<em id="0i93o"></em>
<sub id="0i93o"></sub>
<meter id="0i93o"></meter>
      1. <form id="0i93o"></form>

        官方APP下載:英語學習播客(支持蘋果手機、安卓手機)
        創辦于2003年
        UNSV記不???那就記中文諧音“憂安思?!卑?!
          Slow and Steady Wins the Race!
        UNSV英語學習頻道 - Slow and steady wins the race!
        公眾微信服務號(英語全能特訓)
        英語全能特訓(微信公眾服務號)
        UNSV英語學習頻道淘寶網店
        客服短信:18913948480
        客服郵箱:web@unsv.com
        初級VIP會員
        全站英語學習資料下載。
        ¥98元/12個月

        #49: War of 1812 Ends With Treaty of Ghent

        作者:Frank Beardsley 發布日期:4-1-2013

        Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

        Detail from
        Detail from "The Battle of New Orleans" by E. Percy Morgan

        The United States and Britain agreed late in December of eighteen fourteen to end the war between them. The peace treaty was signed the day before Christmas at Ghent, Belgium. It took several weeks for word of the agreement to reach Washington. This resulted in two events that would not have happened had communications across the Atlantic been faster.

        美國和英國1814年12月同意停戰。談判雙方圣誕節前夜在比利時的根特簽署了和平協議。然而,和平的喜訊幾個星期后才傳到美國首都華盛頓。在這幾個星期的時間里,發生了兩件本來可以避免的事情。

        One of the events was the battle of New Orleans. British forces had begun the attack about the time the peace treaty was being signed in Ghent. The American commander, General Andrew Jackson, had prepared his defenses well. He won a great victory against the British in a battle that was unnecessary, because the war was already over.

        其中之一就是新奧爾良戰役。和平協議簽字的時候,英國軍隊正在發起進攻。美軍指揮官安德魯.杰克遜做好了充分的防御準備。他打個了完全沒有必要的大勝仗,因為戰爭已經結束了。

        Now, Maurice Joyce and Jack Moyles continue our story.

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE ONE:

        The other event was a convention of New England Federalists at Hartford, Connecticut. The meeting began in the middle of December and lasted through the first few days of January. Most of the representatives were from Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut. There were a few from New Hampshire and Vermont.

        另外一件本來可以避免的事情是新英格蘭地區的聯邦黨人在康涅狄克州的哈特福德召開了一次反戰大會。會議從12月中旬一直持續到次年的1月初。與會代表主要來自麻薩諸塞、羅德島和康涅狄克州,還有幾個來自新罕布什爾和佛蒙特。

        The Federalists called the meeting to protest the war with Britain. Many of them had opposed the war from the beginning. Federalist state governments refused to put their soldiers under control of the central government. And Federalist banks refused to lend to the government in Washington.

        參加這次大會的很多人從一開始就反對跟英國開戰。聯邦黨人控制下的州政府拒絕讓本州士兵服從聯邦政府的調遣,聯邦黨人的銀行也拒絕向聯邦政府貸款。

        During the early part of the war, many businessmen in the New England states traded with the enemy. All these things had caused people in other parts of the country to turn against the Federalists. This, in turn, caused some Federalist extremists to talk of taking the New England states out of the union.

        戰爭初期,新英格蘭各州的很多商人繼續跟英國做生意。新英格蘭各州的這些做法引起了美國其他地方的強烈不滿,聯邦黨里的極端份子因此提出,新英格蘭各州應該脫離聯邦。

        VOICE TWO:

        There was some fear that representatives to the Hartford convention would propose a separate and independent government for New England. Such a proposal -- while the nation was at war with Britain -- would seriously threaten America's future. Not only were the representatives at Hartford to protest the war, they also were there to plan a convention to change the United States Constitution. They wanted changes that would protect the interests of the New England states. These states felt threatened because new states were being created from the western territories.

        有人擔心,在哈特福德大會上會有人提議,讓新英格蘭地區自立門戶。在戰爭期間提出分裂,無疑會對美國的前途構成嚴峻挑戰。在哈特福德開會的聯邦黨人不光是反戰,還要籌備一次修憲大會。他們希望修改憲法,保護新英格蘭各州的利益。這些州因為西部新州的出現而感到了威脅。

        Timothy Pickering
        Timothy Pickering

        These new states would weaken the power of New England. Some of the more extreme Federalists, led by Timothy Pickering, believed Britain would capture New Orleans. By doing so, Britain could control the Mississippi River, which the western states needed to move their products to market.

        西部地區新出現的州會削弱新英格蘭地區的勢力。以蒂莫西.皮克林為首的聯邦黨極端份子相信,英國肯定會攻下新奧爾良。這樣一來,英國就會控制密西西比河,阻斷美國西部各州把商品運往市場的水路。

        "If the British succeed against New Orleans," wrote Pickering, "and I see no reason to question that they will be successful, then I shall consider the Union as cut in two. I do not expect to see a single representative in the next Congress from the western states. "

        皮克林曾經寫道:“如果英國成功占領新奧爾良,我看不出他們有什么失敗的理由,如果真是這樣的話,我認為,聯邦就已經一分為二了,在下屆國會里,不會有任何來自西部地區的國會代表。”

        VOICE ONE:

        Not all the representatives at the convention were as extreme as Pickering. The majority of them were more moderate. They did not want to split the union. They only wanted to protect the interests of the New England states. These more moderate federalists controlled the secret meetings and prevented any extreme proposals.

        并非所有人都象皮克林那么極端,參加大會的絕大多數其實都是溫和派,他們不希望分裂國家,只想捍衛新英格蘭各州的利益。這些聯邦黨里的溫和派控制了秘密會議的局面,防止了極端提議的出現。

        They were able to do so because of the Republican strength in New England. True, the federalists controlled the governments of these states, but only by small majorities. There would surely have been violence had the federalists tried to take these states out of the union.

        他們之所以能夠做到這一點,也要感謝新英格蘭地區共和黨人的勢力。沒錯,這些州的政府確實掌握在聯邦黨人手中,但是他們只占很小的優勢。如果聯邦黨人試圖分裂的話,肯定會發生暴力沖突。

        VOICE TWO:

        The federalist leaders made a public statement at Hartford, January fifth. They sharply criticized the war and President Madison. But they said there was no real reason to withdraw from the central government. New England's problems, they said, resulted from the war and from the Republican government in Washington.

        聯邦黨領袖1月5號在哈特福德發表公開聲明,對戰爭和麥迪遜總統提出了嚴厲的批評,但他們同時表示,沒有理由退出聯邦政府,因為新英格蘭的問題完全是由戰爭和共和黨政府造成的。

        Then the Federalists listed the changes they wanted in the Constitution. They wanted to reduce the congressional representation of the southern states, where slavery was permitted. They wanted new states added to the Union only if two-thirds of Congress approved. They wished to reduce the power of the central government to interfere with trade.

        聯邦黨人提出了一系列修憲內容:他們要求減少南部奴隸州的國會議員人數;要求新州加入聯邦,需要至少三分之二國會議員的批準;還希望減少聯邦政府干預貿易的權力。

        The Federalists wished to limit to four years the time that a man could serve as president. And they wanted only men born in the United States to serve in the government. Three of the Federalists were chosen to take this list of proposals to Washington and give it to President Madison. By the time they arrived, Washington had received the news of the peace treaty signed at Ghent. The war was over.

        除此之外,聯邦黨人提出,希望將總統任期限制在四年以內,只有在美國本土出生的男性才能擔任公職。與會代表推舉三位聯邦黨人,把上述要求送到首都華盛頓去,交給麥迪遜。誰知道,他們抵達華盛頓的時候,停戰的消息已經傳來了。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE ONE:

        The three Federalists met with Madison. They made only small talk and said nothing about the demands of the Hartford convention.

        這三個人見到麥迪遜總統后,只聊了一些不關痛癢的瑣事,根本沒有談到新英格蘭地區聯邦黨人的要求。

        The Federalist Party found itself greatly embarrassed by the peace. Its leaders had long denounced the war and said Britain could not be defeated. Many of them had traded with the enemy. Some had even worked with the British against their own country. They had even threatened to break up the Union. While there was some question about how the war would end, the Federalist Party had supporters. But once the war was over, its supporters vanished. And the party itself soon disappeared, even in New England.

        英美簽署的和平協議讓聯邦黨人很沒面子。聯邦黨領袖一直譴責這場戰爭,認為英國人不可能被打敗,很多聯邦黨人跟英國人通商,甚至有些人反過去幫助英國,還威脅說要分裂聯邦。戰爭沒有結束前,聯邦黨人有不少支持者,但是戰爭結束后,這些支持者一下子都不見了。聯邦黨沒過多久也不復存在,甚至是在新英格蘭地區。

        VOICE TWO:

        Albert Gallatin
        Albert Gallatin

        The Senate acted quickly to approve the treaty with Britain. On February seventeenth, eighteen fifteen, President Madison declared the war officially ended. It had lasted two years and eight months. The United States had suffered thirty thousand casualties -- killed, wounded, or captured. But the war had united the American people. Albert Gallatin, Madison's treasury secretary and one of the negotiators at Ghent, explained it this way:

        國會參議院迅速批準了和平協議。1815年2月17號,麥迪遜總統正式宣布戰爭結束。這場戰爭先后持續了兩年八個月,美軍傷亡和被俘人數多達三萬,但是這場戰爭也團結了美國人民。當時美國的財政部長加勒廷參加了在比利時的和談。

        "The war has renewed and reinstated the national feelings and character which the revolution had given and which were becoming weaker. The people now have more general objects of attachment with which their pride and political opinions are joined. They are more American. They feel and act more like a nation."

        加勒比廷解釋說:“這場戰爭重新燃起了獨立戰爭中形成的,后來日漸消失的愛國情感。如今,人民的驕傲和政見有了更實在的寄托。他們變得更美國化了,感情和行動都更象一個國家。”

        VOICE ONE:

        On the following Fourth of July, the nation celebrated its thirty-ninth anniversary of independence. In Washington, the man who wrote the "Star-Spangled Banner," Francis Scott Key, spoke at the celebrations.

        1815年7月4號,美國舉國歡慶獨立建國39周年。“星條旗”一曲的作者弗朗西斯.斯科特.克伊發表了講話。

        "My countrymen," he said, "we hold something rich in trust for ourselves and all the rest of mankind. It is the fire of liberty. If it is ever put out, our darkened land will cast a sad shadow over the nations. If it lives, its blaze will enlighten and gladden the whole earth. "

        他說:“同胞們,我們要看管一件非常珍貴的物品---自由的火焰。如果自由之火熄滅了,我們這片土地上的黑暗會給其他國家籠罩上一層陰影,如果自由之火持續燃燒,整個地球都會感受到光明和喜悅。”

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE TWO:

        President Madison had been elected to his second term in eighteen twelve, the year the war started. The next presidential election was in eighteen sixteen. Madison continued the tradition, begun by Washington and followed by Jefferson, of only serving eight years as president. Republican members of the House and Senate met March fifteenth to choose their presidential and vice presidential candidates.

        1812年英美戰爭打響的那一年,麥迪遜當選連任。四年后的1816年大選年,麥迪遜決定秉承前總統華盛頓和杰斐遜開創的最多只干八年的傳統,全身而退。國會共和黨參、眾兩院議員3月15號開會,推選共和黨的總統和副總統候選人。

        Three Republicans wanted to be president: Secretary of State James Monroe, former Senator and Secretary of War William Crawford, and New York Governor Daniel Tompkins. Monroe received sixty-five votes. Fifty-four of the lawmakers voted for Crawford. With Monroe chosen as the presidential candidate, the Republicans then chose Governor Tompkins as their vice presidential candidate.

        有意參加總統競選的三個共和黨人是:當時的國務卿詹姆斯.門羅;前參議員和戰爭部長威廉.克勞福德,以及紐約州長丹尼爾.湯普金斯。結果,門羅得到了65張支持票,克勞福德54張。共和黨人最后推舉門羅和湯普金斯為共和黨總統和副總統候選人。

        The Federalists did not meet to choose a presidential candidate. But electors from three of the New England states promised to vote for a New York Federalist, Rufus King. Nineteen states voted in the elections of eighteen sixteen. That will be our story next week.

        聯邦黨人沒有開會推選候選人,但是新英格蘭地區三個州的選舉人保證,會把票投給紐約的聯邦黨人魯弗斯.金。1816年美國總統大選,一共有19個州投票。

        (MUSIC)

        ANNOUNCER:

        Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Maurice Joyce and Jack Moyles. For transcripts, MP3 and podcasts of our programs, along with historical images, go to www.squishedblueberries.com. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION – an American history series in VOA Special English.

        網友的學習評論(1條):
        作者:Charles
        6-10-2013 16:35:25
        Become more and more clear about the evouotion of the United States, let the presidential election to be the clue, we can find that the history of the US could be actuallt divided into many parts, during every two president , many events and splendid conventions and thriling wars happended ,keep learning about it ...
        版權所有©2003-2019 南京通享科技有限公司,保留所有權利。未經書面許可,嚴禁轉載本站內容,違者追究法律責任。 互聯網經營ICP證:蘇B2-20120186
        網站備案:蘇公網安備 32010202011039號蘇ICP備05000269號-1中國工業和信息化部網站備案查詢
        廣播臺
        又粗又大又黄又爽的免费视频