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        #57: Split Divides Jackson, Vice President Calhoun

        作者:Frank Beardsley 發布日期:4-9-2013

        Welcome to the MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

        Andrew Jackson
        Andrew Jackson

        Andrew Jackson became president of the United States in March of eighteen twenty-nine. Thousands of his supporters came to Washington to see him sworn-in. Many were there, however, only to get a government job. They expected President Jackson to dismiss all the government workers who did not support him in the election. Jackson supporters wanted those jobs for themselves.

        安德魯.杰克遜1829年3月宣誓就職,數以千計的支持者趕到華盛頓觀禮。其中有不少人是為了謀個一官半職。他們覺得杰克遜會把大選期間沒有支持他的人全部趕走,換上自己的親信。

        This week in our series, Frank Oliver and Maurice Joyce continue the story of Andrew Jackson and his presidency.

        VOICE ONE:

        Most of the jobs were in the Post Office Department, headed by Postmaster General John McLean. McLean told Jackson that if he had to remove postmasters who took part in the election, he would remove those who worked for Jackson as well as those who worked for the re-election of President John Quincy Adams.

        政府里的大部分工作都在郵局。當時的郵政總局局長是約翰.麥克萊恩。麥克萊恩告訴杰克遜總統說,如果一定讓他開除那些積極參與總統大選的郵遞員,那么不論是支持前總統亞當斯的人,還是支持杰克遜的人,他會一視同仁。

        Jackson removed McLean as postmaster general. William Barry of Kentucky was named to the position. Barry was willing to give jobs to Jackson's supporters. But he, too, refused to take jobs from people who had done nothing wrong.

        杰克遜因此解除了麥克萊恩的職務,讓肯塔基州的威廉.巴里接任。巴里愿意給杰克遜的支持者安排工作,但同樣不肯解除那些沒有任何過失的郵遞員的工作。

        VOICE TWO:

        Many government workers had held their jobs for a long time. Some of them did very little work. Some were just too old. A few were drunk most of the time. And some were even found to have stolen money from the government. These were the people President Jackson wanted to remove. And he learned it was difficult for him to take a job away from someone who really needed it.

        當時,很多政府雇員都有很長的工齡,有些人什么也不干,有些人年邁體衰,還有些人大多數時間都是酒氣醺天,有些人甚至貪污公款。杰克遜希望把這些人趕走,但是他發現,要解除他們賴以生存的工作,是一件非常棘手的事情。

        VOICE ONE:

        One old man came to Jackson from Albany, New York. He told Jackson he was postmaster in that city. He said the politicians wanted to take his job. The old man said he had no other way to make a living.

        紐約阿伯尼一個上了年紀的老郵遞員找到杰克遜,告訴他說,當地的政要想把他掃地出門,但是他沒有其他謀生的手段。

        When the president did not answer, the old man began to take off his coat. "I am going to show you my wounds," he said. "I got them fighting the British with General George Washington during the war for independence."

        老郵遞員發現杰克遜不為所動,于是說,“我要讓你看看我身上的傷疤,這些傷疤都是獨立戰爭期間追隨喬治.華盛頓將軍跟英軍作戰時留下的。”老人一邊說一邊開始脫去外衣。

        The next day, a New York congressman took President Jackson a list of names of government workers who were to be removed. The name of the old man from Albany was on the list. He had not voted for Jackson. "By the eternal!" shouted Jackson. "I will not remove that old man. Do you know he carries a pound of British lead in his body?"

        第二天,紐約的一名國會議員給了杰克遜總統一份名單,上邊都是即將被解除職務的郵遞員的名字。紐約的那個老郵遞員的名字就在名單上,他在大選期間沒有投票支持杰克遜。杰克遜說,“我不能將這個老人掃地出門。你知道嗎,他的身體里有一磅重的英軍彈片。”

        VOICE TWO:

        The job of another old soldier was threatened. The man had a large family and no other job. He had lost a leg on the battlefield during the war for independence. He had not voted for Jackson, either. But that did not seem to matter to the president. "If he lost a leg fighting for his country," Jackson said, "that is vote enough for me. He will keep his job." Jackson's supporters who failed to get the jobs they expected had to return home.

        另外一名老兵的工作也受到了威脅。他家里有很多人,都靠他一個人養活。他在獨立戰爭中失去了一條腿。他在大選期間同樣沒有投票支持杰克遜。但是對于杰克遜來說,這一點并不重要。杰克遜說,“如果他為國家失去了一條腿,對我來說,就是足夠的支持。他不會失去工作。”杰克遜的支持者們沒有得到工作,只好回家。

        John C. Calhoun
        John C. Calhoun

        VOICE ONE:

        Next, the president had to deal with a split that developed between himself and Vice President John C. Calhoun. The trouble grew out of a problem in the cabinet. Three of the cabinet members were supporters and friends of Calhoun. These were Treasury Secretary Samuel Ingham, Attorney General John Berrien, and Navy Secretary John Branch.

        杰克遜接下來面對的是跟副總統卡爾霍恩之間的分歧。他們兩人的矛盾要從內閣的組成說起。內閣里有三個人是卡爾霍恩的支持者和好朋友。這三個人是:財政部長塞繆爾.英厄姆、司法部長約翰.貝里恩和海軍部長約翰.布蘭奇。

        A fourth member of the cabinet, Secretary of State Martin van Buren, opposed Calhoun. The fifth member of the cabinet was Jackson's close friend, John Eaton.

        與此同時,內閣里跟卡爾霍恩唱對臺戲的也大有人在。國務卿馬丁.范布倫就反對卡爾霍恩。戰爭部長約翰.伊頓則是總統杰克遜的密友。

        Eaton had been married a few months before Jackson became president. Stories said he and the young woman had lived together before they were married. Vice President Calhoun tried to use the issue to force Eaton from the cabinet. He started a personal campaign against Missus Eaton.

        伊頓在杰克遜當選總統前不久結婚。有傳聞說,伊頓夫婦兩人曾未婚同居。副總統卡爾霍恩想借此把伊頓趕出內閣,親自出馬,對伊頓夫人展開攻擊。

        Calhoun's wife, and the wives of his three men in the cabinet, refused to have anything to do with her. This made President Jackson angry, because he liked the young woman.

        卡爾霍恩夫人和內閣里他的三名支持者的夫人都對伊頓夫人不予理睬,這讓杰克遜十分氣憤,因為他覺得伊頓夫人很招人喜歡。

        VOICE TWO:

        The split between Jackson and Calhoun deepened over another issue. Jackson learned that Calhoun -- as a member of former president James Monroe's cabinet -- had called for Jackson's arrest. Calhoun wanted to punish Jackson for his military campaign into Spanish Florida in eighteen eighteen.

        與此同時,杰克遜還發現,卡爾霍恩在前總統詹姆斯.門羅內閣里任職的時候,曾主張逮捕杰克遜,因為杰克遜1818年擅自出兵西班牙人控制的佛羅里達。

        Another thing that pushed the two men apart was Calhoun's belief that the rights of the states were stronger than the rights of the federal government. His feelings became well known during a debate on a congressional bill.

        杰克遜和卡爾霍恩的另外一點分歧源于,卡爾霍恩認為,州的權力高于聯邦政府??柣舳鞯倪@種看法在圍繞一項國會立法展開的辯論中一覽無余。

        VOICE ONE:

        In eighteen twenty-eight, Congress had passed a bill that -- among other things -- put taxes on imports. The purpose of the tax was to protect American industries.

        1828年,美國國會通過了一項立法,對進口物資征收關稅,目的是為了保護美國自身工業。

        The South opposed the bill mainly because it had almost no industry. It was an agricultural area. Import taxes would only raise the price of products the South imported. The South claimed that the import tax was not constitutional. It said the constitution did not give the federal government the right to make a protective tax.

        美國南方各州反對這項立法,因為南方是農業地帶,沒有工業,對進口商品征收關稅只會讓南方使用的進口產品漲價。

        The state of South Carolina -- Calhoun's state -- refused to pay the import tax. Calhoun wrote a long statement defending South Carolina's action. In the statement, he developed what was called the Doctrine of Nullification. This idea declared that the power of the federal government was not supreme.

        南方各州因此提出,設立進口關稅違反憲法。憲法沒有賦予聯邦政府征收保護性關稅的權力??柣舳魉诘哪峡_來納州拒絕支付進口稅??柣舳髯珜懥艘环蓍L篇大論的聲明,為南卡羅來納州的行為進行辯護。他在聲明中提出了所謂的“否定原則”,宣布聯邦政府不擁有至高權力。

        VOICE TWO:

        Calhoun noted that the federal government was formed by an agreement among the independent states. That agreement, he said, was the Constitution. In it, he said, the powers of the states and the powers of the federal government were divided. But, he said, supreme power -- sovereignty -- was not divided.

        卡爾霍恩指出,聯邦政府是獨立各州之間達成協議組建的。這份協議就是憲法??柣舳髡f,憲法劃分了州和聯邦政府的權力,但是最高權力--主權,沒有劃分。

        Calhoun argued that supreme power belonged to the states. He said they did not surrender this power when they ratified the Constitution. In any dispute between the states and the federal government, he said, the states should decide what is right. If the federal government passed a law that was not constitutional, then that law was null and void. It had no meaning or power.

        卡爾霍恩提出,最高權力屬于各州。各州簽署憲法的時候并沒有把最高權力交給聯邦政府,一旦州政府和聯邦政府之間發生分歧,各州有權做出自己的判斷。如果聯邦政府頒布的法律不符合憲法,有關法律就沒有法律效力。

        VOICE ONE:

        Then Calhoun brought up the question of the method to decide if a law was constitutional. He said the power to make such a decision was held by the states. He said the Supreme Court did not have the power, because it was part of the federal government.

        什么樣的法律才不符合憲法呢?卡爾霍恩提出,決定權在各州手中,而不是聯邦最高法院,因為最高法院是聯邦政府的一部分。

        Calhoun argued that if the federal government passed a law that any state thought was not constitutional, or against its interests, that state could temporarily suspend the law.

        卡爾霍恩說,假設聯邦政府通過了一項法案,如果有哪個州認為法案違憲,或是不符合自身利益,這個州就可能暫緩法律的執行。

        The other states of the union, Calhoun said, would then be asked to decide the question of the law's constitutionality. If two-thirds of the states approved the law, the complaining state would have to accept it, or leave the union. If less than two-thirds of the states approved it, then the law would be rejected. None of the states would have to obey it. It would be nullified -- cancelled.

        卡爾霍恩說,然后要由聯邦里的其他各州來決定這項法律是否符合憲法。如果三分之二的州認為這項法律合法,提出質疑的州要么接受這項法律的合法性,要么退出聯邦。如果批準這項法律的州不到所有州的三分之二,這項法律就宣布無效作廢,任何州都不用執行。

        Daniel Webster
        Daniel Webster

        VOICE TWO:

        The idea of nullification was debated in the Senate by Daniel Webster of Massachusetts and Robert Hayne of South Carolina. Hayne spoke first. He stated that there was no greater evil than giving more power to the federal government. The major point of his speech could be put into a few words: liberty first, union afterwards.

        參議院就此展開辯論。南卡羅來納州的羅伯特.海恩說,任何邪惡都無法跟給予聯邦政府過多的權力相提并論。他的觀點概括成兩句話就是自由第一,聯邦第二。

        Webster spoke next. He declared that the Constitution was not the creature of the state governments. It was more than an agreement among states. It was the law of the land. Supreme power was divided, Webster said, between the states and the union. The federal government had received from the people the same right to govern as the states.

        麻薩諸塞州的參議員丹尼爾.韋伯斯特提出反駁。他表示,憲法并非州政府的產物,遠不只是各州之間的一紙協議。憲法是美國的根本大法。韋伯斯特還說,最高法律在州和聯邦之間進行了劃分,聯邦政府跟州政府一樣得到了人們賦予的統治的權力。

        VOICE ONE:

        Webster declared that the states had no right to reject an act of the federal government and no legal right to leave the union. If a dispute should develop between a state and the federal government, he said, the dispute should be settled by the Supreme Court of the United States.

        韋伯斯特宣布,各州無權拒絕聯邦政府的行為,在法律上也無權宣布退出聯邦。如果州政府和聯邦政府之間發生分歧,就應該由聯邦最高法院做出裁決。

        Webster said Hayne had spoken foolishly when he used the words: liberty first, union afterwards. They could not be separated, Webster said. It was liberty and union, now and forever, one and inseparable.

        韋伯斯特說,海恩嘴里說的什么自由第一,聯邦第二,完全是一派胡言,二者不可分割,自由和聯邦本來就是一個共同體,不可分割,現在是如此,將來也是一樣。

        VOICE TWO:

        No one really knew how President Jackson felt about the question of nullification. He had said nothing during the debate. Did he support Calhoun's idea. Or did he agree with Webster. That will be our story next week.

        沒有人知道杰克遜總統對這個問題的看法。他在辯論中沒有發表任何意見。那么,杰克遜到底是贊成海恩的主張,還是支持韋伯斯特的看法呢?歡迎大家下周同一時間繼續收聽。

        (THEME)

        ANNOUNCER:

        Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Frank Oliver and Maurice Joyce. Transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our programs are online, along with historical images, at www.squishedblueberries.com. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION - an American history series in VOA Special English.

        ____________

        This is program # 57 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

        網友的學習評論(1條):
        作者:Alumni
        8-21-2013 21:42:27
        constitution 憲法, constitutional 憲法的, constitutionaliy 合憲性, 符合憲法。。。obviously, words are interrelated, so are the things in the world.
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