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        #43: The Last Days, and Lasting Influence, of Thomas Jefferson

        作者:Frank Beardsley 發布日期:3-26-2013

        Welcome to the MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

        Thomas Jefferson
        Thomas Jefferson

        Thomas Jefferson left the White House in March of eighteen hundred and nine. His secretary of state, James Madison, had been elected president. Jefferson believed the nation was in good hands. He returned to Monticello, his country home in Virginia, and never went back to Washington again. But Jefferson and the new president exchanged letters often. Jefferson offered advice on a number of problems that Madison faced as the nation's fourth president.

        1809年3月,托馬斯.杰斐遜告別白宮。國務卿詹姆斯.麥迪遜走馬上任,成為美國下一屆總統。杰斐遜對麥迪遜的能力深信不疑,他回到自己位于維吉尼亞蒙蒂塞洛的莊園隱居,再也沒有重返華盛頓。不過,杰斐遜經常跟麥迪遜書信往來,在不少問題上為麥迪遜出謀劃策。

        There were many visitors to Monticello. But Jefferson was happiest when he could discuss books, government, science and education.

        杰斐遜在蒙蒂塞洛接待了很多來訪的客人,他最喜歡做的事情就是討論書籍、政府、科學和教育。

        This week in our series, Maurice Joyce and Kay Gallant discuss the final days of Thomas Jefferson and his lasting contributions -- to Virginia and the nation.

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE TWO:

        Jefferson believed firmly in the value of education. His whole idea of government depended on the ability of citizens to make intelligent decisions. He spent the final years of his life building a better educational system for Virginia.

        杰斐遜十分重視教育,他關于政府的理念仰仗于民眾做出明智決策的能力。他把晚年的時光全部投入改善維吉尼亞州的教育體系。

        Jefferson had been interested in education for most of his life. He had developed many ideas about the best way to educate the people. He believed that every citizen had the right to an education. But, he understood that all people do not have the same ability to learn.

        杰斐遜一生都對教育非常感興趣,對教學手段有很多想法。他認為,每個人都有受教育的權利,但他也知道,人跟人有不同的學習能力。

        Jefferson divided the people into two groups: those who labor and those who use their minds. He thought both should start with the same simple education -- learning to read and write and count. After these things were learned, he believed the two groups should be taught separately.

        杰斐遜把人分為兩類,一類從事體力勞動,另外一類從事腦力勞動。他認為,這兩類人都應該接受讀、寫、算的基礎教育?;A教育過后,這兩類人就應該分開,接受不同的教育。

        Those in the labor group, he thought, should learn how to be better farmers or how to make things with their hands. The other group should study science, or medicine or law.

        他認為,體力勞動者應該學習種地和手工技能,而腦力勞動者則應該著重于科學、醫學或是法學的學習。

        VOICE ONE:

        Jefferson did not wait long to begin working to improve education in Virginia. A group of men decided to build a college at Charlottesville, near Jefferson's home. Jefferson immediately offered to take a leading part in starting the school. He said he would plan the buildings and also plan what the students would study. He wrote to many of his friends -- experts in education. He asked for their advice.

        杰斐遜離任后,立即投入了教育工作。當時,有些人要在杰斐遜的莊園附近創辦一所大學。杰斐遜主動請戰。他表示,愿意負責校舍和教程的設計。

        One of the experts told Jefferson he should not include religion among the studies. Jefferson agreed. But he understood that leaving out religious studies would cause problems. He explained it this way:

        他給很多教育界的好友寫信,征求他們的意見,其中一位專家建議杰斐遜不要將宗教包括在課程里,杰斐遜表示贊同,但他同時了解,把宗教專業排除在外一定會帶來麻煩。

        "We cannot always do what is absolutely best. Those with whom we act have different ideas. They have the right and power to act on their ideas. We make progress only one step at a time. To do our fellow men the most good, we must lead where we can, follow where we cannot. But we must still go with them, watching always for the moment we can help them move forward another step."

        杰斐遜解釋說:“我們不能永遠按照最理想的方法行事,跟我們打交道的人跟我們有不同的理念,他們有權利,也有能力去實現這些理念。要進步只能循序漸進。要想最大程度地服務于民,就要在能領導的時候領導,不能領導的時候追隨,隨時隨地準備伸出援手,幫助他們更進一步。”

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE TWO:

        Detail of a University of Virginia map by Herman Boye
        Detail of a University of Virginia map by Herman Boye

        Jefferson began by planning a program of studies for the Charlottesville College. But he did not stop there. Before he finished, he had completed plans for a complete education system for Virginia. He proposed a school system of three steps.

        杰斐遜開始為夏洛茨維爾大學制定教程,但是除此之外,他還為維吉尼亞州設計了一整套教育體制,把學校分為三個階段。

        The first step would be elementary schools, where all children could learn reading, writing, arithmetic and geography. These schools would be built in all areas of the state and would be paid for by the people living in each area.

        第一個階段是小學,所有孩子都要上,學習讀書、寫字、算術和地理。小學要遍布全州,開支由當地居民承擔。

        The second step would be colleges -- equal to the high schools of today. He proposed that nine of these schools be built in the state. Students would begin the study of science, or would study agriculture, or how to use their hands to make things. These schools would be paid for by the state.

        第二個階段是學院,相當于今天的高中。杰斐遜建議,在維吉尼亞興建九所高中,學生們可以學習科學,或是學習農業,或是學習一些手藝。這些學校的開支由州政府負擔。

        The third step would be a state university, where students of great ability could go to get the best of educations. The university would produce the lawyers, doctors, professors, scientists and government leaders. Young men whose families had money would pay for their own educations. The state would pay the costs of a small number of bright students from poor families.

        第三個階段是州立大學,讓那些資質最好的學生接受高等教育,培養律師、醫生、教授、科學家和政治領袖。有錢人的子弟自己出錢,少數天資過人的窮孩子的學費則由州政府負擔。

        Jefferson also proposed that the University of Virginia be built at Charlottesville. He already had begun work on the college there and offered to give it to the university.

        杰斐遜還建議,將維吉尼亞州立大學設在夏洛茨維爾。杰斐遜已經開始在那里興建夏洛茨維爾大學,并表示,愿意把校舍免費送給維吉尼亞州立大學。

        VOICE ONE:

        His education program was offered to the Virginia legislature. Many lawmakers thought it was excellent. But many others opposed it. They did not want to raise taxes for the large amount of money such a system would cost.

        很多維吉尼亞議會成員都很欣賞這套教育計劃,但是也有不少反對者,因為這項教育計劃需要龐大的開支,他們不希望為此而增加稅收。

        The legislature, however, agreed to part of the plan. It approved a bill to help pay the cost of educating poor children. And it agreed to spend fifteen thousand dollars each year for a university. There was much debate about where the university should be built. Several other towns wanted the school. Finally, Charlottesville was chosen.

        盡管如此,維吉尼亞州議會最后還是決定接受計劃中的部分內容。他們通過了一項決議,為窮人家的孩子提供教育經費。他們還同意,每年撥出一萬五千美元給維吉尼亞州立大學。校址的選擇也引起了廣泛爭議,很多城鎮爭先恐后,但最后還是選在了夏洛茨維爾。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE TWO:

        Ink and pencil drawing by Thomas Jefferson of a building at the University of Virginia
        Ink and pencil drawing by Thomas Jefferson of a building at the University of Virginia

        By this time, Jefferson had completed plans for the university buildings. He borrowed many of his ideas from the beautiful buildings of ancient Greece and Rome. The buildings were so well planned that one hundred years later, when the university was to put up a new building, the builder could find no reason to change the plans drawn by Jefferson.

        此時,杰斐遜已經完成了大學校舍的設計。他借鑒了古希臘和羅馬很多優秀建筑的特色,杰斐遜的設計盡善盡美,直到一百年后,維吉尼亞州立大學決定加建一座大樓,建筑師還是決定照搬杰斐遜的設計方案。

        Work began on the university immediately. But it was six years before the school was open to students.

        維吉尼亞州立大學立即投入興建,但是前后花了六年時間才完工。

        Jefferson was there almost every day, watching the workmen. He was quick to criticize any mistake or work that was not done well. When he was sick and not able to go down to the university, he would watch the work through a telescope from a window of his home.

        杰斐遜幾乎每天都會去監工,隨時隨地糾正施工錯誤,即使身體不適,他也會從住所的窗戶里,通過望遠鏡監督工程進展。

        The cost of the university kept growing. And Jefferson had to struggle to get the legislature to pay for it. He also worked hard to get the best possible professors to teach at the university. He sent men throughout the United States to find good teachers. He even sent a man to Europe for this purpose. Finally, in March, eighteen hundred twenty-five, the University of Virginia opened.

        建筑費用不斷增加。杰斐遜不得不竭盡全力,說服州議會不斷撥款,他還要設法聘請當時的一流教授來任教。為此,他派人到全國各地去,搜尋優秀的教師,甚至還曾派人到歐洲去。1825年3月,維吉尼亞大學終于開課了。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE ONE:

        Jefferson's health had suffered during his years of work for the university. He was eighty-two years old and feeling his age. He suffered from rheumatism and diabetes, and was so weak he could walk only short distances. Jefferson also found his memory was failing.

        維吉尼亞大學興建的過程中,杰斐遜的身體狀況越來越差。82歲高齡的杰斐遜開始氣力不支,他患有風濕和糖尿病,身體虛弱,走不了幾步就氣喘吁吁,他的記憶力也在不斷退化。

        He knew he did not have much longer to live. He told a friend one day: "When I look back over the ranks of those with whom I have lived and loved, it is like looking over a field of battle. All fallen."

        杰斐遜知道自己時日不多了。有一天,他告訴一位好友說:“回想起我這輩子的友人和親人時,就好像是看著一個戰場,全都已經倒下了。”

        Near the end of his life, Jefferson designed his own gravestone and prepared the words to be written on it
        Near the end of his life, Jefferson designed his own gravestone and prepared the words to be written on it

        As his health grew worse, Jefferson turned his thoughts to death. He wrote how he wished to be buried. He wanted a simple grave on the mountainside below his house. He drew a picture of the kind of memorial he wanted put at his grave.

        隨著健康狀況的不斷惡化,杰斐遜開始考慮自己的后事。他希望死后能簡單地被安葬在房子的山腳下,他還描繪了自己墓碑的樣子。

        On this stone he wanted the statement: "Here was buried Thomas Jefferson -- author of the Declaration of American Independence, of the Virginia Law for Religious Freedom, and Father of the University of Virginia."

        他希望墓碑上能這樣寫:“這里埋葬的是托馬斯.杰斐遜,美國獨立宣言的作者、維吉尼亞宗教自由法的作者,維吉尼亞州立大學的奠基人。”

        He did not choose his work as governor of Virginia, secretary of state, or president. There was not a word about his purchase of the Louisiana Territory from France, which added so greatly to the United States. Jefferson did not explain why he chose the Declaration of Independence, the law for religious freedom, and the university as his greatest works.

        在這段話中,他沒有提到自己曾經擔任維吉尼亞州州長、美國國務卿、或是美國總統,也只字未提他從法國手中購買路易斯安那,顯著增加了美國的領地。杰斐遜對選擇獨立宣言、維吉尼亞宗教自由法和維吉尼亞州立大學作為自己一生最偉大的成就,沒有作出過任何解釋。

        VOICE TWO:

        Writer Nathan Schachner, in his book on Jefferson, offers this explanation:

        杰斐遜的傳記作家內森.沙克內爾是這樣認為的。他說:

        "He chose those points in his life when he performed some service in the unending struggle to free the human mind. Freedom from political tyranny, freedom from religious tyranny, and finally, freedom through education -- from all the tyrannies that have ever clouded and held back the human spirit."

        “杰斐遜選擇的生命中的這些要點,都是他為釋放人類思維不懈努力所做出的貢獻,擺脫政治壓迫、擺脫宗教壓迫,并最終借助教育獲得自由,擺脫束縛人類精神的一切桎梏。”

        On the Fourth of July, eighteen twenty-six, the nation began its celebration of the fiftieth anniversary of the Declaration of Independence. Then, from Boston, came news that former president John Adams had died. His last words were: "Thomas Jefferson still lives."

        1826年7月4號,美國舉國歡慶獨立宣言五十周年。就在當天,波士頓傳來了美國前總統約翰.亞當斯去世的消息。他的臨終遺言是,“托馬斯.杰斐遜還活著”。

        VOICE ONE:

        But Adams was wrong. At ten minutes before ten in the morning, on that same Fourth of July, his friend, Thomas Jefferson, had died.

        可是他錯了。當天早上九點五十分,他的好朋友托馬斯.杰斐遜也辭別了人世。

        As the news of the deaths of the two great men spread across the country, the celebrations turned to mourning and sorrow. Jefferson was buried the next day, as he had ordered, in a simple grave on the quiet mountainside.

        這兩位偉人去世的消息迅速傳開,美國民眾從歡慶轉為哀悼。杰斐遜次日下葬,按照他的遺愿,葬在山腳一個簡單的墓碑下。

        (MUSIC)

        ANNOUNCER:

        To learn more about America's third president, go to www.squishedblueberries.com. We have transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our programs along with historical images. Today's program was written by Frank Beardsley. Join us each week for THE MAKING OF A NATION – an American history series in VOA Special English.

        網友的學習評論(4條):
        作者:xuding45
        5-22-2013 6:12:13
        Thomas Jefferson left the White House in the end of the second presidency. He never came back to Washington. In his last life, he stayed in Monticello and discussed many iusses in disfferent areas. He devoted all energy to education in Virginia. Meanwhile he tried to set up a new university- the University of Virginia.
        作者:Alumni
        8-6-2013 20:7:23
        the trhird President, the author of Declaration of Indepedence of America, the Father of the University of Virginia---opened in 1826, purchase of Louisiana territory from France --- Thomas Jefferson died in 1826, at the age of 82. His name have been and will have been living in the mind of all the people of the world. .... plus, he wrote the Declaration of Independence at the age of 32.
        作者:William
        6-29-2014 20:41:59
        What a great leader. Try to contribute to the nation. Not try make himself rich in asset.
        作者:hliu
        8-9-2015 9:44:36
        "He chose those points in his life when he performed some service in the unending struggle to free the human mind. Freedom from political tyranny, freedom from religious tyranny, and finally, freedom through education--from all the tyrannies that have ever clouded and held back the human spirit."
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