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        #50: James Monroe Easily Wins Election in 1816

        作者:Frank Beardsley 發布日期:4-2-2013

        Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

        President James Madison retired after two four-year terms. His Republican Party chose another Virginian, James Monroe, as its next presidential candidate.

        詹姆斯.麥迪遜總統連任兩屆后,宣布讓賢。他所在的共和黨提名另外一位維吉尼亞人詹姆斯.門羅為下屆總統候選人。

        James Monroe
        James Monroe

        The opposition Federalist Party had almost disappeared by the time of the election in eighteen sixteen. The party did not even meet to choose a presidential candidate. But three states -- Connecticut, Delaware and Massachusetts -- promised to vote for a Federalist, Rufus King.

        1816年大選時,反對黨聯邦黨已經幾乎不存在了。聯邦黨人甚至沒有開會推舉總統候選人。不過,康涅狄克、德拉瓦和麻薩諸塞三個州保證要投票支持聯邦黨人魯弗斯.金。

        Now, this week in our series, Tony Riggs and Larry West continue the story.

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE ONE: James Monroe easily won the election. He would serve two terms. Monroe was sworn-in as president in February eighteen-seventeen.

        門羅輕松獲勝,1817年2月宣誓就職,后來又當選連任,先后任期一共八年。

        A few months later, he began a long trip to thirteen states. Everywhere he stopped, the people welcomed him warmly. Even in New England the crowds were large.

        門羅就職幾個月后,就踏上征程,走訪美國的13個州,所到之處,都受到熱烈歡迎,就連新英格蘭地區也出現了龐大的歡迎人群。

        The president returned to Washington after three and a half months. He was tired. But he was pleased with the way the people of the United States had accepted him.

        門羅三個半月后返回華盛頓,雖然筋疲力盡,但是民眾的態度讓他深感欣慰。

        VOICE TWO:

        Not everyone was happy that Monroe had been elected. After all, he was the fourth American president from Virginia. The situation caused hard feelings among political leaders in other states, especially the states of New England.

        然而,門羅的當選并沒有讓所有人歡欣鼓舞。畢竟,他已經是來自維吉尼亞州的第四位總統了。這種情況讓其他州,特別是新英格蘭地區的政治領袖很不痛快。

        Monroe tried to improve this situation. He wanted to give the top four jobs in his cabinet to men from each of the nation's four major areas: the Northeast, the South, the West and the Middle Atlantic coast. This would help improve unity. And it would help the president get expert knowledge about each of those parts of the country.

        門羅努力改善局面,計劃把內閣里四大要員的位置按照地理位置分配,東北部、南部、西部和中部大西洋沿岸各一個。這樣一來,不僅能加強團結,而且能讓門羅獲得全國各地區最準確的信息。

        Monroe was not able to do what he wanted. He got cabinet ministers from only three of the four areas. The West was not represented.

        不過,門羅沒能如愿以償,在他的內閣里,只有三個地區的領袖,西部沒有代表。

        VOICE ONE:

        The top cabinet job -- secretary of state -- went to John Quincy Adams of Massachusetts. Adams was the son of former president John Adams. John Quincy Adams had been a Federalist, like his father. But he became a Republican during the presidency of Thomas Jefferson.

        國務卿由麻薩諸塞州的約翰.昆西.亞當斯擔任。亞當斯是前總統約翰.亞當斯的兒子,以前曾經是聯邦黨人,后來在托馬斯.杰斐遜任期內,改弦易張,投奔共和黨。

        Adams had served his country in many ways. He had served as minister to Russia. And he had been the chief negotiator at the peace talks with Britain following the War of Eighteen Twelve. President Monroe asked Henry Clay of Kentucky to be secretary of war. But Clay refused.

        他曾經擔任駐俄羅斯的使節,是1812年戰爭跟英國的首席談判代表。門羅總統要求肯塔基的亨利.克雷出任戰爭部長,被克雷婉然拒絕。

        The president could find no other westerner who would take the job as chief of the War Department. So he gave it to John C. Calhoun, a congressman from South Carolina. William Crawford of Georgia, another Southerner, continued as treasury secretary. And William Wirt of Virginia became head of the Justice Department.

        門羅因為找不到其他合適的西部人選擔任戰爭部長,所以決定任命南卡羅來納州的國會議員約翰.卡爾霍恩。此外,財政部長繼續由來自南方喬治亞州的威廉.克勞福德擔任,司法部長由維吉尼亞的威廉.沃特擔任。

        VOICE TWO:

        One of the first problems facing President Monroe was east Florida. It was the territory which is now the state of Florida in the southeastern United States. At that time, the territory belonged to Spain. But Spain controlled only a few towns in the area. The rest was controlled by criminals, escaped slaves and former British soldiers.

        門羅上任后遇到的問題之一是佛羅里達東部的騷亂,也就是今天美國東南部的佛羅里達州。當時,那片地區歸西班牙所有,但是西班牙只控制著幾個小鎮,其余地區都是罪犯、在逃奴隸和前英國士兵的地盤。

        There also were native American Indians of the Seminole and Creek tribes. Sometimes, people from east Florida would cross the border and attack American citizens. One serious fight involved Seminole Indians and people just across the border in the state of Georgia.

        當地還有西米諾爾和克里克印第安部落。有時候,佛羅里達東部的人會跨過邊界,對美國人發動襲擊。西米諾爾印第安人和邊界對面的喬治亞州人就曾發生過一次激烈沖突。

        VOICE ONE:

        General Andrew Jackson was ordered to march against the Indians. He was a hero of the war of eighteen twelve against Britain. Jackson sent a message to President Monroe. He said:

        "Let me know in any way that the United States wants possession of the Florida territory. And in sixty days, it will be done."

        1812年英美戰爭中的英雄安德魯.杰克遜將軍得到命令,率兵進攻印第安人。杰克遜寫信給門羅總統說,“告訴我美國是否想占領佛羅里達地區。我60天內就能辦到。”

        Jackson received no answer to his letter. He believed the silence meant that he was free to seize Florida. He quickly gathered a force of soldiers and marched toward Florida.

        杰克遜沒有得到回音,他認為,這是門羅的默許,所以立即糾集兵馬,直撲佛羅里達。

        A statue of Andrew Jackson in Pensacola, Florida, marks the area where he spoke to citizens of the territory
        A statue of Andrew Jackson in Pensacola, Florida, marks the area where he spoke to citizens of the territory

        VOICE TWO:

        General Jackson failed to capture any Indians. But he seized two Spanish towns: Saint Marks and Pensacola.

        杰克遜將軍沒有抓住任何印第安人,但是占領了兩個西班牙城鎮,圣馬克斯和彭薩科拉。

        He also arrested two British subjects. The two men were tried by a military court. They were found guilty of spying and giving guns to the Indians. Both were executed.

        他還逮捕了兩個英國人。這兩個英國人接受軍事法庭的審判。法庭認定,二人的間諜罪和向印第安人提供槍支的罪名成立,被處死。

        Jackson left soldiers at several places in Florida. Then he returned to his home in Tennessee.

        杰克遜將軍下令一些駐軍留守佛羅里達,然后返回了田納西。

        VOICE ONE:

        President Monroe called a cabinet meeting as soon as he learned of Jackson's actions. All the ministers, except Secretary of State Adams, believed that Jackson had gone too far. But they decided not to denounce him in public.

        門羅總統一得到消息,立即召開內閣會議。除了國務卿亞當斯以外,所有人都認為杰克遜的做法過了頭,但是大家一致決定,不公開指責他。

        Secretary Adams prepared messages to Britain and Spain about the incidents. His message to Britain carefully stated the activities of the two British subjects in Florida and explained why they were executed. Britain agreed not to take any action.

        國務卿亞當斯向英國和西班牙作出解釋。亞當斯在給英國的信中歷數了那兩個英國人在佛羅里達的所作所為,解釋了處死他們的理由。英國同意不采取行動。

        VOICE TWO:

        Adams's message to Spain explained the situation this way: Spain had failed to keep the peace along the border as it had promised to do in a treaty. The United States had sent soldiers into Florida only to defend its citizens on the American side.

        亞當斯在寫給西班牙的信中是這樣說的:西班牙沒有履行條約里的承諾,保證邊境和平。美國出兵佛羅里達,是為了保護美國公民。

        The United States recognized that Florida belonged to Spain. But if Americans were forced to enter Florida again -- in self-defense -- the United States might not return the territory to Spain. Spain had a choice. It could send enough soldiers to keep order in Florida. Or it could give Florida to the United States.

        美國承認佛羅里達屬于西班牙,但是如果今后,美國被迫再次進入佛羅里達采取自衛行動,美國就可能不再歸還西班牙的領地。西班牙有兩種選擇,要么增兵維持治安,要么把佛羅里達送給美國。

        VOICE ONE:

        Spain really had no choice. At that time, Spain's colonies in South America were rebelling. All had declared their independence. Jose de San Martin led the struggle in Argentina. Bernardo O'Higgens was in Chile. And Simon Bolivar created the Republic of Great Columbia in the north.

        實際上,西班牙除了把佛羅里達送給美國,沒有其他選擇。當時,西班牙在南美的殖民地正在鬧叛亂,紛紛宣布獨立。阿根廷有圣馬丁,智利有奧希金斯,還有西蒙.玻利瓦爾在北部創建的大哥倫比亞共和國。

        Spain's forces could not be sent to Florida. They were needed in South America. So the king of Spain agreed to give Florida to the United States. In exchange, the United States agreed to pay five million dollars to American citizens who had damage claims against Spain.

        西班牙忙于料理南美局勢,無法向佛羅里達增兵。西班牙國王因此同意把佛羅里達送給美國,作為交換,美國答應拿出五百萬美元,安撫那些要求西班牙賠償的美國公民。

        A map of Florida from 1823
        A map of Florida from 1823

        VOICE TWO:

        The Florida treaty was signed in February eighteen nineteen. The American Senate quickly approved the treaty. But the king of Spain delayed his approval for almost two years.

        美國和西班牙1819年2月簽署了條約,立即得到美國國會參議院的批準,但是西班牙國王遲遲不在條約上簽字,足足拖了兩年。

        He had hoped the United States would agree to one more demand. He did not want the United States to recognize the independence of the rebel Spanish colonies in South America.

        他希望美國接受一項額外要求,那就是,不承認西班牙在南美洲的殖民地的獨立。

        The United States rejected the king's demand. It said Spain must approve the Florida treaty, or it would take Florida on its own. The threat succeeded. Spain approved the treaty.

        美國拒絕接受,并威脅說,西班牙必須批準佛羅里達條約,否則美國就要強行奪取佛羅里達。西班牙被逼無耐,只好簽字。

        VOICE ONE:

        Many Americans believed that the United States should recognize the independent republics in South America. The speaker of the House of Representatives, Henry Clay, agreed.

        很多美國人都認為,美國應該承認南美共和國的獨立,國會眾議院議長亨利.克雷就是其中一員。

        He said recognition would help protect the rights and liberties of the new republics. He said it would lead to economic ties with the United States. And he said it would make the new republics follow the lead of the United States in diplomacy and foreign policy. As a result of all this, Clay said, the United States would become the leading nation in the Americas.

        他表示,外交上的承認有助于保護這些新共和國的權利和自由。他說,這樣做還能加強它們跟美國的經濟聯系,讓它們效仿美國的外交政策,使美國在整個美洲取得領導地位。

        VOICE TWO:

        Secretary of State Adams disagreed. He did not believe that the new republics could develop free and liberal forms of government. He also feared that United States' recognition of the South American republics would lead to trouble with European nations.

        亞當斯國務卿表示反對。他不認為南美新獨立的國家能夠建立自由政府,他還擔心,美國承認它們的獨立,會帶來跟歐洲國家的麻煩。

        At the end of the Napoleonic wars, some of the nations of Europe joined in an agreement to keep the peace. They agreed to help each other put down rebellions. Such rebellions were defeated in Spain and Italy.

        拿破侖戰爭結束后,一些歐洲國家簽署協議,維持和平,并相互協助,鎮壓反叛勢力,在西班牙和意大利都取得了成功。

        Britain refused to be part of the agreement. And it did not want the alliance to interfere in South America. Britain had a good trade with the new republics. Britain proposed a joint statement with the United States. The statement would say that neither country would seize Spanish colonies in the new world. And both would oppose any effort by Spain to give its American territory to another European nation.

        但是英國不肯加入協議,也不希望這些歐洲國家插手南美洲的事務。英國跟南美新獨立的國家建立了良好的貿易關系。英國提議跟美國發表聯合聲明,保證兩國都不會奪取西班牙在南美洲的殖民地,同時反對西班牙將其美洲領地送給其他任何一個歐洲國家。

        VOICE ONE:

        At first, President Monroe thought he would accept the British proposal. He asked former presidents Jefferson and Madison for their advice. Both urged him to accept it. Secretary of State Adams, however, disagreed sharply. He said the United States should act alone in protesting European interference in South America.

        門羅總統本想接受英國的提案,向前總統杰斐遜和麥迪遜征求意見。兩人都表示支持。然而,國務卿亞當斯堅決反對。他提出,美國在反對歐洲干涉南美事務的問題上,應該自己采取行動。

        President Monroe finally accepted the advice of his secretary of state. He included Adams's ideas in his message to Congress in eighteen twenty-three. They became known as the Monroe Doctrine. That will be our story next week.

        門羅總統最終接受了亞當斯的意見。他1823年向國會提交了美國外交政策原則,也就是所謂的“門羅主義”,里面就包括了亞當斯的主張。

        (MUSIC)

        ANNOUNCER: Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Tony Riggs and Larry West. Transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our programs are online, along with historical images, at www.squishedblueberries.com. Join us each week for THE MAKING OF A NATION - an American history series in VOA Special English.

        網友的學習評論(1條):
        作者:Alumni
        8-13-2013 22:18:29
        Florida didnt belong to the United States at the first term of James Monroe's presidency, and we know that Louisiana also didnt belong to the United States at the time of Thomas Jefferson's presidency. that means the United States was not built in a day, just like Rome was not built in a day.
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