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        #62: Jackson's Victory Over the Bank of the US

        作者:Frank Beardsley 發布日期:4-14-2013

        Welcome to the MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

        The national election of eighteen thirty-two put Andrew Jackson in the White House for a second term as president. One of the major events of his second term was the fight against the Bank of the United States. Jackson believed that the bank had grown too powerful. He urged Congress not to renew the bank's charter to do business. He also stopped putting federal money into the Bank of the United States. Instead, he put the money into state banks.

        安德魯.杰克遜在1832年的總統大選中當選連任。杰克遜第二屆任期內的主要事件之一是跟美國銀行的斗爭。杰克遜覺得,美國銀行的勢力過于強大,他敦促國會不要再延長美國銀行的特許經營權。他還停止了美國銀行使用聯邦資金的特權,并把聯邦資金轉入各州銀行。

        Andrew Jackson
        Andrew Jackson

        The head of the Bank of the United States was Nicholas Biddle. Biddle fought with all his power to keep the bank open. He created a financial panic and blamed it on President Jackson. Biddle did this by demanding immediate repayment of loans. Businesses struggled without the bank's financial assistance. Workers lost their jobs.

        美國銀行當時的行長是尼克拉斯.比德爾。比德爾千方百計能讓美國銀行繼續經營下去。為了達到目的,比德爾不惜制造金融混亂,然后把責任推給杰克遜。比德爾的做法是,宣布立即收回貸款。很多公司因為沒有了銀行貸款,被迫倒閉,很多人也因此失去了飯碗。

        President Jackson was warned that a mob could march on Washington. But nothing happened. Most of the battle against the Bank of the United States was fought in Congress.

        有人警告杰克遜說,一群暴民要在華盛頓游行示威,但是這種情況并沒有發生。圍繞美國銀行的斗爭主要是在國會展開的。

        Now, in this week's program in our series, we continue the story with Bob Doughty and Sarah Long.

        VOICE ONE:

        Senator Henry Clay of Kentucky led the support for the bank. Clay was head of the opposition political party, the National Republicans. Clay argued his case on the floor of the Senate for three days. He strongly urged the Senate to re-new the bank's charter. He said:

        亨利.克萊參議員是共和黨領袖,也是美國銀行在國會參議院里的主要支持者。他整整花了三天的時間,在參議院里長篇大論,敦促參議院延長美國銀行的特許經營權。

        "The country is in the middle of a revolution ... not yet a bloody revolution. But things are happening that point to a total change of the pure republican character of our government. Power is being centered in the hands of one man." He meant President Jackson.

        克萊說:“國家正在經歷一場革命,雖然尚未流血,但是如果任其發展下去,美國政府純潔的共和色彩就會徹底變質,權力會集中在一個人的手中。”克萊說的這個人顯然就是杰克遜。

        Clay added: "If Congress does not act, the government will fail. And we will all die as slaves." Clay then asked the Senate to condemn Jackson for violating the constitution and the nation's laws. The Senate approved the resolution.

        克萊繼續說:“如果國會不采取行動,政府就會垮臺,我們都會象奴隸一樣死去。”克萊隨即要求參議院譴責杰克遜違反憲法和法律。參議院批準了克萊提出的決議。

        VOICE TWO:

        Things went better for Jackson in the House of Representatives. James Polk defended Jackson's opposition to the bank. Polk said: "The bank set itself up as a great, irresponsible, competing power of the government. If the bank wins this fight, no man afterwards can expect to be elected to high office in this country without first surrendering to the bank. The question is," Polk said, "if we shall have the republic without the bank or the bank without the republic."

        眾議院的情況要好一些。眾議員詹姆斯.波爾克為杰克遜的美國銀行政策提出辯護。他說:“美國銀行培植勢力,成為強大的、不負責任的,跟政府爭奪權力的對手。如果讓美國銀行占了上風,今后任何人當選總統,都要屈從了美國銀行才行?,F在的問題是,我們是選擇沒有美國銀行的共和國,還是沒有共和國的美國銀行。”

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE ONE:

        As time passed, businessmen began to see that the Bank of the United States was being much tighter in its money policy than was necessary. They began to feel that it was Biddle -- not Jackson -- who was responsible for the serious economic situation in the country. Biddle took no responsibility for the financial crisis. He said:

        商人們慢慢發現,美國銀行的放貸政策完全沒有必要限制得那么嚴。他們開始意識到,自己面對的經濟困境是比德爾、而不是杰克遜一手造成的。但比德爾卻把責任推得一干二凈。

        "The relief must come from Congress, and Congress alone. The bank feels no need to right the wrongs caused by these miserable people. This president thinks he is to have his way with the bank. He is mistaken."

        比德爾說:“出路只能來自國會。美國銀行沒有必要去糾正這些可憐人制造的錯誤??偨y以為他可以讓美國銀行唯命是從,他錯了。”

        Nicholas Biddle
        Nicholas Biddle

        VOICE TWO:

        Biddle then made a serious mistake. He asked the governor of Pennsylvania to make a speech to the state legislature--a speech supporting the bank. At the same time, Biddle refused to lend the state of Pennsylvania three hundred-thousand dollars.

        然而,比德爾犯了一個致命的錯誤。他要求賓夕法尼亞州州長在州議會上發表一篇支持美國銀行的講話。但是與此同時,比德爾又拒絕接受賓夕法尼亞州三十萬美元的貸款申請。

        The governor was furious. Instead of making a speech supporting the bank, he made one that sharply criticized it. The upper house of the Pennsylvania legislature agreed with the governor. Although Nicholas Biddle threatened all sorts of action, the upper house passed a resolution that Congress should not give the bank a new charter.

        賓夕法尼亞州州長一怒之下,不僅沒有發表講話支持美國銀行,反而對美國銀行提出了嚴辭批評。賓夕法尼亞州參議院同意州長的看法。盡管比德爾危言聳聽,但是賓州參議院還是通過決議案,反對延長美國銀行的經營特許權。

        VOICE ONE:

        Two days later, the governor of New York proposed that the state sell four or five million dollars of stock for loans to help state banks. The New York legislature approved selling even more.

        兩天后,紐約州長提議拋售400萬到500萬美元的股票,幫助州里的銀行。紐約州議會不僅投票批準,而且還增加了拋售股票的數額。

        This action would strengthen the state banks and help to break the power of the Bank of the United States. Nicholas Biddle began to see that the battle was lost. He started making more loans to businesses. The economic panic he had started slowly ended.

        這一行動加強了紐約州內銀行的實力,幫助他們擺脫美國銀行的控制。比德爾看到敗局已定,只好開始增加貸款,美國的經濟困境也逐漸消失。

        A Bank of the United States building in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
        A Bank of the United States building in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

        VOICE TWO:

        Jackson's victory over the Bank of the United States was clear. Biddle started to lose the support of many members of Congress. In the House of Representatives, James Polk proposed four resolutions on the bank. One said the bank should not get a new charter.

        在杰克遜總統跟美國銀行的斗爭中,美國銀行最后敗下陣來。行長比德爾也開始失去國會成員的支持。國會眾議員詹姆斯.波爾克提出四項決議,其中一項是,不再延長美國銀行的經營權。

        The second resolution said government money should not be deposited in the bank. The third said the government should continue to put its money in state banks. And the fourth proposed an investigation of the bank and the reasons for the economic panic in the country. All four of these anti-bank resolutions were approved.

        第二項決議是,政府資金不再存入美國銀行。第三項決議是:政府繼續將資金存入各州的銀行。第四項決議是,對美國銀行和金融困境的原因展開調查。結果,四項決議全部通過。

        VOICE ONE:

        One of Biddle's assistants described the feelings of bank officials.

        比德爾的一位助手形容美國銀行官員的感受時說:

        "This day," he said, "should be ripped from the history of our republic. The president of the United States has seized the public treasury in violation of the law of the land. And the representatives of the people have approved his action."

        “這一天,應該從共和國的歷史中抹掉。美國總統背離法律,奪取了公共財政,他的行動居然得到了國會代表的批準。”

        Jackson's words were shorter: "I have won a glorious triumph."

        杰克遜對此的描述則簡單得多。他說:“我取得了偉大的勝利。”

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE TWO:

        The other major event of Andrew Jackson's second term as president was the situation in Texas. In an agreement with Spain in eighteen nineteen, the United States had given up its claim to Texas. In exchange, Spain gave the United States all of Florida.

        安德魯.杰克遜第二屆任期內的另外一起重大事件發生在德克薩斯。美國1819年的時候跟西班牙達成協議,同意放棄德克薩斯,換取佛羅里達。

        After Mexico won its independence from Spain in eighteen twenty-one, the United States tried to buy Texas. Mexico did not want to sell. When Andrew Jackson became president he, too, tried to buy Texas. Mexico still refused to sell.

        墨西哥1821年宣布脫離西班牙獨立后,美國試圖收購德克薩斯,但是墨西哥不想賣。杰克遜當上總統后,又試圖收購德州,再次遭到拒絕。

        Stephen Austin
        Stephen Austin

        VOICE ONE:

        Texas was a rich land. But it was empty. Mexico decided to permit Americans to build colonies in Texas. Stephen Austin formed the first colony in eighteen twenty-two. Each farming family in his colony could have about eighty hectares of land.

        德克薩斯地域廣闊,但是人煙稀少。墨西哥決定允許美國人在那里建立定居點。史蒂文.奧斯汀1822年建立了第一個定居點,定居點里的每一戶家庭可以擁有80公頃土地。

        Each family that wished to raise cattle could have about two thousand hectares. The settlers in Texas were able to buy the land for almost nothing. But they had to promise to join the Roman Catholic Church. They also had to promise to obey the laws of Mexico.

        每個愿意養牛的家庭可以擁有大約兩千公頃的土地。在德克薩斯定居下來的人雖然買地用不著花多少錢,但是必需保證加入羅馬天主教會,并且保證遵守墨西哥的法律。

        Most of the settlers came from the states of Tennessee, Mississippi and Louisiana. Many owned slaves and brought the slaves with them to Texas. During the eighteen twenties, Americans poured into Texas for the low-priced land.

        當時,在德克薩斯定居的大多數人來自美國的田納西、密西西比和路易斯安那一帶。很多人都是奴隸主,帶著奴隸來到德克薩斯。十九世紀二十年代,受到德克薩斯廉價土地的吸引,美國人蜂擁而至。

        VOICE TWO:

        The leader of one American colony got into trouble with the Mexican government. He was ordered to leave, but refused. With the help of a few supporters, he seized the town of Nacogdoches. He declared Texas to be an independent republic. He called it Fredonia.

        美國定居點的一位領袖跟墨西哥政府發生了爭執。墨西哥政府勒令他離開,但是他拒不服從。他率領一群支持者奪取了一個叫做納科多奇斯的城鎮,宣布德克薩斯為獨立共和國,稱之為弗雷多尼亞。

        This man expected the other American colonists to join him against Mexico. He was wrong. Most of the colonists did not support him. In fact, some even joined the Mexican force that put down his rebellion. The man fled back across the border into the United States.

        此人原以為其他美國定居者會跟他一起反對墨西哥,但是他錯了。大多數定居者并不支持他的做法,有些人甚至參加墨西哥的部隊,鎮壓反抗。這位領袖最后只好跑回美國。

        VOICE ONE:

        The rebellion failed. But it made Mexican leaders see the danger of continuing to permit Americans to settle in Texas. The Mexican government sent an official to inspect conditions along the border with the United States. The official reported that as he traveled north through Texas, he saw less and less that was Mexican and more and more that was American.

        起義雖然被鎮壓下去了,但是墨西哥政府意識到,繼續讓美國人在德克薩斯定居會帶來很多麻煩。墨西哥政府派遣一位官員,到墨西哥跟美國的邊境一帶視察。這位官員回來后報告說,他在德克薩斯一代,越往北走,墨西哥的痕跡就越少,美國的標志就越多。

        He said there were very few Mexicans in some towns. And these Mexicans, he said, were extremely poor. He said the American settlers were not becoming true Mexicans. They were not speaking Spanish. They were not becoming Roman Catholics. And they were not accepting Mexican traditions. The official said the situation in Texas could throw the whole Mexican nation into revolution. He urged Mexico to send troops to occupy Texas.

        他還說,一些城鎮里幾乎沒有什么墨西哥人,為數不多的幾個墨西哥人也都窮得叮當響。他說,美國定居者并沒有變成真正的墨西哥人,他們不講西班牙語,不信羅馬天主教,不接受墨西哥傳統。這位官員警告說,德克薩斯的局勢可能會在墨西哥引發起義,并敦促政府出兵德克薩斯。

        That will be our story next week.

        (MUSIC)

        ANNOUNCER:

        Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Bob Doughty and Sarah Long. Transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our programs are online, along with historical images, at www.squishedblueberries.com. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION - an American history series in VOA Special English.

        ___

        This is program #62 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

        網友的學習評論(1條):
        作者:Alumni
        8-26-2013 21:15:19
        the time of the sixth Presidency of the United States , Texas was still in the control of Spanish. The United States have really been built step by step.
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