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        #60: Debating the Powerful Bank of the US

        作者:Frank Beardsley 發布日期:4-12-2013

        Welcome to the MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

        The question of continuing the Bank of the United States became a serious political issue in the national election of eighteen thirty-two. The head of the bank, Nicholas Biddle, had become very powerful. Biddle refused to recognize that the government had the right to interfere in any way with the bank's business. The bank was privately operated but could make loans with taxpayers' money.

        美國銀行是否要繼續下去,成了美國1832年總統大選的一個重要議題。美國銀行行長尼克拉斯.比德爾手中掌握著巨大的權力,他認為,聯邦政府無權干涉銀行業務。美國銀行雖然由私人負責經營,但是有權動用國庫里的錢發行貸款。

        Andrew Jackson
        Andrew Jackson

        President Andrew Jackson understood the power of the Bank of the United States. He opposed giving the bank a new charter.

        杰克遜總統知道美國銀行的實力,反對延長美國銀行的特許經營權。

        Jackson said the Bank of the United States was dangerous to the liberty of Americans. The bank, he said, could build up or pull down political parties through loans to politicians. The bank, he said, would always support those who supported the bank. He proposed to form a new national bank, as part of the Treasury Department.

        杰克遜說,美國銀行的存在是對人民自由的威脅,因為美國銀行可以通過向政客提供貸款,建筑或是摧毀政黨。杰克遜還說,美國銀行會出錢回報自己的支持者。杰克遜建議,在財政部下面建立一個新的國家銀行。

        This week in our series, Stewart Spencer and Maurice Joyce continue the story of the Bank of the United States.

        VOICE ONE:

        In the election year of eighteen thirty-two, the bank still had four years left to continue. Its charter would not end until eighteen thirty-six. Jackson had been urging Congress to act early, so that the bank could -- if its charter were rejected -- close its business slowly over several years. This would prevent serious economic problems for the country.

        1832年大選年,美國銀行的特許經營權還剩四年。杰克遜早就敦促國會在美國銀行特許經營權結束前提早考慮這家銀行的前途。如果特許經營權宣告結束,美國銀行就要在幾年時間內按部就班地停止各項業務,以免引發嚴重的經濟問題。

        Many of Jackson's advisers believed he should say nothing about the bank until after the election. They feared he might lose the votes of some supporters of the bank. Biddle felt that this might be the best time to get a charter.

        杰克遜的很多顧問都認為,在1832年總統大選之前,杰克遜最好不要在這個問題上多說話。他們擔心,杰克遜會失去那些支持美國銀行的人的選票。而美國銀行行長比德爾卻覺得,這是一個申請新的特許經營權的天賜良機。

        Henry Clay
        Henry Clay

        Henry Clay, the presidential candidate of the National Republicans, helped Biddle to make this decision. Senator Clay, however, was not thinking of the bank when he gave his advice. Clay needed an issue to campaign on. Most of the people of the country approved of Jackson's programs. Clay could not get votes by opposing successful programs. But, he was sure that the issue of the bank could get him some votes.

        當時的共和黨總統候選人亨利.克萊支持比德爾的決定。不過,克萊并不是出于關心美國銀行的前途,而是因為需要一個競選議題。杰克遜總統的執政綱領得到了大多數人的支持,克萊要想爭取選票,只能從美國銀行這個問題上下手。

        VOICE TWO:

        The campaign for a new charter was led by the most powerful men in each house of Congress. In the Senate, the bank's supporters included Senator Clay and Daniel Webster. Former President John Quincy Adams -- now a congressman -- led the bank's struggle in the house.

        美國銀行的前途在國會參眾兩院引起了激烈辯論。參議院里主張延長特許經營權的除了克萊以外,還有丹尼爾.韋伯斯特,眾議院里的支持者以前總統約翰.昆西.亞當斯為首。

        The chief opponent to the bank was Senator Thomas Hart Benton of Missouri. "I object to the renewal of the charter," he told the Senate, "because the bank is too great and powerful to be permitted in a government of free and equal laws. I also object because the bank makes the rich richer, and the poor poorer."

        參議院里的主要反對者之一是密蘇里州的參議員托馬斯.哈特.本頓。他曾經說過,“我反對延長特許經營權,因為在一個自由平等法律體制下的政府里,美國銀行已經變得過于強大,而且,美國銀行會讓富人更富,窮人更窮。”

        VOICE ONE:

        In the House, Representative Augustin Clayton of Georgia proposed an investigation of the bank. In a speech written by Senator Benton, Clayton charged that the bank had violated its charter a number of times.

        在眾議院里,喬治亞州的眾議員奧古斯丁.克雷頓建議對美國銀行展開調查??死最D眾議員指責美國銀行曾經多次違反銀行憲章。

        The bank's supporters were afraid to vote down the proposed investigation. It would be almost the same thing as saying that the charges were true. The investigation was approved. And a special committee was given six weeks to study the charges against the bank.

        美國銀行的支持者不敢投票反對調查,那樣做就等于是承認指控屬實。國會批準對美國銀行展開調查,并成立了一個特別委員會,調查期為六周。

        Four members of the seven-man committee were opponents of the bank. Three, including John Quincy Adams, were friendly. As expected, opponents of the bank found the charges to be true. And the bank's supporters found them all to be false.

        這個委員會里有七個人,其中四個人是美國銀行的反對者,另外三個人是美國銀行的支持者,其中也包括前總統約翰.昆西.亞當斯。結果不出所料,美國銀行的反對者認為指控成立,支持者認為指控不成立。

        The majority report told of easy loans made to congressmen and newspapermen. It said a New York newspaper that had opposed the bank began supporting it after receiving a secret fifteen-thousand-dollar loan.

        大部分指控都是說美國銀行利用貸款跟國會議員和記者拉攏關系,比如說有一家紐約報紙,本來是反對美國銀行的,后來得到了一筆價值一萬五千美元的秘密貸款,立即改變了立場。

        (MUSIC)

        Roger Taney
        Roger Taney

        VOICE TWO:

        The investigation did not really change the votes of any of the congressmen. Many votes had been bought by the bank.

        調查并沒有改變議員們的立場。很多人都已經被美國銀行收買了。

        Attorney General Roger Taney told of one example of this. Taney opposed the bank. And he rode to work one morning with a congressman who also opposed it. The congressman asked Taney for help on a speech he planned to make against the bank.

        司法部長羅杰.托尼舉了一個例子。托尼本人是美國銀行的反對者,一天早上,他跟另外一個同樣反對美國銀行的眾議員同路上班。那位議員還向托尼請教,因為他正在撰寫一份批評美國銀行的發言稿。

        Taney was surprised later to find that this same congressman had voted to give the bank its new charter. The congressman told Taney that the bank had made him a loan of twenty-thousand dollars.

        誰知道,關鍵時刻,這個國會議員卻投票支持延長美國銀行的特許經營權,這個國會議員后來告訴托尼說,美國銀行給了他兩萬美元的貸款。

        VOICE ONE:

        The Senate finally voted on the bank's new charter. The vote was twenty-eight for and twenty against. The House voted three weeks later. It approved the charter, one hundred seven to eighty-five.

        參議院最后的投票結果是,28票支持,20票反對。眾議院三個星期后投票表決,107票贊成,85票反對,批準延長美國銀行的特許經營權。

        The bill was sent to the White House. President Jackson called a cabinet meeting. Two cabinet members, McLane and Livingston, agreed that the bill should be vetoed. But they urged Jackson to reject the bank charter in such a way that a compromise might be worked out later.

        議案隨即遞交白宮。杰克遜總統召集內閣會議討論。內閣里有兩個成員主張否決議案,但是他們敦促杰克遜,在否決議案的同時,應該給今后達成妥協留下余地。

        Attorney General Taney, however, believed that the veto should be in the strongest possible language. He opposed any compromise that would continue the bank beyond eighteen thirty-six. Jackson agreed with Taney. He asked the attorney general and two White House advisers to help him write the veto message. They worked on the message for three days.

        然而,司法部長托尼卻認為,總統的否決令應該使用最強硬的措辭。他反對任何可能讓美國銀行在1836年后繼續經營下去的妥協方案。杰克遜贊成托尼的看法。他要求托尼和另外兩位白宮顧問幫助撰寫否決政令,整整花了三天的時間。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE TWO:

        On July tenth, the veto was announced. And the message explaining it was sent to Congress. Jackson said he did not believe the bank's charter was constitutional. He said it was true that the Supreme Court had ruled that Congress had the right to charter a national bank. But he said he did not agree with the high court.

        7月10號,否決令被送交國會。杰克遜總統說,他認為美國銀行的憲章不符合憲法。杰克遜承認,聯邦最高法院確實裁決,國會有權建立特許國家銀行,但是在這個問題上,他不能茍同。

        And Jackson said the president -- in taking his oath of office -- swears to support the Constitution as he understands it, not as it is understood by others. He said the president and the Congress had the same duty as the court to decide if a bill was constitutional.

        杰克遜還說,總統宣誓就職時,發誓要按照自己的理解去支持憲法,而不是按照他人的理解。他說,總統、國會和法院都同樣有義務去決定某項議案是否符合憲法。

        Jackson also spoke of the way the bank moved money from West to East. He said the bank was owned by a small group of rich men, mostly in the East. Some of the owners, he said, were foreigners. Much of the bank's business was done in the West. The money paid by westerners for loans went into the pockets of the eastern bankers. Jackson said this was wrong. Then the president spoke of his firm belief in the rights of the common man.

        杰克遜還提出,美國銀行將資金從西部挪到東部。他說,美國銀行的股東是一小群富人,主要在東部,其中一些還是外國人。銀行的大部分業務在西部,西部人支付的貸款利息都進了東部銀行家的口袋。杰克遜說,這是不對的,杰克遜提出了他對保護普通百姓權利的堅定信念。

        VOICE ONE:

        "It is to be regretted," he said, "that the rich and powerful bend the acts of the government to their own purposes. Differences among men will always exist under every just government."

        杰克遜說,“有錢有勢的人通過操縱政府來為自己的目的服務,這實在令人遺憾。在每一個公正的政府下,人與人之間總會存在分歧。”

        "Equality of ability, or education, or of wealth cannot be produced by human institutions. Every man has the equal right of protection under the laws. But when these laws are used to make the rich richer, and the powerful more powerful, then the more humble members of our society have a right to complain of injustice."

        他還說,“能力、教育或是財富的平等不是人力所能控制的。在法律面前,所有人都有權享受同等的保護。但是,如果這些法律被用來讓富人更富,讓有權有勢的人無法無天的話,社會底層的成員就有權表達不滿,要求公正。”

        Jackson said he could not understand how the present owners of the bank could have any claim of special treatment from the government. He said the government should shower its favors -- as heaven does its rain -- on the high and low alike, on the rich and the poor equally.

        杰克遜說,他無法理解,美國銀行現在的股東怎么能要求政府給他們特殊的待遇。他說,政府的優惠,應該像天上落下來的雨水一樣,不論高矮胖瘦,不論貧富懸殊,一視同仁。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE TWO:

        Henry Clay had made the bank bill the chief issue of the eighteen thirty-two presidential election campaign. Andrew Jackson chose the words of his veto message for the same purpose -- to win votes in the coming election. His veto of the bank bill cost him the votes of men of money. But it brought him the votes of the common man: the farmer, the laborer, and industrial worker.

        亨利.克萊把美國銀行的問題作為1832年總統大選的首要議題。杰克遜總統選擇否決令的措辭時,也是出于同樣的目的--總統大選。他的否決令讓他失去了有錢人的選票,但同時,也為他贏得了農民、工人這些普通民眾的支持。

        After his first two years as president, Andrew Jackson was not sure he wished to serve a second term. Jackson was not sure his health would permit him to complete a full eight years in the White House. But he wished to be a candidate again in eighteen thirty-two to give the people a chance to show they approved of his programs.

        當了兩年總統后,杰克遜在競選連任的問題上舉棋不定,他不知道自己的身體狀況能否讓他干完八年。但是他又希望參加1832年的總統大選,看看自己的施政綱領是否得到了民眾的肯定。

        Jackson decided that he would campaign again for president. But if he won, he would resign after the first or second year, and leave the job to his vice president.

        杰克遜最后決定競選連任,如果當選,他就會在一年或是兩年后辭去總統職務,讓賢給副總統。

        (MUSIC)

        ANNOUNCER:

        Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Stewart Spencer and Maurice Joyce. Transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our programs are online, along with historical images, at www.squishedblueberries.com. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION - an American history series in VOA Special English.

        _____________

        This is program #60 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

        網友的學習評論(1條):
        作者:Alumni
        8-24-2013 20:37:4
        Andrew Jackson had a famous saying that the government would shower its favors --- as heaven does its rain --- on the high and low alike, on the rich and the poor equally.
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