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        #63: Trouble Grows Deep in the Heart of Texas

        作者:Frank Beardsley 發布日期:4-15-2013

        Welcome to the MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

        In the early eighteen thirties, the territory of Texas belonged to Mexico. But many Americans had moved to Texas because they could buy a lot of land with little money. The government of Mexico expected the settlers to speak Spanish, to become Roman Catholic and to accept Mexican traditions. The settlers did not want to.

        十九世紀三十年代,德克薩斯一帶歸墨西哥所有。受到廉價土地的吸引,美國人蜂擁而來,搬到德克薩斯定居。墨西哥政府希望定居者改講西班牙語,改信羅馬天主教,并接受墨西哥的傳統習俗,但是美國定居者不愿意接受這一切。

        For the most part, there was little that President Andrew Jackson could do. The United States had a treaty of friendship with Mexico. The government in Washington had a duty to remain neutral, even as the situation in Texas became increasingly tense.

        遠在首都的杰克遜總統,只能靜觀事態發展,因為美國跟墨西哥達成過友好協議,雖然德克薩斯的局勢日益緊張,美國政府也只能保持中立。

        Gwen Outen and Steve Ember tell the story in this week's program in our series.

        VOICE ONE:

        Americans in Texas held a convention in April eighteen thirty-three. They prepared a list of appeals to the leader of Mexico, General Santa Ana. The Texas settlers asked Santa Ana to end a tax on goods imported into the territory. They asked him to lift a ban on new settlers from the United States. And they asked that Texas be organized as a separate state of Mexico.

        1833年四月,德克薩斯的美國定居者召開大會,向當時的墨西哥領袖--圣安納將軍提出一系列要求,包括停止對進口德克薩斯的商品收稅,取消對新定居者的禁令,讓德克薩斯成為墨西哥的一個省份。

        Stephen Austin
        Stephen Austin

        One of the Americans, Stephen Austin, carried the appeals to Mexico City. He spent six months negotiating with the Mexican government. General Santa Ana promised to honor all the requests except one. He would not make Texas a separate state, although he said that might be possible someday. Stephen Austin was satisfied. He left the Mexican capital to return to Texas.

        定居者領袖史蒂文·奧斯汀帶著請愿書前往墨西哥城,用了整整半年的時間跟墨西哥政府交涉。墨西哥領導人圣安納將軍同意接受全部請求,除了一條以外,那就是,德克薩斯目前還不能成為墨西哥的一個省份,但是今后不排除這種可能性。奧斯汀十分滿意,啟程返回德克薩斯。

        On his way home, to his surprise, Austin was arrested. He was arrested because of a letter he wrote earlier, when his negotiations with Mexican officials seemed to be failing. He had said it might be best if the people declared Texas a separate state. Austin was put in prison in Mexico City for a year and a half.

        然而,在返回德克薩斯的途中,奧斯汀卻突然被捕。奧斯汀被捕的原因是,在跟墨西哥官員談判的過程中,奧斯汀曾一度感到希望渺茫,于是寫信回家,建議他們宣布德克薩斯為一個獨立省份。這封信讓奧斯汀引火燒身,被關了一年半。

        VOICE TWO:

        Austin urged the people of Texas to remain loyal to Mexico. But talk of rebellion already had begun. The settlers already were calling themselves "Texans."

        雖然奧斯汀呼吁德克薩斯的定居者忠實于墨西哥,但是在德克薩斯人中間,反抗的火種已經播下,他們開始自稱“德克薩斯人”。

        Minor hostilities broke out between Texans and local Mexican officials. The Mexican army threatened action. When Austin returned from prison, he was chosen to negotiate with the commander of Mexican forces. The commander refused to negotiate. It appeared that war would come. The Texans began to organize their own army.

        德克薩斯人跟當地的墨西哥官員發生了小規模對抗。墨西哥軍方威脅要出兵鎮壓。奧斯汀出獄后,又被推舉去跟墨西哥軍方指揮官交涉,但是墨西哥軍方拒絕談判。眼看著戰火一觸即發,德克薩斯的美國定居者們開始積極組建部隊。

        VOICE ONE:

        In November eighteen thirty-five, representatives from all parts of Texas held a convention to discuss the situation. They had no plans to take Texas out of the Mexican Republic. In fact, a proposal to do that was defeated by a large vote.

        1835年11月,德克薩斯各地的代表召集會議,討論局勢發展。他們并不計劃脫離墨西哥,事實上,一項宣布獨立的提案遭到了多票否決。

        However, the Texans took action to protect themselves against Santa Ana, who had declared himself dictator. They organized a temporary state government. They organized a state army. And they made plans for another convention to begin on March first.

        不過,德克薩斯人還是采取了很多行動,進行自我保護,包括組建臨時省政府,組建軍隊,因為墨西哥領導人圣安納將軍當時已經宣布獨裁。除此之外,他們還決定,3月1號再召開一次大會。

        Sam Houston
        Sam Houston

        VOICE TWO:

        Before the Texans could meet again, Santa Ana led an army of seven thousand men across the Rio Grande River into Texas. The first soldiers reached San Antonio on February twenty-third. The Texas forces withdrew to an old Spanish mission church called the Alamo.

        然而,3月1號的大會還沒有召開,圣安納將軍就率領一支七千人的部隊跨過里奧格蘭德河,進入德克薩斯。圣安納將軍的先頭部隊2月23號抵達圣安東尼奧。德克薩斯部隊只好后撤,在一個名叫阿拉莫的西班牙老傳教站安營扎寨。

        On March first, the second Texas convention opened. This time, the representatives voted to declare Texas a free, independent and sovereign republic. They wrote a constitution based on the constitution of the United States. They created a government. David Burnet was named president. And Sam Houston was to continue as commander of Texas forces.

        3月1號,第二次德克薩斯大會開幕,大會代表投票決定,宣布德克薩斯為自由、獨立的主權共和國。他們以美國憲法為藍本,編纂了憲法,建立了自己的政府。戴維·波內特被推舉為總統。薩姆·休斯頓繼續擔任德克薩斯部隊的總指揮官。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE ONE:

        On the second day of the convention, a letter came from the Alamo in San Antonio. The letter was addressed to the people of Texas and all Americans. The commander of Texas forces at the Alamo wrote:

        會議第二天,圣安東尼奧的阿拉莫傳來書信,收信人是德克薩斯和美國全體人民。阿拉莫的德克薩斯指揮官在信中說,

        ''Victory or Death,'' the closing words of commander William Travis' letter from the Alamo
        ''Victory or Death,'' the closing words of commander William Travis' letter from the Alamo

        "I have been under an artillery attack for twenty-four hours and have not lost a man. The enemy has demanded our surrender. Otherwise, he said, he will kill every one of us. I have answered his demand with a cannon shot. Our flag still waves proudly from the walls. I shall never surrender or retreat. "

        “我們經歷了24小時的炮火攻擊,無一傷亡。敵人要我們投降,否則就要殺死我們每個人。我開炮做為回答。我們的旗幟還在高高飄揚,我永遠不會投降或是撤退。”

        "I call on you -- in the name of liberty, of patriotism, and everything dear to the American character -- to come to our aid with all speed. If my appeal is not answered, I will fight as long as possible, and die like a soldier who never forgets what he owes his own honor and that of his country."

        這位指揮官還說,“我以自由、愛國、以及所有美國人熱忱執著的信念為名義,請求你們迅速援救。如果請求得不到答復,我會堅持到最后一刻,作為一名銘記自己和國家榮譽的士兵,戰死在沙場上。

        The letter from the Alamo closed with the words: "Victory or Death."

        ”信的結尾是,“勝利或是死亡。”

        VOICE TWO:

        Representatives at the convention wanted to leave immediately to go to the aid of the Texans in San Antonio. But Sam Houston told them it was their duty to remain and create a government for Texas. Houston would go there himself with a small force.

        大會代表希望馬上動身,趕到圣安東尼奧去解圍,但是德克薩斯部隊的總指揮官薩姆·休斯頓說,大會代表的責任是為德克薩斯組建政府,他本人會率領小股救兵趕往圣安東尼奧。

        The help came too late for the one hundred eighty-eight men at the Alamo. Santa Ana's forces captured the Spanish mission on March sixth. When the battle ended, not a Texan was left alive.

        但是,救兵還是來晚了。在圣安納將軍的強烈攻勢下,阿拉莫要塞3月6號失陷,戰斗結束時,德克薩斯部隊全體陣亡。

        Sam Houston ordered all Texas forces to withdraw northeast -- away from the Mexican army.

        薩姆·休斯頓下令向東北方向撤退,遠離墨西哥軍隊。

        An artist's version of the Battle of the Alamo
        An artist's version of the Battle of the Alamo

        VOICE ONE:

        One group of Texans did not move fast enough. Santa Ana trapped them. He said the Texans would not be harmed if they surrendered. They did. One week later, they were marched to a field and shot. Only a few escaped to tell the story.

        其中一部分德克薩斯部隊行動遲緩,被圣安納率領的墨西哥部隊包圍。圣安納傳話說,只要他們投降,就不會受到傷害。德克薩斯部隊決定投降,但是一星期后,他們被帶到一片空地上開槍射殺,少數幾個逃跑的幸存者講述了事實經過。

        Santa Ana then moved against Sam Houston. He was sure his large army could defeat the remaining Texas force.

        圣安納向薩姆·休斯頓發動進攻。他堅信,殘余的德克薩斯部隊面對自己的大批部隊不堪一擊。

        President Andrew Jackson and Sam Houston were close friends. When told of Houston's retreat, the president pointed to a map of Texas. He said: "If Sam Houston is worth anything, he will make his stand here.

        杰克遜總統是薩姆·休斯頓的好友。得知休斯頓后撤的消息后,杰克遜指著德克薩斯的地圖說,“如果薩姆·休斯頓有本事,他就一定會堅守在這個地方。

        Jackson pointed to the mouth of the San Jacinto River.

        ”他指的地方是圣哈辛托河口。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE TWO:

        The battle of San Jacinto began at four o'clock in the afternoon. There were about eight-hundred Texans. There were two times that many Mexicans. The Mexicans did not expect the retreating Texans to turn and fight. But they did.

        圣哈辛托一戰下午四點打響。當時,德克薩斯部隊有八百人,是墨西哥兵力的一半。墨西哥部隊沒想到后撤的德克薩斯人會發動反擊。

        Shouting "Remember the Alamo!" the Texans ran at the Mexican soldiers. Eighteen minutes later, the battle was over. Santa Ana's army was destroyed. About half of the Mexicans were killed or wounded. The other half were captured. Only two Texans were killed. Twenty-three, including Sam Houston, were wounded.

        德克薩斯士兵高喊“記住阿拉莫”,沖向墨西哥部隊。戰斗只用了十八分鐘就結束了。圣安納的部隊潰不成軍,一半傷亡,另外一半被俘。在德克薩斯這邊,只有兩個德克薩斯人被打死,還有包括薩姆·休斯頓在內的23個人受傷。

        VOICE ONE:

        The Texans found Santa Ana the next day, wearing the clothes of a simple Mexican soldier. Santa Ana begged for mercy. Houston told him: "You might have shown some at the Alamo."

        德克薩斯部隊第二天抓住了穿著士兵軍裝的圣安納將軍,他向休斯頓求饒,休斯頓回答說,“你在阿拉莫的時候本該仁慈一些!”

        Many of the Texans wanted to shoot the Mexican general. But Houston said he was worth more alive than dead.

        很多德克薩斯士兵主張槍斃了圣安納,而休斯頓卻說,他活著要比死了值錢。

        On May fourteenth, eighteen thirty-six, Texas President Burnet and General Santa Ana signed a treaty. The treaty made Texas independent.

        1836年5月14號,德克薩斯總統波內特和圣安納簽署協議,宣布德克薩斯獨立。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE TWO:

        Eighteen thirty-six was a presidential election year in the United States. Andrew Jackson had served for eight years. He did not want another term. He supported his vice president, Martin Van Buren.

        1836年正趕上美國總統大選年。安德魯·杰克遜已經當了八年總統,不想再干了。他支持自己的副總統馬丁·范布倫出來選總統。

        Jackson's opposition to the demands for more states' rights, and his attack on the Bank of the United States, had created problems for his Democratic Party. Texas also was a problem.

        杰克遜反對增加各州的權力,以及他對美國銀行的政策,都給民主黨帶來了麻煩,如今又多了一個德克薩斯。

        Slavery was legal in the new Republic of Texas. Most northerners in the United States opposed slavery anywhere. Jackson felt that if he recognized Texas, the Democrats would lose votes in the presidential election. So Jackson decided not to act on Texas until after the election.

        在新獨立的德克薩斯,奴隸制是合法的。美國北方大部分人反對奴隸制。杰克遜覺得,承認德克薩斯會影響到民主黨在大選中的支持率,所以決定等大選過后再采取行動。

        VOICE ONE:

        Opposition to the Democrats came from a coalition political party. Members of the party called themselves Whigs. Three Whigs ran for president in eighteen thirty-six against Martin Van Buren.

        民主黨的競選對手是一個反對黨聯盟,自稱輝格黨。1836年大選,輝格黨三個成員挑戰范布倫。

        The Whigs did not expect any of their candidates to win. But they hoped to get enough votes to prevent Van Buren from gaining a majority. Then the House of Representatives would have to decide the election. And a Whig might have a better chance. The plan failed. Van Buren won.

        他們知道自己勝選的希望微乎其微,唯一的指望是爭取選票,不讓范布倫得到多數票,最后由眾議院定奪,只有這樣他們才有一線希望。但是輝格黨的計劃破產,范布倫順利當選。

        Andrew Jackson
        Andrew Jackson

        VOICE TWO:

        Andrew Jackson had only a few months left as president. It seemed that much of his time was occupied with one question. That was the request by the Republic of Texas to become a state of the union.

        在安德魯·杰克遜任期的最后幾個月的時間里,他想的只有一件事兒,那就是德克薩斯共和國加入美國的問題。

        Jackson wanted to make Texas a state. But more important was the union itself. The issue of slavery in Texas was critical. Jackson said:

        杰克遜想讓德克薩斯成為美國的一個州,關鍵是德克薩斯的奴隸制。

        "To give statehood to Texas now, or to recognize its independence, would increase the bitterness between the north and south. Nothing is worth this price."

        杰克遜說,“吸收德克薩斯成為美國的一個州,或是承認德克薩斯的獨立,都會加劇美國南方和北方之間的分歧。代價太大了。”

        Then Jackson thought of a way in which statehood for Texas could bring the nation together, instead of splitting it apart.

        杰克遜思前想后,終于想出了一個好辦法,讓德克薩斯的加盟促進,而不是分裂國家的團結。

        That will be our story next week.

        (THEME)

        ANNOUNCER:

        Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Gwen Outen and Steve Ember. Transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our programs along with historical images are online at www.squishedblueberries.com. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION - an American history series in VOA Special English.

        ___

        This is program #63 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

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