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        #46: British Set Fire to City of Washington in 1814

        作者:Frank Beardsley 發布日期:3-29-2013

        Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

        The United States declared war on Britain in eighteen twelve. It did so because Britain refused to stop seizing American ships that traded with France -- Britain's enemy in Europe.

        美國1812年對英國宣戰。戰火的起因是,美國以中立國身份,跟英國的敵人法國做生意,美國商船因此經常被英國扣押。

        Britain finally suspended its orders against neutral trade, after a change in government. But the British acted too late. The United States had declared war. Today, Larry West and Frank Oliver continue the story of the War of Eighteen Twelve.

        雖然英國政府換屆后,決定停止對美國的貿易禁令,但還是晚了一步,美國已經宣戰了。這就是著名的1812年戰爭。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE ONE:

        The United States navy was not ready for war. It had only a few real warships and a small number of gunboats. It could not hope to defeat the British navy, the most powerful in the world. What the United States planned to do was seize Canada, the British territory to the north. Twenty-five hundred British soldiers guarded the border. And American generals believed they could win an easy victory. They were wrong.

        當時,美國海軍力量薄弱,只有區區幾艘戰艦和炮艇,想擊敗舉世無雙的英國海軍,毫無希望。因此,美國計劃奪取北部英國控制下的加拿大。美加邊境上只有兩千五百名英軍駐守,美軍指揮官原以為奪取加拿大易如反掌,但他們錯了。

        Detail of a mural by Allyn Cox in the Capitol building. The painting shows the burning of the Capitol in 1814.
        Detail of a mural by Allyn Cox in the Capitol building. The painting shows the burning of the Capitol in 1814.

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE TWO:

        An American general named William Hull led two thousand men across the Canadian border. British soldiers were prepared, and they forced the Americans back. The British fought so well that General Hull surrendered all his men and the city of Detroit.

        美國將軍威廉.赫爾率領兩千人跨過邊境,誰知英軍早有準備,奮起反擊,迫使美軍后撤。英國軍隊英勇善戰,最后美軍大敗,赫爾的部下全部投降,底特律也落入了英軍的手中。

        The next American attack was made from Fort Niagara, a military center in New York on the shore of Lake Ontario. A small group of American soldiers crossed the Niagara River and attacked the British. Other Americans -- state soldiers of New York -- refused to cross the border to help against the British. They calmly watched as British soldiers shot down the attacking Americans.

        美軍在安大略湖沿岸的紐約軍事中心尼亞加拉堡開辟了另一片戰場。一小批美軍士兵跨過尼亞加拉河,對英軍發起進攻。但是紐約州的士兵拒絕參戰,眼看著英軍把進攻的美軍打死。

        The third campaign was made by General Henry Dearborn. He led an army of state soldiers from Plattsburgh, New York, to the Canadian border. He was to cross the border and attack Montreal. But the state soldiers again refused to cross the border. Dearborn could do nothing but march them back to Plattsburgh.

        第三場戰役是由亨利.迪爾伯恩將軍領導的。他率領紐約州的士兵從普拉茨堡出發,向加拿大邊境開拔。他計劃跨過邊境,進攻蒙特利爾,但是紐約州的士兵再次抗命不從,迪爾伯恩沒辦法,只好班師回朝。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE ONE:

        British forces at this time were winning victories. They captured an American fort in northern Michigan. And Indians -- fighting for the British -- captured a fort at the place now known as Chicago.

        與此同時,英國軍隊則節節進逼,占領了密西根州北部的一個美國軍事堡壘。印第安人在英國的支持下,也占領了今天芝加哥一帶的一個堡壘。

        Instead of marching through Canada without difficulty, the Americans found themselves trying hard to keep the British out of the state of Ohio.

        美軍不僅沒能長驅直入,占領加拿大,反而要誓死保衛俄亥俄州,防止俄亥俄州失陷。

        VOICE TWO:

        The Battle of Queenston Heights was a British victory during the War of 1812
        The Battle of Queenston Heights was a British victory during the War of 1812

        For a while, the weak little American navy was doing better than the army.

        戰爭初期,美國海軍雖然脆弱,但戰績卻要好過陸軍。

        Just two months after the war started, the United States warship Constitution forced a British ship to surrender. Several months later another American ship, the Wasp, captured the British ship Frolic. Then the frigate the United States defeated one of Britain's most famous fighting ships, the Macedonian. The British ship was captured and brought to the United States.

        戰爭打響兩個月后,美國海軍“憲法號”竟然迫使一艘英國軍艦投降。幾個月后,另外一艘美國軍艦“黃蜂號”又捕獲了英國戰艦“快樂號”。隨后不久,驅逐艦“美國號”又擊敗了英國最著名的戰艦“馬其頓號”。“馬其頓號”被美軍捕獲,并被押送回美國。

        There were other victories at sea. At the end of six months, the United States navy had captured six British ships and lost only one of its own vessels.

        美國海軍屢戰屢勝,戰爭進行到六個月的時候,美國已經捕獲了六艘英國戰艦,只損失了一艘美國戰艦。

        Private American trade ships had been armed with guns when the war started. They, too, were successful against the British. They captured more than three hundred British trade ships.

        戰爭打響后,美國商船也配備大炮,奔赴戰場。他們成功捕獲了三百多艘英國商船。

        The American successes forced Britain to bring more of its fighting ships into the war with the United States. By the middle of eighteen thirteen, a year after the war started, British ships controlled the United States coast. Not an American ship could enter or leave any port south of New England.

        海上失利使英國不得不增派戰艦。1813年戰爭進行到一年的時候,美國海岸已經被英國控制,美國船只無法進出新英格蘭以南的任何港口。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE ONE:

        The military situation was improving in the West. William Henry Harrison, governor of the Indiana territory, formed a large force to try to capture Detroit from the British. At the same time, Captain Oliver Perry built five warships on Lake Erie. With these and four he already had, Perry met and completely defeated an English naval force.

        印第安納州長威廉.亨利.哈里森率領大批部隊,試圖把底特律從英國人手里奪回來。與此同時,奧利弗.佩里船長在伊利湖上建造了五艘戰艦,再加上原來的四艘,一共九艘。佩里船長率領著九艘戰艦,徹底擊敗了英國的一支海上部隊。

        Perry reported his victory to Harrison: "We have met the enemy, and they are ours."

        佩里向哈里森報告說,“我們遭遇了敵人,他們已經成了我們的手下敗將。”

        Perry's victory and Harrison's large force caused the British to withdraw from Detroit, and from a British fort at Malden, in Canada. Harrison's men continued to chase the enemy. They caught them and defeated them in the battle of the Thames. Killed in this battle was the great Indian chief Tecumseh who had been fighting for the British.

        佩里的勝利和哈里森的大股部隊讓英軍不得不從底特律和加拿大的莫爾登撤退。哈里森率軍乘勝追擊,贏得了泰晤士河戰役的勝利。幫助英國軍隊打仗的著名的印第安人酋長特庫姆塞也在戰役中喪生。

        United States forces made new attempts to win control of Lake Ontario and invade Canada across the Niagara River. But none of these succeeded. Late in eighteen thirteen, British soldiers crossed the river and captured Fort Niagara. They also burned the town of Buffalo.

        美軍再次試圖收復安大略湖,跨過尼亞加拉河,入侵加拿大,但沒有成功。1813年年底,英軍過河占領了尼亞加拉堡,并放火燒毀了布法羅。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE TWO:

        By April eighteen fourteen, Napoleon was forced from power in Europe. And the war between France and Britain was over. This permitted Britain to send many of its soldiers in Europe to fight against the United States.

        1814年4月,拿破侖被迫退位,英法戰爭結束。英國得以調遣更多的士兵,趕赴美洲戰場。

        Fourteen thousand troops were sent to Canada. A smaller force was put on ships that sailed along the American coast. Another group of British soldiers was sent to Jamaica to prepare for an attack on New Orleans.

        英軍兵分三路:一萬四千人開往加拿大;另外一些人加強封鎖美國海岸;第三路人馬奔赴牙買加,準備進攻新奧爾良。

        The British planned to send an army of eleven thousand men down from Canada into New York. But before this, the soldiers aboard ships along the American coast were to attack the Chesapeake Bay area and threaten Washington and Baltimore.

        英國計劃派遣一萬一千人從加拿大南下,進軍紐約,但是在此之前,沿海的英軍要進攻切薩皮克灣,對華盛頓和巴爾地摩構成威脅。

        About four thousand British soldiers landed on the Chesapeake coast, southeast of Washington. They marched quickly toward the capital. An American general, William Winder, commanded a force two times the size of the British group. Winder was not a good general, and his troops did not defend well.

        大約四千英軍在華盛頓特區東南面的切薩皮克灣登陸,迅速向美國首都進發。美軍將領威廉.溫德爾率領著一支兩倍于英軍的部隊防守。盡管如此,溫德爾的無能還是讓美軍一敗涂地。

        VOICE ONE:

        On August 24, 1814, British forces burned Washington's main government buildings
        On August 24, 1814, British forces burned Washington's main government buildings

        The two sides met at Bladensburg, a town ten kilometers from Washington. The British attacked and at first the American defenders held their ground. But then, British soldiers broke through the American lines, and the Americans began to run away.

        英美雙方在距離華盛頓特區十公里的布萊登斯堡打響了戰斗。英軍發起進攻,美軍一開始還能有效防守,但最終被英軍沖破防線,潰敗后撤。

        General Winder ordered his men back to Washington. A group of sailors refused to retreat with their artillery. Commanded by Joshua Barney, the four hundred sailors chose to stand and fight. The struggle did not last long against the four thousand British soldiers.

        溫德爾將軍下令撤回華盛頓,但是一小批海軍官兵拒絕后退。在喬舒亞.巴尼的率領下,大約四百名水兵誓死抵抗,但是他們面對的是四千英軍。

        Barney held his position for a half hour before enemy soldiers got behind his men and silenced the guns. Barney was wounded seriously. The British thought so much of his courage that they carried him to a hospital for their own soldiers at Bladensburg. Barney himself said the British officers treated him as a brother.

        短短半小時后,英軍就繞道了他們的背后,繳了他們的械。喬舒亞.巴尼身受重傷。英軍十分佩服他的勇氣,把他抬到英國的戰地醫院治療。巴尼說,英軍長官對待他就像自己的兄弟一樣。

        Once the British force had smashed through Barney's navy men, nothing stood between it and Washington.

        沖破最后一道防線后,英軍直搗華盛頓。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE TWO:

        Dolly Payne Madison
        Dolly Payne Madison

        The enemy spent the night about half a kilometer from the Capitol building. The commanders of the British force, General Robert Ross and Admiral Sir George Cockburn, took a group of men to the Capitol and set fire to it. Then the two commanders went to the White House to burn it.

        他們在距離國會大廈大約一里地處過夜。英軍統帥羅伯特.羅斯將軍和喬治.科伯恩上將率領一批人,先后前往國會和白宮,放火焚燒。

        Before setting fire to the president's home, Cockburn took one of President Madison's hats and the seat from one of Dolley Madison's chairs. The admiral found the president's table ready for dinner. As a joke, he took a glass of wine and toasted the health of "President Jemmy."

        在白宮放火前,科伯恩拿走了麥迪遜總統的一頂帽子和麥迪遜夫人座椅上的一個坐墊??撇靼l現,麥迪遜總統的晚餐已經準備完畢。他開玩笑地舉杯,祝“杰米總統健康長壽”。

        President Madison had fled the White House earlier. He crossed the Potomac River and started toward his home in Virginia. He joined his wife on the road the second day. And they decided to wait with others about twenty-five kilometers from Washington. The president returned to the capital three days after he left it. The British, after burning most public buildings, had withdrawn.

        麥迪遜總統早就逃離了白宮。他穿過波托馬克河,往維吉尼亞老家的方向走。麥迪遜第二天跟夫人會合,決定在距離華盛頓25公里的地方靜觀事態發展。離開三天后,麥迪遜返回首都,英軍放火焚燒了大部分政府大樓后,已經棄城而去。

        VOICE ONE:

        The British coastal force next attacked the city of Baltimore. But this time, the defenses were strong, and the attack failed.

        英軍隨即又對巴爾的摩發動進攻。但是這次,美軍誓死奮戰,擋住了英軍的攻勢。

        Baltimore port was guarded by Fort McHenry. British warships sailed close to the fort and tried to destroy it with their guns. But the attack did little real damage to the fort.

        巴爾的摩港在麥克亨利堡的保護之下,英國戰艦炮轟麥克亨利堡,但是沒有造成實質性破壞。

        ''The Star-Spangled Banner'' by Francis Scott Key
        ''The Star-Spangled Banner'' by Francis Scott Key

        A young American civilian, Francis Scott Key, was aboard one of the British warships during the twenty-five-hour shelling of Fort McHenry. He and a group of others had gone to the ship with a message from President Madison. The message asked the British to release an American doctor they were holding.

        25個小時的炮轟過程中,年輕的美國人弗朗西斯.斯科特.克伊正在一艘英國戰艦上。他和另外一些人奉命,向英方傳遞麥迪遜總統的口信,要求英方釋放扣押的一位美國醫生。

        All through the night, the young man watched the shells bursting and the rockets exploding over the fort. In the first light of morning, he saw that the American flag still flew. On the back of an old letter from his pocket, Francis Scott Key wrote the words of "The Star-Spangled Banner," the national anthem of the United States.

        弗朗西斯目睹了麥克亨利堡受到徹夜攻擊。佛曉時,他看到,美國國旗依然在城堡上空飄揚。他在口袋里一封舊信的背面,譜寫了“星條旗”一曲的歌詞,這首歌后來成了美國國歌。

        (MUSIC)

        ANNOUNCER:

        Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Larry West and Frank Oliver. Transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our programs are online, along with historical images, at www.squishedblueberries.com. Join us each week for THE MAKING OF A NATION – an American history series in VOA Special English.

        網友的學習評論(3條):
        作者:xuding45
        7-10-2013 5:49:33
        The war broke out between Britain and U.S.A in 1812. The United of State was defeated by British force. The general commander set fire to the city of Washington and they also destoried many cities.
        作者:Alumni
        8-9-2013 15:53:51
        the national anthom was born by real accident. it is moving story. say, a young man had been in the site of the campaign between Britian and the usa. he saw all through the night the shells bursting and the rockets exploding over the fort. but in the first light of morning, he saw that the American flags still flew. by the moving of it , the young man wrote the words " the star-spangled banner". his name is Francis Scott Key.
        作者:鄭烈波
        12-25-2013 14:10:26
        downsun flag and union
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