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        #52: Monroe Dislikes but Signs Missouri Compromise

        作者:Frank Beardsley 發布日期:4-4-2013

        Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

        In the spring of eighteen twenty, President James Monroe was coming to the end of his first four years as president. He wanted to be elected again. But he faced a difficult decision.

        1820年春天,美國總統門羅的第一屆四年任期即將結束。門羅希望連任,但是面臨著一個非常棘手的問題--也就是密蘇里申請加入聯邦的問題。

        Congress, after much debate between the North and the South, had approved a bill giving statehood to Missouri. Missouri was part of the Louisiana territory. Southern lawmakers wanted Missouri to permit slavery. Northerners wanted no slaves in Missouri. A compromise was reached. Missouri could have slaves. But nowhere else in the northern part of the Louisiana territory would slavery be permitted.

        美國國會經過反復討論,最終決定接受密蘇里州加入聯邦。密蘇里是路易斯安那地區的一部分,美國南方的國會議員希望密蘇里繼續保留奴隸制,北方州則希望密蘇里拋棄奴隸制。國會最終達成妥協,允許密蘇里保留奴隸制,但是路易斯安那北部的其它地區不能再允許奴隸的存在。

        Now, Sarah Long and Steve Ember continue our story of the presidency of James Monroe.

        VOICE ONE:

        James Monroe
        James Monroe

        Many southerners were not satisfied. The compromise closed the door against slavery entering large new areas of land. Southerners -- like all other Americans -- had a right to settle in the new territory. President Monroe was a slave-owner. He understood the feelings of the South. His friends urged him to veto the compromise bill, because it limited slavery in the territory.

        很多南方人對此非常不滿,因為這就意味著美國大片新增土地上不會再有奴隸的存在。門羅總統本人就是奴隸主,他完全理解南方人的立場。很多朋友都勸他否決這項限制奴隸制度的議案。

        Monroe believed the compromise was wrong -- but not because it kept slaves out of the territory. The president did not believe the Constitution gave Congress the right to make such conditions.

        門羅認為國會的妥協是錯誤的,并不是因為國會對奴隸制度說“不”,而是因為他覺得,根據憲法,國會無權向申請加入聯邦的州預設條件。

        Monroe even wrote a veto message explaining why he could not approve the compromise. But he did not use the veto. He also understood the strong feelings of those opposed to slavery.

        門羅甚至撰寫了一份否決說明,闡述自己的觀點,但他最終還是沒有否決議案,因為他同樣理解反對奴隸制度的人的立場。

        He believed there might be civil war if he rejected the compromise. So Monroe signed the bill. Missouri had permission to enter the union as a slave state.

        他擔心,否決議案會引發內戰。門羅最終在議案上簽了字,密蘇里的申請得到批準,作為奴隸州,定于次年,1821年加入聯邦

        VOICE TWO:

        The crisis seemed ended. But a few months later, a new problem developed. Missouri wrote a state constitution that it sent to Congress for approval. One part of this constitution did not permit free black men to enter the state. The constitution was immediately opposed by a number of congressmen. They charged that it violated the United States constitution.

        從表面看來,這場危機已經平穩結束。然而,短短幾個月后,又出現了新的問題。密蘇里州向國會提交本州憲法,尋求國會批準,但是這部憲法禁止自由的黑人進入密蘇里州。憲法立即遭到一部分國會議員的反對。他們指責說,密蘇里的州憲法違反了美國的聯邦憲法。

        The United States Constitution said citizens of each state had the rights of citizens of each of the other states. And since free black men were citizens of some states, they should have the right to be citizens of Missouri. The debate over this lasted several months.

        根據美國聯邦憲法,任何一個州的居民都跟其它州的居民享有同等權利。因此,自由的黑人也應該跟密蘇里州的居民享有同等權利。這場辯論持續了好幾個月。

        Former House speaker Henry Clay finally proposed a compromise that both sides accepted. Missouri could become a state if its legislature would make this promise: it would never pass any law that would violate the rights of any citizen of another state. This second compromise ended the dispute over slavery in Missouri and the Louisiana territory.

        前國會眾議院議長亨利.克萊提出一項妥協方案,被爭執雙方接受。根據妥協方案,密蘇里1821年可以作為一個州加入聯邦,但條件是,密蘇里州議會必須保證,絕不能通過任何侵犯其它州公民權利的法律。這項措辭含糊的妥協方案給密蘇里和路易斯安那地區圍繞奴隸制度的爭議暫時劃上了句號。

        VOICE ONE:

        The compromise of eighteen twenty settled the crisis of slavery for more than twenty years. But everyone knew that the settlement was only temporary.

        1820年解決奴隸危機的妥協方案維持了二十多年,但是所有人都知道,平靜只是暫時的。

        [Former President] Thomas Jefferson used these words to explain his feelings about the compromise: "This question -- like a fire bell in the night -- awakened and filled me with terror. I understood it at once as the threat of death to the union. It is hushed, indeed, for the moment.

        "But," said Jefferson, "this is a reprieve only. Not a final settlement."

        美國前總統托馬斯.杰斐遜曾說,“這個問題,就像黑夜的火球,讓我驚醒,充滿恐懼。我知道,這是對聯邦的死亡威脅,被暫時平息了下去,但這只是間歇而已,并沒有得到根本解決。”

        Monroe's decision to approve the compromise did not hurt his election chances in eighteen twenty. There was at this time really only one party -- the Republican -- and he was its leader. The opposition Federalist Party was dead. It was no longer an election threat.

        門羅總統批準妥協方案的決定并沒有傷害他在1820年大選中參選連任的機會。當時美國其實只有一個政黨:共和黨,而門羅就是共和黨的領袖。反對派政黨聯邦黨名存實亡,在大選中并不構成威脅。

        Monroe was the only presidential candidate in the election of eighteen twenty. He received the vote of every elector, but one. William Plumer of New Hampshire voted for John Quincy Adams. He explained later that George Washington had been the only president to get all the electoral votes. Plumer said he did not want anyone to share this honor given to Washington.

        門羅是1820年總統大選唯一的候選人,在所有選舉人票中,只丟掉了一票。新罕布什爾州的威廉.普盧默將這唯一的一票投給了約翰.昆西.亞當斯。他后來解釋說,喬治.華盛頓是唯一全票當選的總統,他不希望任何人分享這一榮譽。

        VOICE TWO:

        Monroe's first four years as president had been successful. He had increased the size of the United States. Florida now was part of the country. And the problem of slavery had been temporarily settled. There had been economic problems -- some of the worst in the nation's history. But the situation was getting better.

        門羅第一屆四年任期非常成功,不僅擴大了美國的疆域,吸收了佛羅里達;暫時緩解了奴隸制度引起的爭端,而且改善了國家的經濟狀況。

        The nation was growing. As it grew, new problems developed between its different sections. There were really three separate areas with very different interests. The northeastern states had become the industrial center of the nation. The southern states were agricultural with large farms that produced cotton, rice and tobacco. Much of the work on these farms was done by slave labor.

        然而,隨著國家的成長,新問題也不斷出現。當時,美國三大地域間存在利益分歧:東北部是國家的工業中心;南部農業發達,是棉花、稻米和煙草大農場的集中地,主要勞動力是黑奴。

        The western states were areas of small farms where grain was produced with free labor. It was a place where a man could make a new start. Could build a new life. The land did not cost much. And the fruits of a man's labor were his own.

        西部有很多小農場,種植谷物,土地便宜,是一個白手起家,開創新生活的好地方。

        VOICE ONE:

        This division of the nation into different sections with opposing interests ended the one-party system of Monroe's administration. The industrial Northeast wanted high taxes on imported products to protect its industry from foreign competition. This part of the country also believed the national government should pay for roads and waterways to get their products to markets.

        地域之間的利益沖突,使門羅任期內的一黨體制走到了盡頭。美國東北部工業化地區主張對進口產品征收高額關稅,保護當地產業不受外部競爭的威脅;東北部工業化地區還認為,聯邦政府應該負責修路,讓他們將商品運往市場。

        The South did not agree to high import taxes. These taxes raised the prices on all goods. And import taxes on foreign goods might cause foreign nations to raise import taxes on southern cotton and tobacco. The South also opposed spending federal money for roads and canals. The mountains through the southern Atlantic states would make road-building difficult and canals impossible.

        南方反對進口關稅,因為征收進口關稅不僅會讓進口商品的價格提高,還會使南方出口的棉花和煙草面臨別國征收的對等性關稅。南方各州也反對動用聯邦資金修建道路和運河,因為南方大西洋沿岸各州的山區地形不適合修建道路,更不用說是運河了。

        The western states supported government aid in the building of roads and canals. The Ohio and Mississippi rivers were the only inexpensive transportation systems for moving their products to markets. The westerners also supported high taxes on imports, because they believed such taxes would raise the prices of their agricultural products.

        西部各州支持聯邦政府出錢修建道路和運河,因為他們要將商品運往市場,他們的廉價運輸手段只有俄亥俄河和密西西比河。西部也支持對進口商品征收關稅,因為他們認為,這樣做會提高他們自己的農產品的價格。

        VOICE TWO:

        The separate interests of these different sections produced an exciting presidential election campaign in eighteen twenty-four. Each section had at least one candidate. Several had more than one. The campaign began almost as soon as Monroe was elected for the second time.

        這三大地域間的利益沖突,促成了1824年激烈的總統選戰。每個地區都有至少一位候選人,門羅第二任期剛開始,競選就拉開了戰幕。

        John Quincy Adams
        John Quincy Adams

        At one time, as many as sixteen men thought of themselves as presidential possibilities. By eighteen twenty-two, the number had been reduced to six men. Three of them were members of Monroe's cabinet: Secretary of State John Quincy Adams, Treasury Secretary William Crawford, and Secretary of War John C. Calhoun.

        一度曾有16個人考慮參選,到1822年的時候,候選人的數目才減少到六名,其中三位是門羅的內閣成員:國務卿約翰.昆西.亞當斯、財政部長威廉.克勞福德、和戰爭部長約翰.卡爾霍恩。

        Adams was the only northern candidate. He was an extremely able man. There were few jobs in government he could not do, and do well. But he was not the kind of man that people liked. He was cold, questioning, and had a sharp tongue. His father was John Adams, the second president of the United States.

        亞當斯是唯一來自北方的候選人,他能力過人,勝任任何政府要職,但他不招人喜歡,對人冷淡,多疑,說話刻薄。他父親是美國第二位總統,約翰.亞當斯。

        VOICE ONE:

        Treasury Secretary Crawford was a southerner -- born in Virginia -- and a large landowner in Georgia. Crawford had received some votes when the Republicans chose Monroe as their presidential candidate in eighteen sixteen. He was a good politician and supported by most southern Republicans.

        財政部長克勞福德是南方人,在維吉尼亞出生,在喬治亞州擁有大片土地,1816年共和黨人推舉門羅為總統候選人的時候,克勞福德也得到了一部分選票。他是一位出色的政治人物,深受南方大部分共和黨人的支持。

        War Secretary Calhoun also was a southern candidate. But he had much less support than Crawford. His home state -- South Carolina -- first named another man as its candidate. When that man died, they named Calhoun.

        戰爭部長卡爾霍恩也是南方人,但是沒有克勞福德那么受歡迎。他所在的南卡羅來納原本推舉的是另外一個人,那個候選人不幸身亡后,才輪到卡爾霍恩。

        The West had two candidates in the election of eighteen twenty-four. One was Henry Clay of Kentucky -- "Harry of the West" -- a great lawyer, congressman, speaker of the House and senator. The other was Andrew Jackson -- "Old Hickory" -- the hero of New Orleans [the Battle of New Orleans during the war of 1812]. Jackson was poorly educated, knew little about government, and had a terrible temper. He was a fighter, a man of the people.

        1824年的總統候選人里,還有兩個來自西部。其中一個是肯塔基州的亨利.克萊,人稱“西部哈里”。他做過律師、國會議員、眾議院議長和參議員。另外一位是安德魯.杰克遜,人稱“老胡桃木”,是1812年戰爭中新奧爾良一役的英雄。杰克遜沒讀過什么書,對政府運作知之甚少,而且脾氣暴躁。他是一位斗士,是普通民眾的一員。

        The sixth candidate was Dewitt Clinton of New York. He was governor of that state and leader of the commission that built the Erie Canal. But New York presidential electors were chosen by the legislature, which was controlled by Clinton's enemies. So Clinton's chances were poor.

        最后一位候選人是紐約的德威特.克林頓。他是紐約州州長,是伊利運河委員會的負責人。但是,紐約總統選舉人是由州議會選擇的,而州議會在克林頓政敵的控制之下,因此他的機會渺茫。

        VOICE TWO:

        William Crawford
        William Crawford

        Treasury Secretary Crawford was clearly the leading candidate two years before the election. But he had a serious illness in the autumn of eighteen twenty-three. He could not meet with the cabinet for months. He could not sign official papers.

        大選兩年前,財政部長克勞福德顯然是最看好的候選人。然而,克勞福德1823年秋天身患重病,好幾個月不能參加內閣會議,不能簽署任何官方文件。

        Crawford did go back to work. But he was only a shadow of the man he had been. "He walks slowly, like a blind man," wrote one reporter. So that took secretary Crawford out as a possible candidate for the coming election.

        克勞福德后來雖然回去工作,但是身體遠不如前,當時一位記者曾經這樣寫道:“他走得很慢,象個盲人”??藙诟5聟⑦x無望。

        (MUSIC)

        ANNOUNCER:

        Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Steve Ember and Sarah Long. To learn more about American history, go to www.squishedblueberries.com. We have transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our programs as well as historical images. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION – an American history series in VOA Special English.

        網友的學習評論(1條):
        作者:Alumni
        8-15-2013 21:28:47
        at that time, the presidents were often produced among the cabinet members, such as the secretary of state, secretary of treasury and secretary of war. e.g. Thomas Jefferson was as well as James Monroe.
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