members do not approve of this, let them resign."

        泰勒的回答是,“不。我愿意保留哈里森總統的內閣,但是一切決定我說了算,如果哪個內閣成員不同意,他們可以辭職。”

        Tyler wanted to change the cabinet, but could not do so immediately. All but two members of the cabinet were supporters of Senator Clay. Tyler wanted to put these men out and appoint men who would support him. But if he did this immediately, it would split the party. He would have to wait.

        其實,泰勒很希望調整內閣的組成,但是又不能立即動手。當時的內閣里除了兩個人以外,其余都是克萊參議員的親信。泰勒希望把他們趕走,換上自己的人馬,但是他知道,如果立即動手的話,就會造成輝格黨的分裂,所以他必須耐心等待。

        Henry Clay
        Henry Clay

        VOICE ONE:

        The Whig Party controlled both houses of Congress after the eighteen forty elections. Clay wanted a special session of the new Congress. He was able to get Harrison to call such a session before the president's death. At the session, Clay offered six resolutions as a plan of work for Congress. These proposed putting an end to the independent treasury, the establishment of a new national bank, and a tax increase on imports. They also included a new plan to give the states the money received by the federal government from the sale of public lands.

        1840年大選后,國會參眾兩院都在輝格黨的控制之下??巳R希望召集新國會的特別會議,并設法讓哈里森總統在病逝前下達了命令。國會特別會議期間,克萊提出了六項決議,包括停止獨立財政、建立新的國家銀行、增加進口稅,還有一項新計劃,讓聯邦政府把出售公共土地得到的收益分配給各州支配。

        It was no problem to put an end to the independent treasury. Tyler had opposed it during the campaign and in his message to Congress. Congress soon passed a bill repealing the independent treasury act. And Tyler quickly signed it.

        泰勒參加大選時就明確反對獨立財政,在對國會發表講話時,再次重申了自己的立場。因此,國會迅速通過法案,取消了獨立財政法,法案經泰勒簽字生效。

        VOICE TWO:

        But a dispute arose on the issue of a new national bank. Tyler had his Secretary of the Treasury send Congress the administration's plan for a national bank. It would permit such a bank to be established in Washington. And it would permit the bank to open offices in a state, but only if the state approved.

        然而,建立新的國家銀行的問題卻引起了爭議。泰勒和他的財政部長向國會呈交了建立國家銀行的計劃,銀行總部設在華盛頓,可以在各州開設分行,前提條件是要得到各州的批準。

        This was not the kind of bank Clay wanted. He wanted no limits of any kind on the power of a national bank to open offices anywhere in the country. Clay then offered a bill that would create just this kind of bank. There was much debate. And Clay finally agreed to a compromise. Bank offices would be permitted in any state where the state legislature did not immediately refuse permission.

        這可不是克萊想要的??巳R心目中的國家銀行有權在任何地方開設分行??巳R因此提出了自己的方案,并引起了一場激烈辯論??巳R最后接受妥協:只要州議會不拒絕,國家銀行就可以在那里開設分行。

        VOICE ONE:

        The Congress accepted the compromise. But President Tyler did not. He vetoed the bank bill and sent it back to Congress. This had been a difficult decision for Tyler to make. He wanted peace and unity in the party. But he also wanted to show that he -- and not Henry Clay -- was president. The people knew he opposed Clay's bill. If he accepted it, the people would feel that Clay was the more powerful.

        妥協方案得到了國會的批準,但卻遭到了泰勒的否決,議案被打回國會重新討論。泰勒這樣做也有自己的苦衷:一方面,他希望保持黨內和睦團結;另一方面,他又希望表明,他才是真正的總統,不是克萊。大家知道他反對克萊的提案,如果他接受了,別人就會覺得克萊比他更厲害。

        Clay did not have enough votes to pass the bill over the president's veto. Another effort was made to get a bank bill that the president would approve. This time, members of Congress met with Tyler to get his ideas. He explained, again, the kind of bank he would accept. He said the states must have the right to approve or reject bank offices.

        克萊沒有爭取到足夠的支持票推翻泰勒的否決。國會對議案進行修改,希望能被總統接受。為此,國會議員專門找到泰勒,征求他的意見。泰勒再次重申了自己的要求,那就是,各州必須有權接受或是拒絕國家銀行在本州內開設分行。

        The congressmen wrote another bill. They said it was exactly what the president wanted. But the president did not agree. He said this second bill would also be vetoed unless changes were made in it. The changes were not made. And Tyler did as he said he would do. He vetoed it. This second veto caused a crisis in Tyler's cabinet.

        國會成員對議案進行修改后,再次遞交總統簽署。但是泰勒表示,這份議案還是不符合他的要求,除非再改,否則他就要再度行使否決權。國會拒絕修改,泰勒也言出必行,否決了議案。誰知,這次否決在泰勒內閣里引起了一場危機。

        (MUSIC)

        ANNOUNCER:

        Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Maurice Joyce and Jack Moyles. Transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our programs are on the Web, along with historical images, at www.squishedblueberries.com. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION - an American history series in VOA Special English.

        ___

        This is program #69 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

        網友的學習評論(1條):
        作者:Alumni
        8-31-2013 20:49:43
        Willim Henry Harrison, the ninth president of the United States, died after only a month of his presidency because of serious pneumonia. he had had one and a half hours's inaugural speech outside in the coldest day . it maybe the direct cause of his sickness. after his death, John Tyler who had been a vice president took his office in White House. Tyler was the tenth president.
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