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        #67: The Rise of the Movement Against Slavery

        作者:Frank Beardsley 發布日期:4-19-2013

        Welcome to the MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

        In eighteen forty, as the administration of Martin Van Buren came closer to an end, there was a widespread feeling that he had not been a strong president. He seemed unable to make the people understand his policies. The opposition Whig Party was happy over Van Buren's failures.

        1840年,美國總統范布倫的第一屆任期接近尾聲。大家普遍覺得,范布倫不是一個優秀的總統,他好像不知道如何向民眾推銷自己的政策。范布倫的失敗,讓反對黨輝格黨感到十分高興。

        This week in our series, Harry Monroe and Kay Gallant describe how the Whigs saw an excellent chance in the upcoming election.

        Henry Clay
        Henry Clay

        VOICE ONE:

        The Whig leader in the Senate was Henry Clay of Kentucky. Clay told a friend he was sure he would be called on to serve as the Whig candidate for president. Other Whig leaders were not so sure. They did not question Clay's ability to be president. But he had been a candidate both in eighteen twenty-four and eighteen thirty-two. And he had lost both times.

        輝格黨在參議院里的領袖是肯塔基州的參議員亨利.克萊??巳R告訴自己的朋友說,他敢肯定,自己將會成為輝格黨的總統候選人。輝格黨的其他領袖并不這么肯定。他們對克萊的能力毫不懷疑,但問題是,克萊1824年和1832年先后兩次參加總統競選,結果都敗下陣來。

        Then there was a growing political force in the United States that would not be helpful to Clay's candidacy. That was the abolitionist movement, which opposed slavery. Abolitionists did not like Clay, because he owned slaves.

        還有一個對克萊不利的因素是,當時美國已經掀起了一股勢不可擋的廢奴運動。廢奴主義者不喜歡克萊,因為克萊本人就是奴隸主。

        VOICE TWO:

        The dispute over slavery seemed to have been laid to rest for a time. But during the eighteen thirties, it rose to the surface again. A major reason why the dispute came alive again was cotton. Cotton plants spread across the states of the south.

        19世紀30年代,美國圍繞奴隸制度發生的爭議死灰復燃,其主要原因是棉花的種植。美國南部各州到處都是棉花種植場。

        Cotton production had grown so heavily that it gave the south a one-crop economy. Cotton depended on the labor of slaves. By the eighteen thirties, cotton planters believed that without slavery, the whole economic system of the south would lie in ruins. To them, slavery was no longer just a question of right or wrong. It was a necessity for survival.

        棉花產量巨大,逐漸成為了南方經濟單一化的支柱產業。棉花的種植依賴奴隸。十九世紀30年代,美國的棉花種植主開始覺得,如果沒有奴隸,美國南部經濟就會崩潰。對他們來說,奴隸制度已經不再是一個對與錯的問題,而是生存之必需。

        VOICE ONE:

        Cotton made the agricultural south economically dependent on the industrial north. Northern ships carried southern cotton to the markets of Europe. Manufactured goods needed in the South came from the North. The South put so much time and energy into growing cotton, that it failed to give much thought to developing industries of its own.

        棉花的種植也讓美國南部的農業經濟依賴于北方的工業經濟。北部商船將南方的棉花運往歐洲,然后再把南方需要的商品運回來,南方各州把時間和精力全都集中在了棉花的生產上,從而完全沒有想到要在南方發展自己的工業。

        The situation deeply troubled the political leaders of the South. What made things worse was the fact that most of the federal government's financial aid for public works went to the North.

        這種情況讓南方各地的政治領袖憂心忡忡。讓局面變得更加糟糕的是,聯邦政府的大部分經濟援助都用在了北方基礎設施的建設上面。

        Then there was the old dispute over import taxes. Taxes on foreign goods mostly helped the manufacturers of the North. The taxes were to be lowered in eighteen forty-two. But that was some time in the future. No one could be sure what would happen then.

        除此之外,還有長期以來圍繞進口稅發生的爭執。對進口物資征稅的主要受益者是北方制造商。雖然國會已經決定1842年減稅,但那還是幾年后的事情,沒人能保證到底會發生些什么。

        Such was the general political and economic picture in the United States when the abolitionist movement began to make itself felt.

        這就是廢奴運動興起時美國的政治和經濟大環境。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE TWO:

        In the beginning, the abolitionist movement was organized by religious groups. The members of these groups believed there could be no compromise with evil. They felt that slavery was evil. So slavery must go.

        起初,廢奴運動是由宗教團體組織的,他們堅信,奴隸制度是邪惡的化身,正義不能跟邪惡相妥協,因此,奴隸制度必須取消。

        The eighteen thirties saw the birth of anti-slavery societies in New York and New England. The societies published newspapers and pamphlets. They began to flood the country with pamphlets and anti-slavery petitions.

        19世紀30年代,美國東北部的紐約和新英格蘭一帶出現了一些反對奴隸制度的社團。他們發行報紙和宣傳品,在全國各地大量散發宣傳品和請愿書。

        The South tried to stop the flow of this anti-slavery literature across the borders of southern states. The Abolitionists, in turn, declared that such actions violated freedom of the press and the constitutional right of petition. This was the beginning of a long, bitter struggle. It lasted for twenty years. It finally split the Union.

        南方各州采取行動,試圖阻止廢奴的宣傳品進入南方的地盤。廢奴主義者因此宣布,南方各州的行動侵犯了媒體自由和憲法規定的自由請愿的權利。雙方的爭執引發了一場漫長而激烈的斗爭,前后持續二十年,最終導致了聯邦的分裂。

        John Quincy Adams
        John Quincy Adams

        VOICE ONE:

        The abolitionists had not as yet received major support from the people of the North. Many northerners were hostile to them. But in eighteen thirty-six, the House of Representatives declared that it would not listen to any anti-slavery petitions. This became known as the "gag rule."

        我們在前面的建國史話中講到了廢奴運動的起源。起初,廢奴主義者并未得到北方的積極支持。北方很多人都對廢奴主義者抱有敵意。然而,1836年,國會眾議院宣布,不再接受任何反對奴隸制度的請愿書,這就是所謂的“言論限制令”(Gag Rule)。

        The Senate did not pass such a rule. But the Senate still made it almost impossible for anti-slavery petitions to come before it.

        國會參議院沒有通過類似規定,但是類似請愿也很難得到參議院的受理。

        Former President John Quincy Adams, who was then a congressman, rose up in protest. He was not an abolitionist. But he led a campaign against the gag rule. Adams said the rule was a violation of the constitutional right to petition Congress. The gag rule made great numbers of people in the North very angry. Because of it, these people began to support the abolitionist movement.

        美國前總統、國會眾議員約翰.昆西.亞當斯帶頭反對。亞當斯本人并不是廢奴主義者,但是他不同意國會的“言論限制令”。亞當斯說,這一禁令侵犯了憲法規定的民眾向國會請愿的權利。“言論限制令”讓北方的很多人感到憤怒,出于這個原因,很多人才開始支持廢奴運動。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE TWO:

        The increasing bitterness over the issue of slavery put Whig leader Henry Clay in a difficult position. Clay was under pressure to make a decision on slavery, on the abolitionists, and on the southern extremists.

        圍繞奴隸制度展開的激烈爭執讓輝格黨領袖亨利.克萊左右為難。面對外界壓力,克萊必須在奴隸制、廢奴運動和南方極端主義等問題上表明自己的立場。

        Where did he stand? Senator Clay had always hated slavery, although he owned some slaves himself. In a Senate speech in eighteen thirty-three, he called slavery "this great evil ... the darkest spot in the map of our country."

        克萊參議員一直痛恨奴隸制,盡管他本人就是奴隸主。1833年在向參議院發表的一次講話中,克萊稱奴隸制是“巨大的邪惡,是我們國家版圖上最陰暗的一點。”

        Clay feared that the dispute over slavery might destroy him as a political leader. And, what was worse, he was afraid that it might destroy the nation. Clay was an extremely strong believer in the Union.

        克萊擔心,圍繞奴隸制的爭議會毀了他的政治前程,更可怕的是,會毀了整個國家??巳R是一個堅定的聯邦主義者。

        VOICE ONE:

        Clay opposed violent action. He thought the slow growth of public opinion was better than violence in bringing about a solution to slavery. Clay hated the abolitionists and the great noise they were beginning to make over slavery. He said they were interfering with a southern institution and were forcing slavery into politics. Slavery, he declared, did not belong in politics.

        克萊反對暴力行動。他覺得,要找到解決奴隸制的途徑,循序漸進的輿論力量要比暴力沖突更為有效??巳R痛恨那些廢奴主義者和他們制造的激烈言論??巳R說,這些人是在插手南方的一大社會機制,迫使奴隸制的問題進入政治舞臺??巳R宣稱,奴隸制不屬于政治范疇。

        Still, Clay was a national leader. He knew it would be bad to stand too strongly opposed to the growing abolitionist movement. Clay also opposed the southern senators who tried to prevent discussion of slavery. He said their position was emotional and extreme. It was as bad as that of the abolitionists.

        作為政治領袖,克萊知道,不能強烈反對風起云涌的廢奴運動??巳R同時也對那些試圖壓制辯論的南方參議員十分反感。他表示,這些人過于沖動,極端,跟廢奴主義者一樣對國家不利。

        John C. Calhoun
        John C. Calhoun

        VOICE TWO:

        The Senate did, in fact, discuss slavery, in a general way. It was concerned about the legal position of the federal government in relation to slavery. Senator John C. Calhoun of South Carolina offered a resolution for consideration. This is what he said:

        參議院就奴隸制展開了辯論,對聯邦政府在這一爭執中的法律地位表示關切。南卡羅來納州的約翰.卡爾霍恩參議員提出一項決議。

        The Union was created by an agreement among the states. Each state had the constitutional right to complete control over its own institutions. It was the job -- the duty -- of the government in Washington to protect that right. That meant protection against any interference in the institution of slavery.

        決議說,“聯邦是各州協議的產物。各州對全面控制本州的體制享有憲法賦予的權力。華盛頓聯邦政府的工作和義務是保障各州的權力,這就意味著保護奴隸制度不受外來干涉。”

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE ONE:

        Calhoun was most forceful when it came to slavery in the District of Columbia and in the territories. He declared that any federal, state, or private interference with slavery in those places was a direct and dangerous attack on the interests of slave states. Calhoun said the South must not surrender an inch to the abolitionist movement. "If we do," he said, "we are gone."

        涉及到華盛頓和當時另外一些特區的奴隸制度時,卡爾霍恩尤其激動。他宣稱,任何聯邦、州、或是私人對這些地方的奴隸制度的干涉,都是對奴隸州的利益發起的直接和危險的攻擊??柣舳髡f,南方各州不能對廢奴運動做出任何讓步??柣舳髡f,“否則的話,我們就完了。”

        VOICE TWO:

        Senator Clay did not like such extreme talk about states' rights. He became especially angry when states talked about separating from the Union, instead of trying to solve problems together.

        克萊參議員對這類主張各州權力的極端言論很不滿意,尤其是有人提出退出聯邦,而不是共同努力解決問題的時候。

        "Separation," Clay said, "is a terrible word. One's ears should not accept it. I desire to see -- in continued safety and prosperity -- this Union, and no other Union. I am opposed to all separate confederacies and to all sectional conventions. This Union, this government, will do nothing to attack the rights and security of the slave-holding states."

        克萊說,“分裂是一個可怕的字眼,是一個不能入耳的字眼。我希望看到,這個聯邦,而不是其他任何聯邦,能保持安全和繁榮,反對一切分裂和派系會議。這個聯邦,這個政府,絕對不會侵犯奴隸州的權力和安危。”

        VOICE ONE:

        Clay then offered his own resolution for Senate consideration. This is what he said:

        克萊隨即也提出了一項決議。

        Congress had no legal power over slavery within the states. Therefore, petitions for the abolition of slavery must be rejected, because Congress had no constitutional right to act on them. The Senate approved Clay's resolution. It rejected the one offered by Calhoun.

        他說,“國會對各州的奴隸制沒有法律權力。因此,國會必須駁回一切關于廢除奴隸制的請愿,因為根據憲法,國會無權在這個問題上采取行動。”國會參議院接受了克萊的決議案,否決了卡爾霍恩的決議。

        The sheet music cover for an 1844 abolitionist song called
        The sheet music cover for an 1844 abolitionist song called "Get Off the Track"

        VOICE TWO:

        Clay had acted as he did because he wanted to settle the dispute, and because he loved the Union. He did so for personal political reasons, too. Clay had defended the constitutional right of petition. That pleased the North. But he also had used a legal move to block the Abolitionist Movement from bringing anti-slavery petitions before Congress. That pleased the South.

        克萊這樣做是為了解決爭端,是為了他深愛的聯邦。他這樣做也是出于個人目的。他既捍衛了憲法規定的請愿權,讓北方人感到滿意;又阻止國會受理廢奴運動的請愿,取悅于南方。

        Clay believed he had protected his national position. He told a friend: "I have acted in such a way that I lost nothing, either in the South or the North."

        克萊相信,他這么做維護了自己的全國政治地位。他事后告訴一位朋友說,“我這么做沒有絲毫損失,不論是在北方還是在南方。”

        VOICE ONE:

        As the national election of eighteen forty got closer, the Whig Party felt more hopeful. They began to believe they could defeat President Van Buren in his attempt to win a second term. But they also began to turn away from Henry Clay as a presidential candidate. The election of eighteen forty will be our story next week.

        隨著1840年總統大選的臨近,輝格黨越來越信心十足。他們相信,一定能挫敗現任總統范布倫競選連任的努力。但與此同時,輝格黨人也開始逐漸拋棄亨利.克萊,尋找新的總統候選人。

        (MUSIC)

        ANNOUNCER:

        Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Harry Monroe and Kay Gallant. Transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our programs are online, along with historical images, at www.squishedblueberries.com. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION - an American history series in VOA Special English.

        ___

        This is program #67 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

        網友的學習評論(1條):
        作者:Alumni
        8-29-2013 21:2:51
        salvery had been a big issue in the making of America because they had declared solemnly that all man are created equal in their constitution.
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