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        #54: John Quincy Adams, a Man Raised to Serve

        作者:Frank Beardsley 發布日期:4-6-2013

        Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION - American history in VOA Special English.

        John Quincy Adams
        John Quincy Adams

        John Quincy Adams was sworn in as president of the United States on March fourth, eighteen twenty-five. A big crowd came to the Capitol building for the ceremony. All the leaders of government were there: senators, congressmen, Supreme Court justices and James Monroe, whose term as president was ending.

        1825年3月4號宣誓就職。國會大廈舉行盛典,參眾兩院議員、最高法院法官和即將離任的總統詹姆斯.門羅全體出席。

        This week in our series, Steve Ember and Shirley Griffith talk about John Quincy Adams, the sixth president of the United States.

        VOICE ONE:

        John Quincy Adams spoke to the crowd. The main idea in his speech was unity. Adams said the Constitution and the representative democracy of the United States had proved a success. The nation was free and strong. And it stretched from the Atlantic Ocean across the continent of North America to the Pacific Ocean.

        亞當斯發表就職演說,演說的主題是國家團結。亞當斯說,憲法和美國的民主代表制度經過實踐檢驗,證明是成功的。如今美國自由強盛,從大西洋橫跨北美大地,直到太平洋。

        During the past ten years, he noted, political party differences had eased. So now, he said, it was time for the people to settle their differences to make a truly national government. Adams closed his speech by recognizing that he was a minority president. He said he needed the help of everyone in the years to come. Then he took the oath that made him the sixth president of the United States.

        亞當斯說,過去十年,政黨分歧出現緩和,所以大家現在應該集中精力,建立一個真正意義上的國家政府。亞當斯在講話結束前表示,他知道自己沒有得到多數選票,因此在今后的日子里,更需要所有人的幫助。講話結束后,亞當斯宣誓就職,正式成為美國第六位總統。

        The birthplace of John Quincy Adams in Quincy, Massachusetts
        The birthplace of John Quincy Adams in Quincy, Massachusetts

        VOICE TWO:

        John Quincy Adams had been raised to serve his country. His father was John Adams, the second president of the United States. His mother, Abigail, made sure he received an excellent education. There were three major periods in John Quincy Adams's public life. The period as president was the shortest.

        報效國家對于約翰.昆西.亞當斯來說,是與生俱來的。他的父親是美國第二位總統約翰,亞當斯,母親阿比蓋爾讓他接受了最好的教育。約翰,昆西,亞當斯的政治生涯可以分為三個階段,擔任總統是其中最短的一段。

        For about twenty-five years, Adams held mostly appointed jobs. He was the United States ambassador to the Netherlands, Germany, Russia, and Britain. He helped lead the negotiations that ended the War of Eighteen Twelve between Britain and the United States. And he served eight years as secretary of state. He was president for four years after that. Then he served about seventeen years in the House of Representatives. He died in eighteen forty-eight.

        亞當斯政治生涯的頭25年,被委派過很多職務,包括美國駐荷蘭、德國、俄羅斯和英國的大使,并協助談判結束了英美1812年戰爭。隨后,亞當斯當過八年國務卿。亞當斯四年總統任期結束后,又做了17年國會眾議員。1848年去世。

        VOICE ONE:

        As secretary of state, Adams had two major successes. He was mostly responsible for the policy called the Monroe Doctrine. In that policy, President James Monroe declared that no European power should try to establish a colony anywhere in the Americas. Any attempt to do so would be considered a threat to the peace and safety of the United States.

        亞當斯擔任國務卿期間,有兩大重要成就。第一,提出了門羅主義。根據這一政策,當時的詹姆斯.門羅宣布,任何歐洲強國都不能在美洲大陸上建立殖民地,任何以此為目的的行動都將被視為對美國的和平與安全的威脅。

        Adams's other success was the Transcontinental Treaty with Spain. In that treaty, Spain recognized American control over Florida. Spain also agreed on the line marking the western American frontier. The line went from the Gulf of Mexico to the Rocky Mountains. From there, it went to the Pacific Ocean, along what is now the border between the states of Oregon and California.

        亞當斯的另外一大成就是跟西班牙達成的跨洲協議。根據協議,西班牙承認美國對佛羅里達的控制權。西班牙還接受了美國西部的邊界線,從墨西哥灣到落基山脈,一直延伸到太平洋,大致就是今天美國俄勒岡州和加利福尼亞州的州界。

        VOICE TWO:

        John Quincy Adams did not care for political battles. Instead, he tried to bring his political opponents and the different parts of the country together in his cabinet. His opponents, however, refused to serve. And, although his cabinet included southerners, he did not really have the support of the South.

        約翰.昆西.亞當斯不在乎黨派之爭。他曾試圖啟用自己的政敵,讓內閣成員代表美國不同地域的利益,但是他的政敵拒絕加入亞當斯的政府。雖然亞當斯的內閣里包括南方人,但是他并沒有得到南方的支持。

        Senator James Barbour
        Senator James Barbour

        Others in his administration tried to use the political power that he refused to use. One was Vice President John C. Calhoun of South Carolina. Calhoun hoped to be president himself one day. He tried to influence Adams's choices for cabinet positions. Adams rejected Calhoun's ideas and made his own choices.

        亞當斯政府里的其他人不肯放棄來之不易的政治特權,其中一位就是亞當斯的副總統的南卡羅來納州的約翰.卡爾霍恩??柣舳飨M谐蝗盏巧峡偨y寶座,試圖影響亞當斯對內閣要員的任命,但是亞當斯沒有采納他的意見。

        Senator James Barbour, a former governor of Virginia, became secretary of war. Richard Rush of Pennsylvania became secretary of the treasury. And William Wirt of Maryland continued as attorney general. Adams thought he had chosen men who would represent the different interests of the different parts of the country.

        最后,維吉尼亞前州長詹姆斯.巴伯出任戰爭部長、賓夕法尼亞州的理查德.拉什出任財政部長。馬里蘭州的威廉.沃特出任司法部長。亞當斯覺得,他選擇的這些人代表了美國不同地域的利益。

        VOICE ONE:

        In his first message to Congress, President Adams described his ideas about the national government. The chief purpose of the government, he said, was to improve the lives of the people it governed. To do this, he offered a national program of building roads and canals. He also proposed a national university and a national scientific center.

        亞當斯在向國會發表的第一次講話中,談到了他對聯邦政府的認識。他表示,政府的首要任務是改善人民生活,要完成這一使命,亞當斯提出了一項修建道路和橋梁的計劃。他還建議興建一所全國大學和一個全國科技中心。

        Adams said Congress should not be limited only to making laws to improve the nation's economic life. He said it should make laws to improve the arts and sciences, too.

        亞當斯說,國會的任務不僅局限于立法改善經濟狀況,還應該立法推動藝術和科技的發展。

        Many people of the West and South did not believe that the Constitution gave the national government the power to do all these things. They believed that these powers belonged to the states. Their representatives in Congress rejected Adams's proposals.

        美國西部和南方的很多人認為,憲法并沒有賦予政府這么大的權力。他們認為,這些權力屬于各州,各州的國會代表因此駁回了亞當斯的提案。

        VOICE TWO:

        The political picture in the United States began to change during the administration of John Quincy Adams. His opponents won control of both houses of Congress in the elections of eighteen-twenty-six.

        約翰.昆西.亞當斯執政期間,美國的政治版圖發生了變化。亞當斯的政敵在1826年的選舉中控制了國會參眾兩院。

        These men called themselves Democrats. They supported General Andrew Jackson for president in the next presidential election in eighteen twenty-eight.

        這些人自稱民主黨人。他們支持安德魯.杰克遜參加1828年的總統大選。

        VOICE ONE:

        A major piece of legislation during President Adams's term involved import taxes. A number of western states wanted taxes on industrial goods imported from other countries. The purpose was to protect their own industries.

        亞當斯執政期間的一項重要立法涉及進口關稅。美國西部的一些州主張對進口工業產品征收關稅,保護他們自己的產業。

        Southern states opposed import taxes. They produced no industrial goods that needed protection. And they said the Constitution did not give the national government the right to approve such taxes.

        然而,南方各州反對進口關稅,因為南方不生產需要保護的工業產品。他們認為,憲法沒有賦予聯邦政府權力,讓政府批準進口關稅。

        Democrats needed the support of both the West and South to get Andrew Jackson elected president. So they proposed a bill that appeared to help the West, but was sure to be defeated. They thought the West would be happy that Democrats had tried to help. And the South would be happy that there would be no import taxes.

        民主黨人需要西部和南方的支持,才能讓安德魯.杰克遜當選。出于這個原因,他們提出一項對西部有利的議案,盡管這項議案肯定不會通過。民主黨人覺得,這樣一來,西部和南方都會高興,因為西部人覺得民主黨人是在幫自己說話,而南方人則知道,進口關稅不會變為現實。

        VOICE TWO:

        To the Democrats' surprise, many congressmen from the Northeast joined with congressmen from the West to vote for the bill. They did so even though the bill would harm industries in the Northeast. Their goal was to keep alive the idea of protective trade taxes.

        讓民主黨人感到吃驚的是,很多東北部地區的國會議員加入了西部的陣營,投票支持議案。他們這些做,目的是讓保護性貿易關稅的想法繼續存在,盡管貿易關稅會對東北部工業造成傷害。

        The bill passed in both the House of Representatives and the Senate. This left President Adams with a difficult decision. Should he sign it into law? Or should he veto it?

        這項議案在國會參眾兩院都得到了通過,最后的決定落在了總統亞當斯的身上。這讓亞當斯左右為難,不知道是應該批準還是應該否決。

        If he signed the bill, it would show he believed that the Constitution permitted protective trade taxes. That would create even more opposition to him in the South. If he vetoed it, then he would lose support in the West and Northeast. Adams signed the bill. But he made clear that Congress was fully responsible for it.

        如果他在議案上簽字,就意味著他相信,保護性貿易關稅符合憲法,這樣就會增加南方人對他的抵制;如果否決,他就會失去西部和南方的支持。亞當斯最后還是在議案上簽了字,但是他明確表示,國會是這個法案的始作俑者。

        VOICE ONE:

        There were other attempts by Democrats in Congress to weaken support for President Adams. For example, they claimed that Adams was misusing government money. They tried to show that he, and his father before him, had become rich from government service.

        國會里的民主黨人還通過其他手段,削弱亞當斯總統的支持率。比如說,他們指責亞當斯濫用政府資金。他們試圖證明,亞當斯和他的父親、前總統老亞當斯,都曾利用工作之便,中飽私囊。

        Others accused him of giving government jobs to his supporters. This charge was false. Top administration officials had urged Adams to give government jobs only to men who were loyal to him. Adams refused. He felt that as long as a government worker had done nothing wrong, he should continue in his job.

        其他人則指責亞當斯讓自己的支持者擔任政府要職。這一指控純屬捏造。亞當斯的政府高層都建議亞當斯委任自己的親信,但是遭到了亞當斯的拒絕。他覺得,只要政府雇員沒有做錯事,就應該繼續留任。

        During his four years as president, he removed only twelve people from government jobs. In each case, the person had failed to do his work or had done something criminal. Adams often gave jobs to people who did not support him politically. He believed it was completely wrong to give a person a job for political reasons. Many of Adams's supporters, who had worked hard to get him elected, could not understand this. Their support for him cooled.

        四年總統任期里,亞當斯只解除過12個人的職務,這些人不是玩忽職守,就是犯有重罪。亞當斯還委任過不少在政治上并不支持自己的人。他認為,根據政治原因任命官員是錯誤的。很多幫助亞當斯當選的支持者不理解他這樣做的理由,他們對亞當斯的支持也因此逐漸冷卻。

        Andrew Jackson
        Andrew Jackson

        VOICE TWO:

        The political battle between Adams's Republican Party and Jackson's Democratic Party was bitter. Perhaps the worst fighting took place in the press. Each side had its own newspaper. The Daily National Journal supported the administration. The United States Telegraph supported Andrew Jackson.

        亞當斯領導的共和黨和杰克遜領導的民主黨之間的政治斗爭十分激烈,在媒體上表現得最為淋漓盡致。雙方都有自己的報紙。每日全國日報支持亞當斯政府,美國電訊報支持杰克遜。

        At first, the administration's newspaper called for national unity and an end to personal politics. Then it changed its policy. The paper had to defend charges of political wrongdoing within the Republican Party. It needed to turn readers away from these problems. So it printed a pamphlet that had been used against Andrew Jackson during an election campaign.

        起初,支持政府的每日全國日報呼吁大家放棄個人恩怨,促進國家團結,但是后來改變了政策,不得不為共和黨內的政治錯誤進行辯護。每日全國日報需要轉移讀者的注意力,因此發行了在大選期間用來攻擊安德魯.杰克遜的一本宣傳小冊子。

        The pamphlet accused Jackson of many bad things. The most damaging part said he had taken another man's wife. That will be our story on the next program of THE MAKING OF A NATION.

        這本小冊子歷數杰克遜的種種罪狀,其中破壞性最大的,是說杰克遜霸占了別人的老婆。

        (MUSIC)

        ANNOUNCER:

        Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Shirley Griffith and Steve Ember. Transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our programs are online, along with historical images, at www.squishedblueberries.com. Join us each week for THE MAKING OF A NATION - an American history series in VOA Special English.

        -----

        This is program #54 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

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