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        #44: Relations With Britain Hit a Low Point in 1811

        作者:Frank Beardsley 發布日期:3-27-2013

        Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

        James Madison of Virginia was elected president of the United States in eighteen hundred and eight. He followed Thomas Jefferson and served two terms.

        Madison's first four years were not easy. He had to deal with a foreign policy problem that Jefferson was not able to solve: increasingly tense relations with Britain. His second four years were worse. There was war. Larry West and Leo Scully have our story.

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE TWO:

        James Madison
        James Madison

        James Madison was inaugurated in Washington on March fourth, eighteen-oh-nine. The people of the city were happy with the new president. But the nation was not yet sure what kind of leader he would be.

        詹姆斯.麥迪遜1809年3月4號在華盛頓特區宣誓就職。華盛頓的居民對新總統走馬上任感到興奮,但是美國人民對麥迪遜的領導能力并不確定。

        The French minister to the United States did not think much of him. He said: "Mister Madison is an intelligent man, but weak. He will always see what should be done, but will not do it."

        當時的法國駐美大使對麥迪遜評價很低。他曾說過,“麥迪遜是聰明人,但是很軟弱。他從來都知道應該怎樣做,但是不會采取行動。”

        VOICE ONE:

        Like the first three American presidents, Madison had a small cabinet. There would be a secretary of state and a secretary of the treasury.

        跟前三任美國總統一樣,麥迪遜的內閣成員很少,只有一個國務卿和一個財政部長。

        Madison decided to keep Albert Gallatin in the position of treasury secretary. Gallatin probably knew more about the nation's finances than anyone else. The choice for secretary of state was political. Madison named Robert Smith, the brother of a senator. The new president was not too concerned about Mister Smith's abilities, because he planned to make foreign policy himself.

        麥迪遜決定讓阿爾伯特.加勒廷留任財政部長,因為沒有別人比他更熟悉美國的財政問題。出于政治原因,麥迪遜任命了一位參議員的兄弟羅伯特.史密斯擔任國務卿。麥迪遜對史密斯的能力并不關心,因為他準備親自打理美國的外交政策。

        VOICE TWO:

        Jefferson's biggest foreign policy problem arose from a war between Britain and France. The two nations refused to honor America's neutrality. Each tried to prevent the United States from trading with the other. Both interfered with American shipping. And the British navy sometimes seized American sailors.

        前總統杰斐遜任期內最棘手的外交問題是英法戰爭。英國和法國都拒絕承認美國的中立,都想方設法防止美國跟敵對方貿易,插手美國航運,英國海軍有時還抓走美國水手。

        President Jefferson ordered a ban on trade with Europe. But it failed to end the hostile acts against the United States.

        杰斐遜下令,禁止跟歐洲做生意,但沒能制止美國遭遇的敵對行動。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE ONE:

        Britain and France were still at war when Madison was elected president. In place of the trade ban, Congress had approved a new law. It was called the Non-Intercourse Act. The law prevented trade with Britain and France. But it gave President Madison the power to re-open trade if either nation stopped interfering with American ships.

        麥迪遜當選總統時,英國和法國還在交戰。美國國會通過了一項法案,取代貿易禁運。這項法案名叫《非交往法案》,法案禁止跟英國和法國的貿易,但是授權麥迪遜總統,一旦哪個國家停止干涉美國船運,就可以重開貿易。

        Madison hoped the law would force Britain and France to honor American neutrality. He did not want war. But neither did he want to surrender America's rights as an independent nation.

        麥迪遜原本希望這一法案可以迫使英、法兩國承認美國的中立,因為他既不想卷入戰爭,也不愿意放棄美國作為一個獨立國家的自主權。

        VOICE TWO:

        A month after Madison took office, the British minister in Washington, David Erskine, received new orders from his government. He said he had been given the power to settle all differences between the United States and Britain.

        麥迪遜就職一個月后,英國駐華盛頓大使戴維.厄斯金接到了英國政府的命令。他表示,英國政府讓他全權處理英、美之間的分歧。

        Erskine said Britain would stop seizing American ships if the United States would end the Non-Intercourse Law. He did not make clear that the British government demanded several conditions before an agreement could be reached.

        厄斯金說,如果美國放棄《非交往法案》,英國就停止扣押美國的船只,但是他沒有說明英國政府的附加條件。

        One condition was that the United States continue the law against trade with France. Another was that Britain be permitted to capture American ships that violated the law. Erskine called the conditions, "proposals." He did not force the United States to accept them.

        其中之一是,美國要繼續對法國執行《非交往法案》;另外一個是,英國有權扣押違反規定跟法國做生意的美國船只。厄斯金稱這些附加條件為“建議”,并沒有強迫美國接受。

        VOICE ONE:

        On April nineteenth, President Madison announced that an agreement had been reached. He said the United States would re-open trade with Britain. The American people welcomed the agreement. It appeared that -- after less than two months as president -- Madison had been able to remove the threat of war.

        4月19號,麥迪遜總統宣布,英美兩國達成協議。他表示,美國將恢復跟英國的貿易往來。協議的達成讓美國人民歡欣鼓舞,從表面看,麥迪遜就職不到兩個月,就解除了戰爭的威脅。

        The United States began trading again with Britain on June tenth, as agreed. Hundreds of ships left American ports. Relations with Britain seemed to have returned to normal.

        按照協議,美國6月10號恢復了跟英國的貿易往來。數百艘商船駛離美國港口,跟英國的關系似乎恢復了正常。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE TWO:

        President Madison decided to spend the summer of eighteen-oh-nine at his home in the hills of Virginia. Soon after he arrived, he received surprising news. The British government had rejected the agreement he had reached with Erskine.

        美國跟英國達成協議,1809年6月10號恢復了兩國間的貿易往來。麥迪遜總統決定夏天返回維吉尼亞州山區的家中避暑。然而,他剛到家,就收到了一個驚人的消息,英國政府拒絕接受厄斯金跟美國達成的協議。

        A British newspaper said the agreement was not what Britain wanted. It said Erskine had violated his orders and was being called back to London. A new minister, Francis James Jackson, would take his place.

        英國報紙說,這份協議不符合英國政府的要求,厄斯金違背了自己的使命,已經被召回倫敦,由弗朗西斯.詹姆斯.杰克遜接替他的職務。

        VOICE ONE:

        Madison returned to Washington in the autumn, about a month after the new British minister arrived. He learned that Secretary of State Smith had made no progress in talks with him. So the president decided to deal with him directly. He wanted to know exactly why Britain had rejected the agreement. Madison ordered that all communications between the two sides be written. There would be no more talks.

        麥迪遜總統秋天返回華盛頓時,英國駐美新任大使弗朗西斯.詹姆斯.杰克遜已經上任一個月了。麥迪遜得知,美國國務卿史密斯跟杰克遜的會談毫無進展,因此決定親自出馬。他想知道,英國到底為什么不肯接受協議。麥迪遜下令,雙方停止談判,一切聯系都采取書信方式。

        Letters were exchanged. But the British minister failed to explain satisfactorily what had happened. And his letters seemed to charge that the United States had not negotiated honestly. Madison finally broke off all communications, and the British minister left Washington.

        英國駐美大使弗朗西斯.詹姆斯.杰克遜在信中沒有做出令人滿意的解釋,他旁敲側擊地指責美國在談判時?;^。麥迪遜最后決定停止一切聯系,杰克遜隨即離開華盛頓,返回英國。

        VOICE TWO:

        America's policy of trade with Britain and France continued to be a serious issue. In the early days of eighteen ten, Congress began to consider a new law to control such trade. After several weeks of debate, the two houses of Congress approved a compromise bill.

        英、法兩國的貿易難題,并沒有因此消失。1810年初,國會開始討論一項新法。經過幾個星期的辯論,國會參、眾兩院達成了妥協。

        The bill ended the Non-Intercourse Act against Britain and France. It permitted trade with any nation. But it gave the president the power to declare non-intercourse again with either Britain or France separately. President Madison signed the bill into law.

        新立法取消了針對英、法兩國的《非交往法案》,允許美國跟任何國家通商,但同時授權總統,可以隨時宣布禁止跟英國、或是法國的商業往來。這項法案經麥迪遜總統簽字后生效。

        VOICE ONE:

        Relations between the United States and Britain did not improve during the year. And President Madison once again declared non-intercourse against Britain. Trade between the two countries was stopped at the beginning of March, eighteen-eleven.

        美國跟英國的關系1810年間并沒有出現改善。麥迪遜總統再次決定,從1811年3月開始,停止跟英國的一切貿易往來。

        Trade was not the only problem, however. A growing number of Americans believed that the British were helping some Native American Indians to fight the United States.

        不過,貿易并非兩國間的唯一矛盾。越來越多的美國人相信,英國幫助某些美國印第安原著民,跟美國做對。

        VOICE TWO:

        Tecumseh was a leader in the Shawnee Indian tribe
        Tecumseh was a leader in the Shawnee Indian tribe

        As the people of the United States began to move to the northern and western territories, the government made treaties with the different Indian tribes. The treaties explained which land belonged to the Indians...and which land could be settled by the white men. The settlers did not always honor the treaties.

        隨著美國向西部和北部的推進,政府跟各印第安部落達成協議,劃分哪些是印第安人的領地,哪些是白人可以開墾定居的地方。但是,白人定居者經常違反協議的規定。

        A leader of the Shawnee Indian tribe, Tecumseh, decided to take action. He started a campaign to unite all Indians and to help them defend against the white men.

        當時的肖尼印第安人的酋長特庫姆塞決定采取行動。他帶頭團結印第安各部落,幫助他們抵御白人。

        Throughout the west, many Americans believed that the British in Canada were responsible for Tecumseh's efforts to unite the Indians. They demanded war with Britain to destroy the power of the tribes.

        美國西部很多人都認為,加拿大的英國人是特庫姆塞的后臺,因此要求跟英國開戰,徹底消滅印第安部落的勢力。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE ONE:

        Detail of ''Death of Tecumseh'' located in the U.S. Capitol. Tecumseh is shown at lower right being shot during the War of 1812.
        Detail of ''Death of Tecumseh'' located in the U.S. Capitol. Tecumseh is shown at lower right being shot during the War of 1812.

        In Washington, a new Congress was meeting. Some of the new members were very different from the men who had controlled Congress before. They were less willing to compromise -- and more willing to go to war to defend America's interests. They soon got the name "War Hawks."

        此時,美國正趕上國會換屆。新一屆國會成員不愿妥協,主張通過戰爭,來捍衛美國的利益,因此被稱為“戰爭鷹派”。

        The new Congress quickly approved several measures to prepare the United States for war. One bill increased the size of the army by twenty-five thousand regular soldiers and fifty thousand volunteers.

        新國會很快通過了多項議案,為戰爭做準備,其中一項議案擴大了陸軍規模,增設兩萬五千名正規軍和五萬名志愿兵。

        VOICE TWO:

        At the same time, America had a new secretary of state. President Madison had not been pleased with the work of Robert Smith. Nor did he trust Smith. The president could not be sure of Smith's support for administration proposals.

        與此同時,美國國務卿也換了新人。麥迪遜總統一直對羅伯特.史密斯的工作不滿意,而且也不信任他,不能肯定他是否會百分之百地支持政府提案。

        Madison wanted his close friend, James Monroe, to be secretary of state. Monroe was then governor of Virginia. He agreed to take the new job.

        麥迪遜因此希望自己的好友、當時的維吉尼亞州州長詹姆斯.門羅出任國務卿,門羅欣然接受。

        VOICE ONE:

        What the United States did not have at that troubled time was a representative in Britain. When Madison broke off communications with British minister Jackson in Washington, Jackson returned to London. And the American minister in London, William Pinkney, sailed home.

        當時,因為關系緊張,美國沒有向英國派駐使節。麥迪遜總統跟英國駐美大使杰克遜切斷一切聯系后,杰克遜返回倫敦,美國駐英使節平克尼也離開英國,打道回府。

        There was no official in either capital to report what was happening. And the two countries were moving closer to war. That will be our story next week.

        英、美兩國逐漸走向戰爭的邊緣。

        (MUSIC)

        ANNOUNCER:

        Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Larry West and Leo Scully. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION – an American history series in VOA Special English.

        網友的學習評論(2條):
        作者:xuding45
        6-19-2013 5:58:7
        James Madison was elected as the president in the nation. He tried to deal with the foreigh police. The most issue was that the United States had traded with Britain and France. But the realtion of the U.S with Britain were moving closer to war.
        作者:Alumni
        8-6-2013 21:6:53
        James Madison was elected as the fourth President, but his first four years were not easy and the second four years were worse. The relations between United States and British hit a low point . War was approaching near.
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