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        #61: Economic Crisis Results as Jackson Aims to Shut Bank

        作者:Frank Beardsley 發布日期:4-13-2013

        Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English.

        Andrew Jackson was elected president in eighteen twenty-eight. He was popular with voters. But he was not sure he wanted to run for re-election in eighteen thirty-two. He was getting old. He suffered from health problems. Yet he wanted to give voters a chance to show their approval of his programs.

        安德魯.杰克遜1828年當選總統。但是,是否要參選連任?杰克遜舉棋不定。一方面,他年事已高,身體不好;但是另一方面,杰克遜又很想知道,自己的政綱是否得到了選民的肯定。

        So Jackson made a decision. He would run again. If he won, however, he would resign after the first or second year. He would leave the job to his vice president.

        杰克遜最后決定參加競選,如果當選連任,干上一、兩年,然后辭職,讓賢給副總統。

        Now, this week in our series, Rich Kleinfeldt and Sarah Long continue the story of Andrew Jackson and his presidency.

        Andrew Jackson
        Andrew Jackson

        VOICE ONE:

        President Jackson spoke of this plan to the man he wanted as his vice president, Martin Van Buren. He made the offer in eighteen thirty, when Van Buren was still his secretary of state. Van Buren thanked Jackson for the offer. However, he rejected it. Van Buren said it would be politically dangerous. He did not want anyone to say that he had been brought into the presidency in secret.

        杰克遜總統把他的計劃告訴了他看中的副總統人選馬丁.范布倫。他1830年提出這個主意的時候,范布倫還是他的國務卿。范布倫感謝杰克遜的賞識,但是婉然拒絕了杰克遜的提議。他認為,這樣做無異于在政治上走鋼絲,他不想被別人說,自己是通過私下交易當上總統的。

        Jackson did not give up his idea. For more than a year, he continued to urge Van Buren to accept the offer. Van Buren continued to say no. He agreed to be Jackson's vice presidential candidate in eighteen thirty-two. But he said he did not want to become president without being elected by the people.

        杰克遜并沒有立即放棄。他在隨后一年多的時間里,不斷勸說范布倫,但是范布倫也很堅定。他同意出任副總統候選人,參加1832年大選,但是不想成為一個沒有經過人民選舉的總統。

        VOICE TWO:

        As the election got closer, Jackson's health began to improve. He began to think about serving a second full term. One thing that helped was an operation to remove a bullet from his arm.

        隨著總統大選的臨近,杰克遜的健康狀況也開始出現好轉,其中很重要的一個原因是,醫生通過手術取出了杰克遜胳膊里的一顆子彈。杰克遜因此開始認真考慮做完第二個任期。

        He had received the wound during a gun fight with another man about twenty years earlier. It troubled him so badly that sometimes he could not use the arm. Doctors were afraid to remove the bullet. They thought it might cause a terrible shock to his heart.

        杰克遜在二十年前的一次決斗中受傷,子彈留在了胳膊里。這顆子彈讓他十分苦惱,受傷的那只胳膊有時甚至不能動彈。醫生們不敢輕易取出子彈,生怕杰克遜的心臟無法承受。

        VOICE ONE:

        Early in the election year, a doctor said he believed the bullet could be removed easily. He told the president that it was poisoning his whole body. Jackson asked the doctor to cut out the bullet at once. The operation was over in a few minutes. Jackson's health quickly became much better.

        大選年年初,一位醫生告訴杰克遜說,他覺得子彈很容易取出,繼續留在體內會讓整個身體受到毒害。杰克遜決定立即手術。手術只用了幾分鐘,子彈取出后,杰克遜的健康迅速改善。

        A funny little story was told about that bullet. Someone reportedly said Jackson should give it to the family of the man who shot him. One family member rejected the offer. He said Jackson had possessed the bullet for twenty years. So, he said, under the law, Jackson had clear ownership to it. "Only nineteen years," someone noted. "Oh," the man said, "that is all right. Since Jackson took good care of it, I will forget the extra year."

        關于這顆子彈還有一個很好笑的故事。有人提出,杰克遜應該把子彈還給跟他決斗的那個人的家人。結果那家人表示拒絕,還說,杰克遜保留這顆子彈已經20年了,按照法律,杰克遜才是子彈的主人。有人提出,不到二十年,而是十九年。那家人回答說,“沒有關系,杰克遜把子彈保管得這么好,差一年就差一年吧。”

        (MUSIC)

        Henry Clay
        Henry Clay

        VOICE TWO:

        The presidential election campaign of eighteen thirty-two was bitter. President Jackson was, once again, the candidate of the Democratic Party. Henry Clay was the candidate of the National Republican Party.

        1832年的總統大選異常激烈。杰克遜是民主黨候選人,亨利.克萊是共和黨候選人。

        Clay had the support of Nicholas Biddle, who was head of the Bank of the United States. He also had the support of about two-thirds of the nation's newspapers. This was because most of them owed money to the bank. Most wealthy people supported Clay, too.

        克萊得到了美國銀行行長尼克拉斯.比德爾的支持。他還有全國三分之二報紙的支持,因為這些報紙都欠了美國銀行的錢。大多數有錢人也站在克萊一邊。

        Farmers and laborers supported Jackson. They showed their support by marching in parades and holding big, noisy public meetings.

        與此同時,農民和勞工階層是杰克遜的堅強后盾。他們組織游行集會,表達對杰克遜的支持。

        VOICE ONE:

        On election day, the people showed that Jackson was still their president. There was a much bigger difference in popular votes between Jackson and Clay than between Jackson and John Quincy Adams four years earlier. As the votes were counted, one of Clay's supporters said: "The news blows over us like a great cold storm."

        選舉日當天,選民證明,杰克遜仍是他們擁護的總統。杰克遜跟克萊之間票數的差距,遠遠超過了四年前杰克遜跟約翰.昆西.亞當斯之間的差距。選票清點過程中,克萊的一個支持者說,“消息的傳來,就好像是一場寒冷的風暴。”

        Jackson received about six hundred eighty-eight thousand popular votes. Clay received about four hundred seventy-three thousand votes. In the electoral college, Jackson got more than four times the number of votes than Clay got. Jackson's vice president would be Martin Van Buren.

        最后,杰克遜得到了大約68萬八千張選票??巳R得到了大約47萬三千張選票。如果按照選舉人票計算的話,杰克遜的票數是克萊的四倍多。馬丁.范布倫是杰克遜的副總統競選搭檔。

        VOICE TWO:

        Andrew Jackson saw his re-election as proof that the American people approved of his policies. This included his policy to close the Bank of the United States when its charter ended in eighteen thirty-six.

        杰克遜從自己的競選連任中看出,自己的政策深得人心,其中也包括他關于美國銀行特許經營權在1836年結束后不再延長的決定。

        During his second term, Jackson decided on a plan to reduce the bank's economic power. He would stop putting federal money into the bank. Instead, he would put it into state banks. This would greatly reduce the amount of money the Bank of the United States could use.

        杰克遜決定不再把聯邦資金放進美國銀行,而是轉到各州的銀行去。這樣一來,美國銀行可以動用的資金就大大減少了。

        VOICE ONE:

        The plan was not as easy as it seemed. The charter for the bank said federal money had to be kept there unless the secretary of the treasury ordered it put someplace else. President Jackson's treasury secretary was friendly to the bank. He would not give the order.

        這項計劃聽起來容易,但是執行起來,可就沒有那么簡單了。美國銀行的憲章規定,聯邦資金應該放進美國銀行,除非財政部長另行規定。杰克遜手下的財政部長跟美國銀行關系非常好,因此不肯按照杰克遜的指令行事。

        Jackson would have to dismiss the man and appoint someone who supported his plan. But the treasury secretary was a powerful politician. Jackson could not push him out of the job. He had to find another way. So he decided to reorganize his whole cabinet.

        杰克遜要達到自己的目的,只能先解除現任財政部長的職務。然而,這位財政部長位高權重,杰克遜搬不倒他。杰克遜只好另覓蹊徑,最后決定重組內閣。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE TWO:

        Jackson named his secretary of state to be minister to France. He named his treasury secretary to be secretary of state. Then he brought in someone new as secretary of the treasury. That turned out to be a mistake.

        杰克遜任命當時的國務卿出任駐法大使,任命財政部長繼任國務卿,然后任命了一位新財政部長,結果證明,這是一大錯誤。

        The new treasury secretary refused to put federal money anywhere but in the Bank of the United States. He also refused to resign when Jackson asked him to resign. So Jackson dismissed him and named yet another new treasury secretary.

        新財長拒絕把聯邦資金放在美國銀行以外的任何地方,也不肯辭職。杰克遜沒有辦法,只好又解除了他的職務,再換另外一個人擔任財政部長。

        Nicholas Biddle
        Nicholas Biddle

        VOICE ONE:

        This man immediately ordered that after October first, eighteen thirty-three, all federal money was to be put into twenty-three state banks. He did not withdraw the government money already in the Bank of the United States. He said this money could be used to make payments until it was all gone.

        新財長一上臺,立即下令,從1836年10月1號開始,聯邦資金全部存入23家州銀行。他沒有把美國銀行里現有的聯邦資金取走,決定讓美國銀行用這筆錢去付款,直到用完為止。

        Nicholas Biddle, the head of the bank, fought back. He ordered the immediate repayment of all bank loans. He also withdrew from public use large numbers of bank notes. People had been using the notes as money.

        美國銀行行長尼克拉斯.比德爾毫不示弱。他下令,立即收回美國銀行的所有貸款,同時還取消了流通領域內民眾當做貨幣使用的大量票據。

        VOICE TWO:

        These actions caused serious economic difficulties throughout the country. Many businesses failed. They could not pay back their loans or borrow the money they needed. As businesses failed, workers lost their jobs.

        這些行動在國內造成了嚴重的經濟困境。很多公司因為無法償還貸款,或是借不到錢,而被迫倒閉,很多人也因此失去了工作。

        Nicholas Biddle said the Jackson administration was responsible for all the trouble. He said the bank was forced to take firm measures, because it was losing government money. He told people to protest to the administration. Critics of President Jackson's bank policy called him "King Andrew the First."

        尼克拉斯.比德爾把經濟困境歸咎于杰克遜政府。他說,美國銀行被迫采取強硬措施,因為他們失去了政府資金。他還告訴民眾,可以對杰克遜政府提出抗議。對杰克遜的政策持批評態度的人把杰克遜稱為“安德魯國王一世”。

        VOICE ONE:

        Groups of businessmen called on the president at the White House. They urged him to put government money back into the bank. Jackson told one group: "I will never restore the money. I will never renew the charter of the Bank of the United States. If you want help, go to Nicholas Biddle. "

        很多商業社團都強烈要求杰克遜把聯邦資金重新轉入美國銀行。杰克遜告訴其中一個社團說,“我決不會把資金放回去,也決不會延長美國銀行的特許經營權,如果你需要幫助,去找尼克拉斯.比德爾。”

        VOICE TWO:

        The president's actions worried even some of his supporters. There could be serious long-term effects of closing the Bank of the United States. Some of his supporters in Congress went to see him. They warned him of reports that a mob was forming to march on Washington. They told him that the mob planned to seize the Capitol building until Congress returned government money to the bank.

        杰克遜的舉動讓他的不少支持者深感擔憂。關閉美國銀行會帶來嚴重的長期影響。國會里一些杰克遜的支持者找到杰克遜,提醒他,有傳聞說,一些暴民正在組織在華盛頓的集會游行。他們還告訴他,這些暴民打算占領國會,逼迫國會把聯邦資金重新轉入美國銀行。

        "Gentlemen," Jackson said, "I will be glad to see this mob on Capitol Hill. I will hang its leaders high. That should stop forever all attempts to control Congress by force."

        杰克遜回答說,“先生們,我倒是要看看這些到國會來的暴民。我要把他們的首領吊死在高高的地方,這樣就不會再有人試圖武力控制國會了。”

        We will continue our story of Andrew Jackson's second term as president next week.

        (MUSIC)

        ANNOUNCER:

        Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Rich Kleinfeldt and Sarah Long.

        Transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our programs can be found along with historical images at www.squishedblueberries.com. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION, an American history series in VOA Special English.

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