<em id="0i93o"></em>
<sub id="0i93o"></sub>
<meter id="0i93o"></meter>
      1. <form id="0i93o"></form>

        官方APP下載:英語學習播客(支持蘋果手機、安卓手機)
        創辦于2003年
        UNSV記不???那就記中文諧音“憂安思?!卑?!
          Slow and Steady Wins the Race!
        UNSV英語學習頻道 - Slow and steady wins the race!
        公眾微信服務號(英語全能特訓)
        英語全能特訓(微信公眾服務號)
        UNSV英語學習頻道淘寶網店
        客服短信:18913948480
        客服郵箱:web@unsv.com
        初級VIP會員
        全站英語學習資料下載。
        ¥98元/12個月

        #6: How a Desire for Religious Freedom or Land, or Both, Led to Colonies

        作者:Nancy Steinbach 發布日期:1-22-2013

        VOICE ONE:

        This is Rich Kleinfeldt.

        VOICE TWO:

        And this is Sarah Long with the MAKING OF A NATION, a VOA Special English program about the history of the United States.

        (MUSIC)

        Today, we tell about the movement of European settlers throughout northeastern America. And we tell how the separate colonies developed in this area.

        VOICE ONE:

        The Puritans were one of the largest groups from England to settle in the northeastern area called Massachusetts. They began arriving in sixteen thirty. The Puritans had formed the Massachusetts Bay Company in England. The king had given the company an area of land between the Charles and Merrimack rivers.

        清教徒是英國在北美大陸東北地區--現在的美國麻薩諸塞州--定居人數最多的群體之一。清教徒1630年開始陸續抵達。他們在英國成立了麻薩諸塞灣公司。英國國王把從查爾斯河到梅里馬克河之間的土地賜給了他們。

        The Puritans were Protestants who did not agree with the Anglican Church. The Puritans wanted to change the church to make it more holy. They were able to live as they wanted in Massachusetts. Soon they became the largest religious group. By sixteen ninety, fifty thousand people were living in Massachusetts.

        清教徒也是新教信徒,但是他們不認同圣公會,希望對圣公會厲行改革,因此決定離開英國。他們在新大陸定居下來后,可以按照自己的愿望生活,并逐漸發展為規模最大的宗教團體。到了1690年的時候,麻薩諸塞州已經有了五萬人。

        Puritans thought their religion was the only true religion and everyone should believe in it. They also believed that church leaders should lead the local government, and all people in the colony should pay to support the Puritan church. The Puritans thought it was the job of government leaders to tell people what to believe.

        清教徒認為,他們的宗教是唯一純正的宗教,所有人都應該成為信徒。他們同時主張,教會領袖應該擔任地方官員,殖民地的所有人都應該出錢支持教會。他們覺得,政府官員的職責之一就是要告訴民眾應該信仰什么。

        Some people did not agree with the Puritans who had become leaders of the colony. One of those who disagreed was a Puritan minister named Roger Williams.

        不過,也有人不認同這些成為殖民地領袖的清教徒的意見,羅杰·威廉姆斯牧師就是其中之一。

        VOICE TWO:

        Roger Williams wrote several documents stating his views on religious liberty
        Roger Williams wrote several documents stating his views on religious liberty

        Roger Williams believed as all Puritans did that other European religions were wrong. He thought the Native Indian religions were wrong too. But he did not believe in trying to force others to agree with him. He thought that it was a sin to punish or kill anyone in the name of Christianity. And he thought that only church members should pay to support their church.

        跟所有清教徒一樣,羅杰·威廉姆斯也認為其他歐洲宗教都是錯誤的,印第安土著居民的信仰也是錯誤的,但是他不同意強迫他人接受自己的看法,認為以基督教的名義去懲罰或殺人是罪孽,認為只有教會成員才有義務出錢支持教會。

        Roger Williams began speaking and writing about his ideas. He wrote a book saying it was wrong to punish people for having different beliefs. Then he said that the European settlers were stealing the Indians' land. He said the king of England had no right to permit people to settle on land that was not his, but belonged to the Indians.

        羅杰·威廉姆斯通過演說和發表文章來宣揚自己的理念。他著書指出,因為信仰不同而懲罰別人是錯誤的。他還提出,歐洲定居者是在盜取印第安人的土地,英國國王沒有權力把屬于印第安人的土地劃撥給臣民,讓他們在那里定居。

        The Puritan leaders of the Massachusetts Bay Colony forced Roger Williams to leave the colony in sixteen thirty-six. He traveled south. He bought land from local Indians and started a city, Providence. The Parliament in England gave him permission to establish a new colony, Rhode Island, with Providence as its capital. As a colony, Rhode Island accepted people of all religious beliefs, including Catholics, Quakers, Jews and even people who denied the existence of God.

        在麻薩諸塞灣殖民地清教徒領袖的逼迫下,羅杰·威廉姆斯1636年離開麻薩諸塞南下。他從當地印第安人手中買下一片土地,建立了一個叫普羅維登斯的新城市。英國議會授權他以普羅維登斯為首府,創辦一個新殖民地--羅德島,這個殖民地接納各種宗教信仰的人,包括天主教、貴格會教徒、猶太人,甚至是無神論者。

        Roger Williams also believed that governments should have no connection to a church. This idea of separating church and state was very new. Later it became one of the most important of all America's governing ideas.

        羅杰·威廉姆斯還相信政教分離,這種新觀念日后逐漸發展成了美國最重要的治國理念之一。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE ONE:

        Other colonies were started by people who left Massachusetts to seek land. One was Connecticut. A group led by Puritan minister Thomas Hooker left Boston in sixteen thirty-six and went west. They settled near the Connecticut River. Others soon joined them.

        很多人為了土地,離開麻薩諸塞,建立了其他殖民地,康涅迪格就是其中之一。一些人在清教徒牧師托馬斯·胡克的帶領下于1636年離開波士頓向西走,在靠近康涅迪格河的地方定居下來。

        Other groups from Massachusetts traveled north to find new homes. The king of England had given two friends a large piece of land in the north. The friends divided it. John Mason took what later became the colony of New Hampshire. Ferdinando Gorges took the area that later became the state of Maine. It never became a colony, however. It remained a part of Massachusetts until after the United States was created.

        另外一些人在麻薩諸塞以北建立了家園。英國國王把北面的一大片土地賜給兩個好友。梅森建立了后來的新罕布什爾殖民地,戈吉斯建立了后來的緬因,但緬因始終沒有發展成為獨立的殖民地,仍舊是麻薩諸塞的一部分,直到美國建國為止。

        VOICE TWO:

        The area known today as New York State was settled by the Dutch. They called it New Netherland. Their country was the Netherlands. It was a great world power, with colonies all over the world. A business called the Dutch West India Company owned most of the colonies.

        荷蘭殖民者定居在今天的美國紐約州一帶,他們把那里稱為新荷蘭。當時荷蘭實力雄厚,在世界上很多地方都建立了殖民地,大部分殖民地都歸“荷蘭西印度公司”所有。

        The Dutch claimed American land because of explorations by Henry Hudson, an Englishman working for the Netherlands. The land the Dutch claimed was between the Puritans in the north and the Anglican tobacco farmers in the south.

        荷蘭人在北美大陸上占據的土地要歸功于英國探險家亨利·哈得孫。荷蘭領地位于北部清教徒和南部圣公會煙草種植者之間。

        The Dutch were not interested in settling the territory. They wanted to earn money. The Dutch West India Company built trading posts on the rivers claimed by the Netherlands. People in Europe wanted to buy goods made from the skins of animals trapped there. In sixteen twenty-six, the Dutch West India Company bought two islands from the local Indians. The islands are Manhattan Island and Long Island. Traditional stories say the Dutch paid for the islands with some trade goods worth about twenty-four dollars.

        荷蘭人并不想在這片土地上定居,他們只想賺錢。荷蘭西印度公司沿水路建立了很多交易站,并于1626年從當地印第安人手里買下了兩個島嶼,也就是今天的曼哈頓島和長島。據說,這兩個島是用價值大約24美元的東西換來的。

        The Dutch West India Company tried to find people to settle in America. But few Dutch wanted to leave Europe. So the colony welcomed people from other colonies, and other countries. These people built a town on Manhattan Island. They called it New Amsterdam. It was soon full of people who had arrived on ships from faraway places. It was said you could hear as many as eighteen different languages spoken in New Amsterdam.

        荷蘭西印度公司希望找人在島上定居,但是荷蘭人都不愿意離開歐洲,荷蘭殖民地因此向其他國家和其他殖民地的人開放。他們在曼哈頓島上建立了一個小鎮,叫新阿姆斯特丹。很快,這里就擠滿了從很遠的地方坐船來的人,據說當時在新阿姆斯特丹能聽到18種不同的語言。

        In sixteen fifty-five, the governor of New Netherland took control of a nearby Swedish colony on Delaware Bay. In sixteen sixty-four, the English did the same to the Dutch. The English seized control of New Amsterdam and called it New York. That ended Dutch control of the territory that now is the states of New York, New Jersey and Delaware.

        1655年,新荷蘭殖民地的總督占領了附近德拉瓦灣的一個瑞典殖民地。1664年,新阿姆斯特丹又被英國人占領,改稱紐約,從此結束了荷蘭對目前紐約、新澤西和德拉瓦一帶的殖民控制。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE ONE:

        Most of the Dutch in New Amsterdam did not leave. The English permitted everyone to stay. They let the Dutch have religious freedom. The Dutch were just not in control any more.

        不過,英國人允許原來的殖民者留下,讓他們享受宗教自由,所以大部分荷蘭人都沒有離開。

        The Duke of York owned the area now. He was the brother of King Charles the Second of England. The king gave some of the land near New York to two friends, Sir George Carteret and Lord John Berkeley. They called it New Jersey, after the English island where Carteret was born.

        這片殖民地當時歸約克伯爵所有,他是英國國王查爾斯二世的兄弟。查爾斯二世還把紐約附近的土地賜給了兩個好友,卡特雷特爵士和伯克利勛爵。他們稱其為新澤西。新澤西是英國的一個島嶼,是卡特雷特爵士出生的地方。

        The two men wrote a plan of government for their colony. It created an assembly that represented the settlers. It provided for freedom of religion. Men could vote in New Jersey whatever their religion. Soon, people from all parts of Europe were living in New Jersey. Then King Charles took control of the area. He sent a royal governor to rule. But the colonists were permitted to make their own laws through the elected assembly.

        卡特雷特爵士和伯克利勛爵制定了一份治理新澤西的政府規劃,建立了一個定居者代表會議,保證宗教自由,而且不論宗教信仰,男性一律享有投票權。沒過多久,新澤西殖民地就住滿了歐洲各地的移民。查爾斯國王后來接管了這片地區,派皇家總督統治,但是當地的殖民者可以通過代表會議自行立法。

        The king of England did the same in each colony he controlled. He collected taxes from the people who lived there, but permitted them to govern themselves.

        英國國王對他的所有殖民地都做出了類似的安排,要求殖民者納稅,但允許他們自治。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE TWO:

        One religious group that was not welcome in England was the Quakers. Quakers call themselves Friends. They believe that each person has an inner light that leads them to God. Quakers believe they do not need a religious leader to tell them what is right. So, they had no clergy.

        貴格會教徒在英國十分受排斥。他們自稱教友派,相信每個人心里都有一束燈光,指引他們走近上帝。他們認為,沒有必要由宗教領袖來告訴大家什么才是正確的,所以貴格派沒有牧師。

        Quakers believe that all people are equal. The Quakers in England refused to recognize the king as more important than anyone else. They also refused to pay taxes to support the Anglican Church. Quakers believe that it is always wrong to kill. So they would not fight even when they were forced to join the army. They also refuse to promise loyalty to a king or government or flag or anyone but God.

        貴格派教徒相信人生來平等,拒絕承認英國國王高人一等,拒絕納稅支持圣公會。他們認為,在任何情況下殺人都是不對的,所以即使被迫入伍,也不會使用武力。他們還拒絕向國王、政府、國旗,或是除了上帝外的任何人或物宣誓效忠。

        The English did not like the Quakers for all these reasons. Many Quakers wanted to leave England, but they were not welcome in most American colonies. One Quaker changed this. His name was William Penn.

        鑒于上述種種原因,英國人不喜歡貴格派。很多貴格派教徒希望離開英國,但是很多美洲殖民地都不歡迎他們。一個名叫威廉·潘的貴格派教徒改變了這一切。

        VOICE ONE:

        William Penn came to America in 1682. He established Pennsylvania as a place where people could enjoy freedom of religion.
        William Penn came to America in 1682. He established Pennsylvania as a place where people could enjoy freedom of religion.

        William Penn was not born a Quaker. He became one as a young man. His father was an Anglican, and a good friend of the king.

        威廉·潘的父親是查爾斯國王的好朋友,是圣公會信徒,但是威廉·潘長大后皈依了貴格派。

        King Charles borrowed money from William's father. When his father died, William Penn asked that the debt be paid with land in America. In sixteen eighty-one, the king gave William Penn land which the King's Council named Pennsylvania, meaning Penn's woods.

        查爾斯國王曾經向威廉·潘的父親借錢。父親死后,威廉·潘要求國王用美洲大陸的土地還債。1681年,查爾斯國王于是把賓夕法尼亞賜給了威廉·潘。這片土地被命名為Pennsylvania,意即“潘的林地”。

        The Quakers now had their own colony. It was between the Puritans in the north and the Anglicans in the south. William Penn said the colony should be a place where everyone could live by Quaker ideas. That meant treating all people as equals and honoring all religions. It also meant that anyone could be elected. In most other colonies, people could believe any religion, but they could not vote or hold office unless they were a member of the majority church. In Pennsylvania, all religions were equal.

        貴格派教徒因此有了自己的殖民地。這片殖民地夾在北面的清教徒和南面的圣公會信徒之間。威廉·潘說,賓夕法尼亞的每個人都要按照貴格派教徒的信仰生活,這就意味著平等對待所有人,尊重所有宗教信仰。在其他殖民地里,人們雖然享受宗教信仰的自由,但是只有多數教會的成員才能投票或是當選公職,而在賓夕法尼亞,所有宗教一律平等,所有教派的人都能出任政府官員。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE TWO:

        This MAKING OF A NATION program was written by Nancy Steinbach and produced by Paul Thompson. This is Sarah Long.

        VOICE TWO:

        And this is Rich Kleinfeldt. Join us again next week for another VOA Special English program about the history of the United States.

        網友的學習評論(10條):
        作者:友誼山莊
        1-29-2013 23:6:20
        太長
        作者:流櫻豪
        1-31-2013 13:3:38
        good
        作者:華晨
        2-4-2013 13:16:38
        Today, i have learned the history of Puritians and the connections bewteen the Puritans and the Protestants . A desire for a religious freedom or land led to colonies. The ideas of separating church and state become an universial value now . We must treat all people as equals and honoring all religions.
        作者:Kane
        1-25-2014 0:46:16
        I believe all of these came from God.~~
        作者:pge
        3-26-2014 9:18:16
        the Puritans in the north 北面的清教徒the Anglicans in the south 南面的圣公會信徒the Quakers 貴格派教徒
        作者:photon
        7-9-2014 12:40:6
        The English seized Delaware of the Swedish and then New York of the Dutch. The Quakes had no clergies. In the new state of Pennsylvania, people with any religion could take the position of office. In Pennsylvania, all religions are equal.
        作者:Melody
        1-2-2015 15:43:23
        Today I have learned that New York , New Jersey and Delaware used to be the colonies of the Dutch . And Pennsylvania is named of Mr William Penn , meaning Penn's woods . And the Quakers treat all people as equals and honor all religions . Everyone has the right to elected .
        作者:Melody
        1-2-2015 15:44:22
        Everyone has the right to elect .
        作者:hliu
        7-5-2015 9:52:54
        Can I say that a atheist has his religion belief too? Freedom matters a lot.
        作者:hliu
        7-5-2015 10:1:55
        Can I say that a atheist has his religion belief too? Freedom matters a lot.
        版權所有©2003-2019 南京通享科技有限公司,保留所有權利。未經書面許可,嚴禁轉載本站內容,違者追究法律責任。 互聯網經營ICP證:蘇B2-20120186
        網站備案:蘇公網安備 32010202011039號蘇ICP備05000269號-1中國工業和信息化部網站備案查詢
        廣播臺
        又粗又大又黄又爽的免费视频