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        #47: A National Anthem Is Born From the War of 1812

        作者:Frank Beardsley 發布日期:3-30-2013

        Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

        As we described last week, British forces attacked Washington in the summer of eighteen fourteen. They burned the Capitol building, the White House and other public buildings before withdrawing to their ships in the Chesapeake Bay. Today, Harry Monroe and Maurice Joyce tell the story of how a British attack on Fort McHenry in the port of Baltimore led to "The Star-Spangled Banner," America's national anthem.

        1814年夏天,英軍入侵美國首都華盛頓,放火焚燒了國會、白宮和其他一些政府大樓,然后撤回切薩皮克灣。今天我們就來講講美國國歌“星條旗”誕生的故事。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE ONE:

        British General Robert Ross and Admiral Sir George Cockburn led the attack on Washington. They planned next to attack Baltimore. But the people of Baltimore expected the attack, and began to prepare for it. Fifty thousand of them built defenses around the city.

        英軍統帥羅伯特.羅斯和海軍上將喬治.科伯恩火燒華盛頓后,下一個進攻目標是巴爾的摩。但是巴爾的摩五十萬居民積極備戰,在城市四周構筑了防御工事。

        The port of Baltimore was protected by Fort McHenry. The guns and cannon of the fort could prevent British ships from reaching the city.

        巴爾地的摩港口在麥克亨利堡的保護之下,麥克亨利堡的大炮可以抵擋英軍艦隊。

        VOICE TWO:

        The British began with a land attack against Baltimore. General Ross, Admiral Cockburn, and about four thousand British soldiers landed at North Point, a finger of land reaching into the Chesapeake Bay.

        From North Point, it was a march of about twenty-two kilometers to Baltimore. The march began about seven in the morning. General Ross and Admiral Cockburn stopped their men after an hour. The two commanders and several of their officers rode to a nearby farmhouse and forced the family living there to give them breakfast.

        英軍首先對巴爾的摩發動地面攻擊。英軍統帥羅斯和科伯恩率領一支大約四千人的部隊,在距離巴爾的摩大約22公里的地方登陸,大約早上七點開始向巴爾的摩進發。行軍一小時后,羅斯和科伯恩下令休息。他們率領部下騎馬到附近的一個農場上,要求住家為他們提供早餐。

        When the British officers had finished eating, the farmer asked General Ross where the British were going. "To Baltimore," answered Ross. The farmer told Ross that he might have some difficulty getting there, because of the city's strong defenses. "I will eat supper in Baltimore...or in hell," answered the British general.

        飯后,這戶農民問羅斯將軍要到哪里去。羅斯回答說,“巴爾的摩”。農民警告羅斯說,巴爾地摩防守嚴密,固若金湯。羅斯回答說,“今天的晚飯不是在巴爾的摩吃,就是在地獄。”

        VOICE ONE:

        Ross and Cockburn moved far in front of the British forces. A group of several hundred Americans opened fire on the British officers. Ross was hit and died soon afterwards.

        羅斯和科伯恩快馬加鞭,把大部隊遠遠落在了后面,誰知中途遭遇了一股幾百人的美軍部隊,羅斯被美軍擊中,不久就命喪黃泉。

        The battle at Fort McHenry
        The battle at Fort McHenry

        The Americans retreated, but slowed the progress of the British soldiers. It was late the next day before the British force arrived to face the army of Americans near Baltimore. The Americans were on high ground and had about one hundred cannon to fire down on the British. The British commander ordered his men to rest for the night. He sent a message to the British warships to attack the city with guns and mortars. Such an attack, he felt, might cause the Americans to fall back.

        這場遭遇戰結束后美軍后撤。他們有效延緩了英軍的進程。直到第二天晚上,英軍部隊才在巴爾的摩附近跟美軍碰面。美軍占據高地,一百門火炮直對著英軍部隊。英軍指揮官下令部隊安營扎寨,并向英國戰艦傳遞消息,要求他們炮轟巴爾的摩,希望炮火能迫使美軍后撤。

        But the British ships already had been firing since early morning at Fort McHenry. The British guns were more powerful than those of the fort. This let the ships fire from so far away that the American guns could not hit them.

        其實,英軍戰艦一大早就已經開始攻打麥克亨利堡了。英國的火炮比美國射程遠,能從美國火炮打不到的地方發動進攻。

        Shells and bombs from British mortars fell like rain over Fort McHenry. But few Americans in the fort were hurt or killed. Most of the rockets and shells exploded in the air or missed. Many of them failed to explode.

        英軍的炮彈象雨點一樣飛來,但是麥克亨利堡里的美國人卻沒有多少傷亡。英國的火炮大部分都在半空爆炸,或是錯過了目標,還有不少沒有爆炸的啞彈。

        VOICE TWO:

        On a tall staff from the center of the fort flew a large American flag. The flag could be seen by the soldiers defending the city and by the British warships. The flag also was seen by a young American. His name was Francis Scott Key.

        麥克亨利堡中心的一個旗桿上,飄揚著一面巨大的美國國旗。守城官兵和攻城的英軍都能清楚地看到。關心這面旗幟命運的另外還有一個年輕人,他就是弗朗西斯.斯科特.克伊。

        Key was a lawyer who once had thought of giving his life to religious work. He was a poet and writer. Key opposed war. But he loved his country and joined the army in Washington to help defend it.

        克伊是律師、詩人和作家,以前還曾想去當牧師??艘练磳馉?,但是他熱愛自己的國家,并參軍衛國。

        When the British withdrew from Washington, they took with them an American doctor, Wiliam Beanes. Key knew Beanes. And he asked President Madison to request the British commander to release the doctor. President Madison wrote such a request, and Key agreed to carry it to Admiral Cockburn.

        英軍從華盛頓撤走時,帶走了美國醫生威廉.比恩斯??艘琳J識比恩斯,因此請麥迪遜總統出面,要求英軍統帥釋放比恩斯??艘镣鈳е湹线d的親筆信去見科伯恩將軍。

        Key also carried letters from wounded British soldiers in American hospitals. In one of the letters, a British soldier told of the excellent medical care he was being given.

        克伊隨身還帶去了英軍傷員的書信。其中一個傷員在信中說,他在美國醫院里得到了很好的治療和照顧。

        Cockburn agreed to free the doctor after he read the reports of good medical care given his wounded men. But Cockburn would not permit Key, the doctor, or a man who came with Key to return to land until after the attack.

        科伯恩得知這種情況后,同意釋放美國醫生比恩斯,但是一定要等進攻結束后才行。

        VOICE ONE:

        Francis Scott Key
        Francis Scott Key

        Francis Scott Key watched as the shells and rockets began to fall on Fort McHenry.

        "I saw the flag of my country," Key said later, "waving over a city -- the strength and pride of my native state. I watched the enemy prepare for his assault. I heard the sound of battle. The noise of the conflict fell upon my listening ear. It told me that the `brave and the free' had met the invaders."

        克伊眼睜睜地看著炮彈象雨點般飛向麥克亨利堡。他后來說,“我看到國旗在城市上空飄揚,象征著祖國的力量和驕傲。我看到敵人準備進攻,聽到炮火聲,沖突的嘈雜充斥了我的雙耳,我知道,‘自由的勇士’跟入侵者交火了。”

        All through the rainy day, the attack continued. Doctor Beanes, watching with Key, had difficulty seeing the flag. He kept asking Key if the "stars and stripes" still flew above the fort. Until dark, Key could still see it. After then, he could only hope.

        雨整整下了一天,英軍的進攻也始終沒有中斷。比恩斯醫生看不清城堡上空的旗幟,所以不斷詢問克伊,“星條旗”是否還在麥克亨利堡的上空飄揚。天黑前,克伊一直能看到飄舞的國旗,但是夜幕降臨后,他們只能在黑暗中期盼了。

        VOICE TWO:

        Britain tried to land another force of men near the fort. But the Americans heard the boats and fired at them. The landing failed. Shells and rockets continued to rain down on Fort McHenry. At times, the fort's cannon answered. And Key knew the Americans had not surrendered.

        與此同時,英軍派遣另外一股部隊在麥克亨利堡附近登陸,但是美國人聽到了船只的動靜,開槍射擊,英國部隊無功而返。英軍繼續炮轟麥克亨利堡,有時也能斷斷續續地聽到美軍的炮火聲??艘烈虼酥?,美國人并沒有投降。

        The British land force east of Baltimore spent most of the night trying to keep dry. Commanders could not decide if they should attack or retreat. Finally, orders came from the admiral: "Withdraw to your ships." A land attack against Baltimore's defenses would not be attempted.

        巴爾的摩以東的英軍地面部隊在雨中渡過了大半夜。英軍指揮官無法決定是進攻還是撤退。最后,海軍上將科伯恩下令,讓他們“撤回戰艦”,取消對巴爾的摩的地面進攻。

        At first light of morning, British shells were still bursting in the air over the fort. The flag had holes in it from the British shells. But it still flew. The British shelling stopped at seven o'clock. Key took an old letter from his pocket and wrote a poem about what he had seen.

        佛曉時分,英軍炮彈繼續在麥克亨利堡上空穿梭,但是彈痕累累的美國國旗,仍舊高高飄揚。英軍的炮擊早上七點鐘結束??艘撂统隹诖锏囊环菖f信,即興寫出了下面這首詩。

        VOICE ONE:

        Francis Scott Key's original copy of his
        Francis Scott Key's original copy of his "Star-Spangled Banner" poem. It is now on display at the Maryland Historical Society.

        Oh, say can you see by the dawn's early light

        ??!在晨曦初現時,你可看見

        What so proudly we hailed at the twilight's last gleaming?

        是什么讓我們如此驕傲?

        Whose broad stripes and bright stars, through the perilous fight

        在黎明的最后一道曙光中歡呼,

        O'er the ramparts we watched were so gallantly streaming?

        是誰的旗幟在激戰中始終高揚!

        And the rocket's red glare, the bombs bursting in air,

        烈火熊熊,炮聲隆隆,

        Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there.

        我們看到要塞上那面英勇的旗幟,在黑暗過后依然聳立!

        Oh, say does that star-spangled banner yet wave

        ??!你說那星條旗是否會靜止,

        O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave?

        在自由的土地上飄舞,在勇者的家園上飛揚?

        For more than one hundred years, Americans sang this song and remembered the attack at Fort McHenry. In nineteen thirty-one, Congress made the "Star-Spangled Banner" the national anthem of the United States.

        100多年里,美國人每次唱起這首歌,都會想到麥克亨利堡受到攻擊的悲壯場面。1931年,美國國會宣布,“星條旗”為美國國歌。

        VOICE TWO:

        The unsuccessful British attack on Baltimore was followed by news that Britain also had suffered a defeat to the north.

        英軍進攻巴爾的摩失敗后,北方戰線也傳來了噩耗。

        British General Sir George Prevost led eleven thousand soldiers south from Montreal to New York. At Plattsburgh, on the western shore of Lake Champlain, his army was opposed by less than four thousand Americans. General Prevost believed he should get control of the lake before moving against the American defenders.

        英國將軍喬治.普雷沃斯特率領一萬一千人從加拿大的蒙特利爾南下,向紐約挺進,途中,在尚普蘭湖西岸的普拉茨堡遭遇了一支不到四千人的美軍部隊。普雷沃斯特覺得,應該先拿下尚普蘭湖的控制權,再去對付美國守兵。

        He requested the support of four British ships and about ten gunboats. A group of American ships of about the same size also entered the lake. In a fierce battle, the American naval force sank the British ships. The large land army of Prevost decided not to attack without naval support. The eleven- thousand British soldiers turned around and marched back to Montreal.

        他要求四艘英國戰艦和大約十艘炮艇支援。結果,一支規模相當的美國海軍在尚普蘭湖上跟英軍展開激戰,擊沉了英軍戰艦,普雷沃斯特率領的地面部隊決定放棄進攻計劃,一萬一千人的部隊掉頭返回蒙特利爾。

        VOICE ONE:

        By the time these battles of eighteen f ourteen had been fought, the two sides already had agreed to discuss peace. The peace talks began in the summer at Ghent, in Belgium.

        1814年戰火紛飛的時候,英美雙方已經同意和談。談判夏天在比利時城市根特舉行。

        The British at first were in no hurry to sign a peace treaty. They believed that their forces would be able to capture parts of the United States.

        英國起初希望拖延時間,因為他們相信,英軍一定能占領美國的部分地區。

        Britain demanded as a condition for peace that the United States give large areas of its northwest to the Indians. It also said America must give Canada other areas along the border. And Britain would not promise to stop seizing American seamen and putting them in the British navy.

        英國人提出條件,要求美國將西北大部分地區讓給印第安人,還要把美國和加拿大交界處的一些地區劃撥給加拿大,但是英國拒絕保證不再扣押美國海員,讓他們為英國海軍服役。

        (MUSIC)

        ANNOUNCER:

        British policy at the peace talks changed after the battles of Baltimore and Plattsburgh. That will be our story next week. Join us each week for THE MAKING OF A NATION – an American history series in VOA Special English.

        不過,巴爾的摩和普拉茨堡戰役的失敗,使英國不得不改變了談判的立場。

        (Star-Spangled Banner)

        網友的學習評論(2條):
        作者:xuding45
        7-12-2013 5:45:0
        The war between Britain and U.S.A continued and the national anthem was born from the war of 1812. British soldiers atttacked many citices, but they were defeated by the Amercian force. At that time Britain and America began to discuss peace.
        作者:Alumni
        8-10-2013 21:29:5
        the national anthem of America was born from the war between Britian and America in 1812. Francis Scptt Key, who experienced the war, wrote it, being moved by the waving flag even from Bristish shells and bombs falling like rain over Fort McHenry.
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