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        #51: Monroe Doctrine Warns Europe Not to Interfere in the Americas

        作者:Frank Beardsley 發布日期:4-3-2013

        Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

        James Monroe
        James Monroe

        As we said last week, Spain asked other European countries to help it put down rebellion among Spanish colonies in Latin America. Some of these colonies had overthrown their Spanish rulers and declared themselves independent.

        上次我們講到,西班牙向其它歐洲國家求援,希望他們伸出援手,協助鎮壓西班牙在拉丁美洲殖民地的反叛浪潮,其中一些西班牙殖民地推翻了西班牙的統治者,宣布獨立。

        Britain wanted no part of the Spanish proposal. It was trading heavily with these new Latin American countries. Spanish or even French control of this area would destroy or limit this trade.

        英國不愿插手此事,因為當時,英國跟拉美新獨立的國家之間有很多貿易往來,西班牙,甚至是法國對當地的控制都會掐斷、至少是阻塞英國的財路。

        So Britain proposed a joint statement with the United States to say that neither country wanted any of Spain's territory in the New World. Britain also wanted the United States to join in opposing the transfer of any of Spain's American territories to any other power in Europe.

        英國因此建議跟美國發表聯合聲明,宣布兩國都不想得到西班牙在拉美地區的領土。英國還希望美國能跟自己一起,反對西班牙將美洲大陸的領土轉讓給其他歐洲強國。

        Now, Maurice Joyce and Harry Monroe continue the story.

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE ONE:

        John Quincy Adams
        John Quincy Adams

        Most of President James Monroe's advisers urged him to accept the British offer. Secretary of State John Quincy Adams opposed it. He did not believe the United States should tie itself to any European power, even Britain.

        當時的美國總統是詹姆斯.門羅。給門羅出謀劃策的智囊團里,大多數人主張接受英國的提議,只有國務卿約翰.昆西.亞當斯反對。亞當斯認為,美國不應該把自己跟任何歐洲國家拴在一起,哪怕是英國。

        Monroe accepted the advice of his secretary of state. He included Adams' ideas in his message to Congress in December eighteen twenty-three. This part of the message became known as the Monroe Doctrine.

        門羅最終采納了亞當斯的意見,并將亞當斯的意見寫進了1823年提交國會的報告中,這就是著名的“門羅主義”。

        The president said no European power should, in the future, try to establish a colony anywhere in the Americas. He said the political system of the European powers was very different from that of the Americas. Monroe said any attempt to extend this European system to any of the Americas would threaten the peace and safety of the United States.

        門羅提出,今后不能讓任何歐洲國家在美洲建立殖民地。他說,歐洲國家的政治體系跟美洲國家截然不同,歐洲政治體系向美洲的擴展會威脅到美國的和平與安全。

        VOICE TWO:

        The president also said the United States had not interfered with the colonies of any European power in South America and would not do so in the future.

        門羅還說,美國從未插手過歐洲國家在美洲殖民地的任何事務,今后也不會這樣做。

        But, said Monroe, a number of these former colonies had become independent countries. And the United States had recognized their independence. We would see it as an unfriendly act, he said, for any European power to try to oppress or control these new American countries in any way.

        但他同時指出,一些歐洲殖民地已經宣布獨立,并得到了美國的承認,不管歐洲國家通過何種手段去壓制或控制這些美洲國家,都會被美國視為不友好的行動。

        At the same time, Monroe said, the United States never had -- and never would -- take part in any war among the European powers. This statement of Monroe's was only part of a presidential message to Congress. But it clearly stated one of the most important of America's foreign policies.

        門羅同時承諾,美國永遠不會參與任何歐洲國家之間的沖突。這部分聲明只是門羅提交給國會的報告中的一部分,但是聲明中明確提出了美國一項最重要的外交政策。

        VOICE ONE:

        The nation had continued to grow during Monroe's term as president. A number of new states were added to the union. Indiana, Mississippi, Illinois, and Alabama all became states before eighteen twenty. Louisiana had become the first state to be formed from part of the Louisiana territory that the United States bought from France.

        門羅任期內,美國的地域不斷擴大,1820年之前,印第安納、密西西比、伊利諾伊和阿拉巴馬等州紛紛加入聯邦。美國從法國手中收購的路易斯安那地區,形成的第一個州是路易斯安那州。

        The rest of this great area was given the name of the Missouri Territory. By eighteen nineteen, there were enough people in part of the Missouri Territory for that part to become a state. It would be known as the state of Missouri. But Missouri could not become a state without the approval of Congress. And this approval was almost impossible to get.

        到1819年的時候,其余地區人口的增長,足以組成第二個州--也就是后來的密蘇里州。然而,密蘇里州的形成給國會出了一道難題。

        VOICE TWO:

        The problem was slavery. Slaves were not new in America. Spain had brought them to the West Indies hundreds of years before. In sixteen nineteen, a ship brought twenty African slaves to Jamestown, Virginia. These black men were sold to farmers. Over the years, the use of slaves spread to all the American colonies.

        問題出在奴隸制度上。早在幾百年前,西班牙就把奴隸引進了西印度群島。1619年,一艘貨船帶著20個非洲黑奴,來到維吉尼亞的詹姆斯敦,這些黑奴被賣給當地的農場主。隨后,奴隸在北美定居點逐漸普及開來。

        There were many more slaves in the agricultural South than in the North. The farms in the North were smaller and needed less man-power. But in the South, farms were much larger, and needed many men. Slaves were the least expensive form of labor.

        當時,南方的奴隸比北方多,因為南方以農業為主,農場規模大,需要勞力多,奴隸成本又那么低;

        Most of the northern states had passed laws before eighteen hundred freeing slaves. Even the southern states made it illegal to import more slaves from Africa. But those southerners who already owned slaves believed they were necessary, and they refused to free them.

        而北方農場相對較小,需要的人手也有限。1800年以前,北方的大多數州都已經通過了解放奴隸的立法,南方各州也都禁止從非洲進口更多的奴隸,但是已經擁有奴隸的南方農場主認為,奴隸的存在是必要的,因此拒絕給他們自由。

        A map of the Missouri Territory
        A map of the Missouri Territory

        VOICE ONE:

        Slavery had been legal when France and Spain controlled the Louisiana territory. The United States did nothing to change this when it purchased the area. So slavery was permitted in the Missouri Territory at the time it asked for statehood.

        路易斯安那地區受法國和西班牙控制的時候,奴隸制度是合法的。美國收購路易斯安那后,沒有通過立法改變現狀。因此,這片地區申請成為后來的密蘇里州時,奴隸制度依然合法。

        A New York congressman, James Tallmadge, offered an amendment to Missouri's request to become a state. Tallmadge proposed that no more slaves be brought into Missouri, and that the children of slaves already there be freed at the age of twenty-five. His proposal started a debate that lasted a year.

        當時紐約州的一位眾議員詹姆斯.塔爾梅奇建議,在密蘇里州的申請案中附加一項條款,保證密蘇里不再引進奴隸,現有奴隸的子女25歲后成為自由人。他的提議引起了長達一年的辯論。

        Supporters of Tallmadge argued that his proposed amendment was Constitutional. The Constitution, they said, gave Congress the right to admit new states into the union. This also meant, they said, that Congress could refuse to admit new states unless these states met conditions demanded by Congress.

        塔爾梅奇的支持者認為,這一附加條件符合憲法,因為根據憲法規定,國會有權吸收新的州加入聯邦,這就意味著,國會同樣有權拒絕申請,除非這些州滿足國會提出的條件。

        VOICE TWO:

        Supporters of the amendment also said small farmers of the North and East could not compete with the southern farmers and the free labor of slaves. They argued that these northern and eastern farmers had as much right to the land of Missouri as anyone else. The Louisiana territory had been paid for by the taxes of all Americans.

        支持者還指出,東部和北部的小農場主無法跟使用奴隸作為免費勞動力的南方大農場主競爭,但實際上,大家對密蘇里的土地享受同等的權利,因為路易斯安那地區是用所有納稅人的錢買來的。

        Those opposed to slavery also argued that slave-holding states would be given too great a voice in the government if Missouri joined them.

        反對奴隸制的人還說,如果密蘇里加入聯邦,那么允許奴隸制度存在的州就會享有很大的發言權。

        Under the Constitution, three of every five slaves were included in the population count to decide membership in the House of Representatives. In the past, each time a slave state was admitted to the union, a free state also had been admitted. This kept a balance in Congress.

        根據美國憲法,為決定國會眾議員的分配,要進行人口普查,每五個奴隸算三個人。過去,每吸收一個奴隸州進入聯邦,就會同時吸收一個非奴隸州,以便保證國會的平衡。

        VOICE ONE:

        Southerners had an answer for each argument of those supporting the Tallmadge amendment. They agreed that Congress had the Constitutional right to admit or reject a state. But they said Congress did not have the right to make conditions for a territory to become a state.

        塔爾梅奇的反對者對上述觀點逐一提出反駁。他們承認,國會有權吸收,也有權駁回一個州加入聯邦的申請,但是他們認為,國會無權提出條件。

        William Pinkney of Maryland argued that states already in the union had joined without any conditions. If Congress, he declared, had the right to set conditions for new states, then these new states would not be equal to the old ones. The United States no longer would be a union of equal states.

        馬里蘭州的威廉.平克尼指出,現存各州加入聯邦時,沒有任何條件。如果現在說,國會有權提出條件的話,那么對新加入的州和對早先加入的州就并非一視同仁,美國就不是一個平等的聯邦。

        The debate was violent on both sides. Representative Howell Cobb of Georgia told Tallmadge: "You have started a fire. All the waters of the oceans cannot put it out. Only seas of blood can do so."

        辯論雙方都很激動。喬治亞州眾議員豪厄爾.科布告訴塔爾梅奇說,“你點燃了一場烈火,用盡所有海水也無法撲滅,只能讓鮮血來熄滅。”

        VOICE TWO:

        The House of Representatives passed the Missouri bill with the Tallmadge amendment. It was rejected by the Senate. The people of Missouri would try again for statehood when the new Congress met in eighteen twenty.

        美國國會眾議院批準了帶有塔爾梅奇附加條件的密蘇里議案,但是遭到了參議院的否決。密蘇里一帶的居民只好等1820年新國會會期內再行討論。

        By this time, another free state was ready to enter the union. Maine -- with the permission of Massachusetts -- asked to become a separate state. Once again, a New York congressman tried to put a condition on statehood for Missouri. He offered an amendment that Missouri should agree never to permit any kind of slavery inside its borders.

        誰知此時,又多了一個申請加入聯邦的州--也就是現在的緬因州。緬因州的居民申請從麻薩諸塞州分離出來,以獨立身份加入聯邦。新國會開始討論密蘇里州的問題時,紐約的一位眾議員再次要求密蘇里州接受附加條件,同意在本州境內永遠不允許任何形式的奴隸制度。

        House Speaker Henry Clay said that as long as any kind of condition was put on Missouri, he could never permit Maine to become a state. Clay was not strong enough to prevent the House from approving statehood for Maine. This bill was sent to the Senate for its approval. The Senate, however, joined the Maine bill with the one for unlimited statehood for Missouri. Senators refused to separate the two.

        當時美國國會眾議院議長亨利.克萊表示,如果給密蘇里加入聯邦附加條件,他就絕對不會同意緬因州的申請。但是克萊勢單力薄,國會眾議院最終批準了緬因州的申請,提交參議院審核。然而,參議院卻將無條件吸收密蘇里和緬因州的申請案聯系在了一起。

        VOICE ONE:

        Finally, Senator Thomas of Illinois offered a compromise. He said Missouri should be admitted as a state permitting slavery. But he said no other state permitting slavery could be formed from the northern part of the Louisiana territory.

        最終,伊利諾伊州參議員托馬斯提出了一個妥協方案。托馬斯建議,可以讓密蘇里州保持奴隸制的合法化,但是從今往后,路易斯安那地區不能再出現其他奴隸州。

        The compromise was accepted. And Congress approved statehood both for Missouri and Maine. But they would not become states until President Monroe signed the bills. President Monroe had to make a difficult decision. He was a slave-holder. Many of his friends urged him to veto the bills, which would limit slavery in the Louisiana territory. And electors would soon be chosen for the next presidential election. Still, a decision had to be made.

        國會接受了托馬斯的提議,同意吸收密蘇里和緬因,但是還需要門羅總統的簽字,才能最后生效,這讓門羅左右為難,因為他本人就是奴隸主,很多朋友都要求他否決這項議案,因為這項議案將限制奴隸制在路易斯安那地區的存在。

        (MUSIC)

        ANNOUNCER:

        Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Maurice Joyce and Harry Monroe. To learn more about America's fifth president, go to www.squishedblueberries.com. You can download transcripts of our programs, along with MP3s and podcasts. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION – an American history series in VOA Special English.

        __

        This is program #51 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

        網友的學習評論(2條):
        作者:Alumni
        8-14-2013 21:33:27
        the United States went a long way to add 50 stars to her stars and stripes flag. and it also took a long time to give up slavery in whole country.
        作者:鄭烈波
        3-26-2015 14:24:8
        and electors would soon be chosen for the next presidential election.still,a decision had to be made.
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