<em id="0i93o"></em>
<sub id="0i93o"></sub>
<meter id="0i93o"></meter>
      1. <form id="0i93o"></form>

        官方APP下載:英語學習播客(支持蘋果手機、安卓手機)
        創辦于2003年
        UNSV記不???那就記中文諧音“憂安思?!卑?!
          Slow and Steady Wins the Race!
        UNSV英語學習頻道 - Slow and steady wins the race!
        公眾微信服務號(英語全能特訓)
        英語全能特訓(微信公眾服務號)
        UNSV英語學習頻道淘寶網店
        客服短信:18913948480
        客服郵箱:web@unsv.com
        初級VIP會員
        全站英語學習資料下載。
        ¥98元/12個月

        #65: New President Deals with Old Problems

        作者:Frank Beardsley 發布日期:4-17-2013

        Welcome to the MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

        Last week in our series, we talked about the election of Martin Van Buren in eighteen thirty-six as the eighth president of the United States.

        1836年,馬丁.范布倫當選為美國第八位總統。

        Martin Van Buren
        Martin Van Buren

        Van Buren had been very close to the outgoing president, Andrew Jackson. Van Buren had been successful in forming a strong political alliance that helped put Jackson in the White House in the election of eighteen twenty-eight. Jackson was grateful for Van Buren's help, and asked him to come to Washington to serve as secretary of state.

        范布倫跟上屆總統安德魯.杰克遜關系十分密切,他曾經成功地籌組政治聯盟,幫助杰克遜在1828年大選中勝出。杰克遜十分感謝范布倫鼎力相助,邀請他加入內閣,擔任國務卿一職。

        Van Buren had just been elected governor of the state of New York, but decided to accept Jackson's offer.

        范布倫雖然剛剛當選紐約州州長,但還是欣然接受了杰克遜的邀請。

        This week, Steve Ember and Gwen Outen talk about Martin Van Buren and the start of his presidency.

        VOICE ONE:

        Van Buren quickly became the most powerful man in Jackson's cabinet. He was able to help Jackson in negotiations with Britain and France. But his greatest help was in building a strong political party for Jackson. It was this party that gave Jackson wide support for his policies.

        范布倫很快成為杰克遜內閣里權力最大的人。范布倫協助杰克遜跟英國和法國交涉,但他最大的貢獻還是幫助杰克遜建立了一個強大的政黨,使杰克遜的政策得到廣泛支持

        Van Buren built up the national Democratic Party with the same methods he used to build his political organization in New York state. He removed from government jobs people who had not supported Jackson. These jobs were then given to those who had supported the president.

        范布倫照搬在紐約建立政治根基的老法子,把政府里不支持杰克遜的人掃地出門,換上杰克遜的支持者,借此建立了緊密團結的民主黨。

        Van Buren served as secretary of state for two years. He resigned because he saw his resignation as the only way of solving a serious problem Jackson faced.

        范布倫擔任了兩年國務卿,后來為了幫助杰克遜解決政治僵局,自愿辭去了國務卿的職務。

        VOICE TWO:

        The problem was Vice President John C. Calhoun. Calhoun had presidential hopes. He did not think Jackson would serve more than one term. And he planned to be a candidate in the next election.

        問題出在當時的副總統卡爾霍恩身上??柣舳饔X得,杰克遜干上一任也就到頭了,所以打算參加下屆總統大選。

        Three of the five men in Jackson's cabinet supported Calhoun. Jackson could not trust them.

        杰克遜的五位內閣要員里,有三個人支持卡爾霍恩,但是杰克遜不信任這些人。

        And he wanted to get them out of the cabinet ... but without a political fight.

        杰克遜希望把他們趕出內閣,但又不希望由此引起政治斗爭。

        Then, later, he named Van Buren minister to Britain. But Calhoun's supporters in the Senate defeated Van Buren's nomination.

        范布倫的辭職幫他解決了難題。杰克遜后來任命范布倫出任駐英大使,但是因為參議院卡爾霍恩支持者的阻擾,提名沒有通過。

        By this time, Jackson had decided that Van Buren would be the best man to follow him as president. He offered to resign after the eighteen thirty-two elections and give Van Buren the job of president.

        這個時候,杰克遜已經認定,范布倫是自己最好的接班人。他私下里向范布倫提出,如果自己在1832年大選中當選連任,干一段時間就會提出辭職,把總統的位置讓給范布倫。

        Van Buren rejected the offer. He said he wanted to be elected by the people. But he did agree to be Jackson's vice president in eighteen thirty-two.

        范布倫沒有接受杰克遜的提議。他表示,要當總統,就一定要當一個經過人民選舉產生的總統,不過他同意作為副總統候選人參加選舉。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE ONE:

        Andrew Jackson
        Andrew Jackson

        Four years later, at Jackson's request, the Democrats chose Van Buren to be their presidential candidate. He was opposed by several candidates of the newly formed Whig Party. The opposition was divided. And Van Buren won the election with little difficulty.

        四年過后,根據杰克遜的提議,民主黨推舉范布倫為總統候選人。范布倫輕松擊敗了當時勢力十分分散的輝格黨的幾位候選人,當選總統。

        Andrew Jackson stood beside Martin Van Buren as the new president was sworn-in. Physically, the two men were very different.

        范布倫宣誓就職時,杰克遜就站在他的身邊。從外表上看,范布倫和杰克遜截然不同。

        Jackson was tall, with long white hair that flowed back over his head. Jackson's health had been poor during the last few months he spent in the White House. He seemed tired. There was almost no color in his face.

        杰克遜身材很高,長長的銀發向后梳著。任期最后幾個月,杰克遜的健康狀況一直不好,所以看上去疲憊不堪,面無血色。

        Van Buren was much shorter and had much less hair. His eyes were brighter than those of the old man next to him.

        范布倫比杰克遜矮很多,頭發也不多,但是目光卻炯炯有神。

        VOICE TWO:

        In his inaugural speech, Van Buren noted that he was the first American born after the revolution to become president. He said he felt he belonged to a later age. He called for more unity among Democrats of the North and South. He said better times were ahead for the country.

        范布倫在就職講話中說,自己是第一個獨立戰爭后出生的總統。他說,他覺得自己屬于年輕的一代。他呼吁美國南部和北部的民主黨人團結一致,并預言,美國的前景會更加光明。

        Van Buren had a strange way with words. He could talk with excitement about something, but say very little about his own feelings on the subject.

        范布倫很會講話,他可以興致勃勃地談論一件事情,但是并不表露自己的觀點。

        Once, he spoke in New York about the tax on imports. Two men who heard the speech discussed it later. "It was a very able speech," said one man, a wool buyer. "Yes, very able," answered his friend. There was silence for a moment. Then the first man spoke again. "Was Mister Van Buren for or against the import tax?"

        有一次,他在紐約就進口稅發表講話。講話結束后,一個羊毛收購商跟自己的朋友說,“講得真不錯。”他的朋友回答說,“是不錯。”兩人沉默片刻后,那個羊毛收購商問他的朋友,“你說,范布倫到底是支持進口稅,還是反對進口稅???”

        VOICE ONE:

        Martin Van Buren's wife, Hannah
        Martin Van Buren's wife, Hannah

        The new president was a warm and friendly man. He tried to keep his political life and his social life separate. It was not unusual to see him exchange handshakes, smiles and jokes with men who were his political enemies.

        范布倫十分熱情、友善,努力把政治生活和社交生活分開。人們經常能看到范布倫滿臉笑容地跟自己的政敵握手、談笑。

        Van Buren had a poor education as a boy. He went to school only for a few years. His father was a farmer and hotel keeper at a little town in New York state. Van Buren had a quick mind and was a good judge of men. But he always felt he could have done more had he received a college education.

        范布倫小時候沒受過多少教育,只上過幾年學。他父親在紐約州一個小城鎮里務農,后來又經營過旅館。范布倫才思敏捷,眼光敏銳,他始終覺得,如果上過大學,自己會有更大的成就。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE TWO:

        Van Buren had been president for just a few days when an economic crisis and a political storm struck the country. The storm had been building for many months. It really began with the death of the Bank of the United States more than a year before.

        范布倫上臺沒兩天,美國就陷入了一場經濟危機和政治風暴。實際上,這場風暴醞釀已久,從一年多前美國銀行的終結就已經開始了。

        Andrew Jackson had opposed the powerful bank in which the government's money was kept. He vetoed a bill that would have continued it.

        美國前總統杰克遜覺得美國銀行權力太大,因此否決了一項延長美國銀行特許經營權的議案。

        The bank was so strong that it was able to control the economy throughout most of the country. It did so through its loans to businessmen. By making many loans, the bank could increase economic activity. By reducing the number of loans, the economy could be tightened.

        當時,美國銀行通過發放貸款,掌握了國家的經濟命脈,多發貸款,就能刺激經濟活動的增加,減少貸款,就能促成經濟的萎縮。

        VOICE ONE:

        The Bank of the United States also helped to control the smaller state banks. It refused to accept the notes, or paper money, of these banks, unless the state banks were ready to exchange the paper for gold or silver money.

        美國銀行還控制著規模相對較小的州銀行。美國銀行拒絕接受這些銀行的票據或是紙幣,除非這些銀行有足夠的金幣或銀幣進行兌換。

        After the end of the Bank of the United States, there was little control of any kind over the state banks. Many new state banks opened. All of them produced large amounts of paper money -- many times the amount they could exchange for gold or silver. Much of this paper money was used by business speculators to buy land from the government.

        美國銀行解體后,州銀行沒人管了,不少新銀行相繼開張,大批發行紙幣,其價值遠遠超過了他們持有的金幣和銀幣的價值。這些錢很多都被投機商用來炒作土地。

        These men bought the land, held it for a while, then sold it for more than they paid. The government soon found itself with millions of dollars of paper money.

        他們從政府手中買下土地,過一段時間,再轉手賣掉,謀取暴利。沒過多久,政府手中就積累了價值數百萬美元的紙幣。

        VOICE TWO:

        To stop this, President Jackson ordered gold or silver payments only for government land. This made it necessary for speculators to exchange their paper notes for gold. Many banks could not do this. They did not have enough gold.

        為了制止這種情況,杰克遜總統下令,購買政府土地,一定要用金幣或銀幣進行交易。土地投機商因此不得不拿紙幣向銀行兌換金幣,但是很多銀行沒有足夠的金幣進行貨幣兌換。

        There was another problem. Congress passed a law on what was to be done with federal money not needed by the national government. This extra money, or surplus, was to be given to the states.

        與此同時,國會通過了一項立法,規定將聯邦政府的財政結余分配給各州。

        Since the closing of the Bank of the United States, the government had kept its money in a number of state banks. Now these banks had to surrender the government surplus to the state governments. This left even less gold and silver to exchange for the huge amounts of paper money the banks had issued.

        美國銀行解體后,聯邦政府一直將聯邦資金放在幾家州銀行里。如今,這些銀行要把政府結余交出來,分給州政府。這樣一來,銀行用來兌換紙幣的金幣就更少了。

        VOICE ONE:

        There was still another demand for what gold the banks had.

        Eighteen thirty-five and eighteen thirty-seven were bad years for American agriculture. Many crops failed. Instead of the United States exporting farm products to Europe, the opposite happened. American traders had to import these things from Europe. And they had to pay for them in gold or silver.

        除此之外,1835年和1837年都不是好年景,農作物收成很差。美國不僅不能向歐洲出口農作物,反而要從歐洲進口,而且要用金幣和銀幣進行交易。

        As more and more paper money was put into use, the value of the money fell. Prices rose higher and higher. Poor people found it almost impossible to buy food and other necessities.

        隨著紙幣流量的增加,貨幣價值下跌,物價飛漲,窮人幾乎買不起食物和其他日常生活用品。

        In eighteen thirty-five, a barrel of flour cost six dollars. Two years later, the price had jumped to more than twelve dollars. The same was true with meat and other foods. Even coal, the fuel people used to heat their homes, cost twice as much.

        1835年的時候,一桶面粉售價6美元,兩年后漲到12美元以上。肉類和其他食物的價格也是一樣,就連取暖用的煤炭價格也翻了一番。

        VOICE TWO:

        Poor people protested. But businessmen were satisfied. They wished to continue the flood of paper money. Violence finally broke out at a protest meeting in New York City.

        窮苦人民因此走上街頭抗議示威。紐約市的一次抗議活動中最終發生了暴力。

        A crowd of angry people heard speakers criticize the use of paper money. Some in the crowd began demanding action against the rich traders. A crowd of about one-thousand marched to a nearby store, broke into it, and destroyed large amounts of flour and grain.

        當時,一群憤怒的群眾聽了批評紙幣的演講后,群情激昂,有人提議對富有的商人采取行動。大約一千人隨后闖進附近的一家商店,糟蹋了大量的面粉和谷物。

        In the spring of eighteen thirty-seven, the demand on banks for gold and silver grew too heavy. The banks stopped honoring their promises to exchange their paper money for gold. They said this was just temporary. That it was necessary to stop -- for a while -- all payments in gold or silver. The crisis got worse.

        1837年春天,面對巨大的兌換壓力,銀行再也堅持不住了,宣布停止將紙幣兌換成金幣或銀幣,并表示,這只是暫時的,是迫不得已而為之。經濟危機繼續惡化。

        That will be our story in the next program of THE MAKING OF A NATION.

        (MUSIC)

        ANNOUNCER:

        Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Steve Ember and Gwen Outen. Transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our programs are online, along with historical images, at www.squishedblueberries.com. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION - an American history series in VOA Special English.

        (MUSIC)

        _____________

        This is program #65 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

        網友的學習評論(2條):
        作者:Alumni
        8-28-2013 11:39:43
        this is a good class of economic lesson. what is economic crisis? it is just the flood of paper mony whose value is lowered under its pratical needs of buying things. and at this circumstances, the issue of paper currency is badly over the reserves of gold and siver in national bank.
        作者:鄭烈波
        11-27-2013 13:53:28
        mony isnot must gold
        版權所有©2003-2019 南京通享科技有限公司,保留所有權利。未經書面許可,嚴禁轉載本站內容,違者追究法律責任。 互聯網經營ICP證:蘇B2-20120186
        網站備案:蘇公網安備 32010202011039號蘇ICP備05000269號-1中國工業和信息化部網站備案查詢
        廣播臺
        又粗又大又黄又爽的免费视频