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        #42: Jefferson Tries to Keep Trade Ban on Europe

        作者:Frank Beardsley 發布日期:3-25-2013

        ANNOUNCER:

        Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

        This week in our series, Steve Ember and Shirley Griffith have the story of Thomas Jefferson's final acts as president, and the election of James Madison.

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE TWO:

        A proclamation written by Thomas Jefferson in April 1808 about the embargo laws
        A proclamation written by Thomas Jefferson in April 1808 about the embargo laws

        In the closing days of eighteen-oh-seven, President Thomas Jefferson signed a bill banning all trade with Europe. No ships could enter the United States, and no ships could leave. The purpose of the trade ban was to keep America out of the war between Britain and France.

        上次我們講到,1807年年底,托馬斯.杰斐遜總統簽署了一項法案,禁止跟歐洲的一切貿易,任何船只不得出入美國水域。這項貿易禁令的目的是為了防止美國卷入英法戰爭。

        Jefferson acted to protect American traders, ship owners and sailors. Yet those were the people who protested loudest against the ban. They were willing to take the chance of having Britain or France seize their ship and goods. They could make no money without trade.

        雖然杰斐遜此舉的意圖是要保護的商人、船主和水手,但他們恰恰是反對禁令呼聲最高的人。這些人甘愿去冒被英國或是法國扣押的風險,因為沒有貿易,他們就失去了生計。

        VOICE ONE:

        The situation quickly turned into a political battle between Jefferson's party, the Republicans, and the opposition Federalists.

        這種局勢迅速轉化為杰斐遜總統所在的共和黨和反對黨聯邦黨之間的一場政治斗爭。

        Federalist newspapers attacked Jefferson. They charged that he supported the trade ban to help Napoleon Bonaparte. They called him a tool of France.

        聯邦黨人的報紙攻擊杰斐遜,指責他的貿易禁令是為了幫拿破侖的忙,說杰斐遜是法國的工具。

        One Federalist senator wrote a pamphlet against the trade ban. He urged northeastern states to refuse to enforce it. Then he went even further. He met secretly with the British official sent to Washington to discuss the situation. He told the British official that President Jefferson would be forced out of office because of the trade ban.

        一名聯邦黨參議員發表了一本小冊子,攻擊杰斐遜的貿易禁令。他號召東北部各州拒絕執行禁令。這位參議員還更進一步,他秘密會見了前來華盛頓討論局勢的英國官員,并告訴他們說,杰斐遜總統會因為這一貿易禁令被趕下臺。

        The Federalists tried hard to get Congress to end the ban. But they were not successful.

        聯邦黨人努力說服國會停止禁令,但是沒有成功。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE TWO:

        Detail of the cartoon
        Detail of the cartoon "Intercourse or Impartial Dealings" in which President Jefferson is being held up for money by Napoleon of France and King George of Britain. The image makes fun of Jefferson's embargo policy.

        President Jefferson did not believe that trade bans -- embargoes -- were the best way to settle America's problems with other nations. But at the time, he thought an embargo was the only way to deal with Britain and France, short of war. And he did not want war.

        杰斐遜總統不相信貿易禁令是解決美國外交糾紛的最佳手段。但與此同時,他認為,要對付英國和法國,貿易禁運是除了戰爭以外最好的辦法,而且他堅決不愿意卷入戰爭。

        Jefferson's economic policies had brought much progress during his two terms as president. He had been able to pay much of the national debt, and still reduce taxes. He also had begun several projects to improve communication and transportation throughout the country. He was afraid that a war would destroy everything he had done.

        杰斐遜兩屆任期內,經濟政策取得了重大成就,不僅償還了大部分國債,而且降低了賦稅。他還啟動了好幾個項目,努力改善美國全國的通訊和交通。他擔心,戰爭會讓這些成績毀于一旦。

        VOICE ONE:

        Jefferson simply wished to give the trade embargo a fair chance. "For a time," he wrote, "I think the embargo is less evil than war. But after a time, this will not be so. If the war should continue in Europe, and if Britain and France continue to act against us, then it will be for Congress to say if war would not be better than the embargo."

        杰斐遜其實就是想看看貿易禁令是否會奏效。他曾經這樣寫道:“我認為,在短期內,貿易禁令要比戰爭強,但是一段時間過后,就不一定了。如果歐洲的戰火繼續下去,如果英國和法國繼續對我們不利的話,那么就要由國會來決定,戰爭是否要比貿易禁令更為恰當。”

        Jefferson hoped that the loss of American trade would force Britain and France to change their policies toward the United States. And he hoped the change would come quickly, for he knew the American people would not accept a long ban on trade.

        杰斐遜希望,美國的貿易禁令能迫使英國和法國改變對美政策。他同時也希望,這種改變會盡快實現,因為他知道,美國人是不會接受長期貿易禁令的。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE TWO:

        A British traveler visiting New York City described what the embargo had done. He wrote: "The port is full of ships. But all of them are closed. Only a few sailors can be seen. Many of the counting houses are closed. The coffee houses are almost empty. The streets near the water are almost deserted. Grass has begun to grow upon the docks."

        當時一位到過紐約的英國游客是這樣形容貿易禁運給紐約帶來的影響的。他說:“港口到處都是船,但是所有船只都??吭谀抢?,只能看到很少的幾個水手,港口附近的街道空空蕩蕩,碼頭上野草叢生。”

        VOICE ONE:

        America's northern industrial states felt the loss of trade most strongly. But the agricultural South also was affected. Rich southern farmers and planters suddenly found themselves poor.

        貿易禁運對美國自身經濟產生了重大影響。美國北部工業州受到的沖擊最大,但是南部的農業州也受到了波及。原本富有的南方農場主忽然感到了經濟上的拮據。

        Tobacco was one of their major crops. And Britain bought more American tobacco than any other country. Its price fell so low because of the embargo that it had almost no value. The price of wheat fell from two dollars a bushel to seven cents a bushel. Good farmland dropped in value until it was worth almost nothing. Opposition to the embargo was growing.

        煙草是南方的主要作物之一,英國是最大的買家。貿易禁運造成煙草價格暴跌,幾乎一文不值,小麥價格從一蒲式耳兩美元跌到了七美分,良田的價值也一落千丈。因此,反對貿易禁運的呼聲逐漸高漲。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE TWO:

        Albert Gallatin was treasury secretary from 1801-1814, under Jefferson and then President James Madison
        Albert Gallatin was treasury secretary from 1801-1814, under Jefferson and then President James Madison

        Opposition was strongest in the Northeast. Ship owners and traders there believed that the embargo was wrong. They continued to export goods secretly.

        東北部各州的反對呼聲最高。當地的船主和商人相信,貿易禁運是錯誤的,他們將商品出口轉入地下。

        Some traders began sending goods over land to Canada. From there, the goods were sent on to Britain. Congress passed a law against this kind of trade. But the shipments did not stop. Too many people were willing to violate the law for the large amounts of money they could make by trading secretly with Britain.

        一些商人將商品運往加拿大,再從那里運往英國。美國國會通過立法,禁止這種運輸渠道,但是毫無效果。大家為了巨額利潤,不惜通過非法途徑,跟英國秘密通商。

        By August, eighteen-oh-eight, Treasury Secretary Albert Gallatin had lost all hope that the embargo would be successful. Gallatin told President Jefferson: "The embargo is now defeated by open violations, by ships sailing without permission of any kind."

        到1808年8月的時候,美國財政部長阿爾伯特.加勒廷已經對貿易禁運失去了信心。他告訴杰斐遜說,“商船未經許可,公開違反禁令,已經讓貿易禁運徹底失敗了。”

        VOICE ONE:

        Another of Jefferson's supporters gave the president this advice: "If the trade ban could be enforced, and if the people would accept it, then I am sure it would be the wisest course. But if it cannot be enforced completely, and if the people will not accept it, then it will not answer its purpose. And it should not be continued."

        杰斐遜的另外一位支持者建議說,“如果貿易禁運能夠落實,如果大家能夠接受,那我敢肯定,這是最好的方式,但如果貿易禁運無法徹底落實,不被大家接受的話,那就失去了意義,應該停止。”

        VOICE TWO:

        President Thomas Jefferson
        President Thomas Jefferson

        Jefferson, however, was not ready to give up his plan. In his last State of the Union message to Congress, he painted a bright picture of the nation.

        但是杰斐遜還不想放棄。他在向國會發表的最后一次國情咨文中,描繪了一幅美景。

        He reported that American industry was making progress. Many goods which had been imported before the embargo were now being made at home. He said almost all of the national debt had been paid. And he said more than one hundred gunboats had been built -- enough, he declared, to defend the country.

        他報告說,美國工業發展昌盛,貿易禁運實施前的很多進口物資如今已經轉為國產,美國的國債已經幾乎還清,軍隊有了一百多艘炮艦,足夠保護國家。

        Jefferson said nothing about opposition to the embargo. Nor did he talk of the serious economic problems caused by it. He said only that Britain and France still refused to honor American neutrality, and so the embargo must continue.

        杰斐遜對反對貿易禁運的呼聲只字未提,也沒有涉及禁運帶來的嚴重問題,他只是說,英國和法國依然不承認美國的中立,因此貿易禁運必須繼續下去。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE ONE:

        The rest of the nation was not so sure. Congress began debating a number of proposals to either lift or amend the embargo. And the opposition Federalist Party used the issue to increase its strength in northeastern states. Eighteen-oh-eight was, after all, a presidential election year.

        然而,杰斐遜的看法并不代表民意。美國國會隨后出臺了好幾項提案,要求取消禁運,或是對禁運進行修正。反對黨聯邦黨人也利用這個問題,來加強他們在美國東北部各州的勢力。因為畢竟,1808年是大選之年。

        VOICE TWO:

        Thomas Jefferson had served two four-year terms as president. No law prevented him from running again. But Jefferson had decided years before that a man should be limited to two terms as president.

        杰斐遜已經擔任了兩屆總統,雖然當時并沒有法律禁止他再次參選,但是杰斐遜很多年前就已經決定,總統任期不應該超過兩屆。

        Without such a limit, Jefferson believed, a powerful man might be able to keep the position for as long as he wished. George Washington had served two terms, and then retired. Jefferson would do the same.

        杰斐遜認為,如果沒有這種限制,一位偉大的領導人就會無限期地連任下去。美國開國總統喬治.華盛頓就是干了兩屆后引退的,杰斐遜也準備這樣做。

        VOICE ONE:

        Three members of Jefferson's Republican Party wanted to be president. One was James Madison, the secretary of state. The second was James Monroe, who had served as a special assistant to the president. The third was George Clinton, who was vice president during Jefferson's second term.

        杰斐遜所在的共和黨有三個人希望參選。他們分別是當時的國務卿詹姆斯.麥迪遜、曾任總統特別助理的詹姆斯.門羅、以及杰斐遜第二任期的副總統喬治.克林頓。

        The Republican Party chose Madison as its candidate for president. It chose Clinton as its candidate for vice president. The Federalist Party named the same candidates it had chosen four years earlier: Charles Cotesworth Pinckney for president, and Rufus King for vice president.

        共和黨最后選擇了麥迪遜作為黨內總統候選人,由喬治.克林頓作為副總統候選人。聯邦黨提名四年前的人選平克尼和魯弗斯.金作為總統和副總統候選人。

        VOICE TWO:

        The Federalists were sure of victory in the election. They thought that Jefferson's embargo on trade had angered the people and turned them away from the Republican Party. Even some Republicans felt the election could go very badly for their party.

        聯邦黨人覺得自己必勝無疑。他們認為,杰斐遜的貿易禁運引起了很多人的不滿,因此失去了民心,就連一些共和黨人也覺得,這次選舉大勢已去。

        But Jefferson remained calm. He believed that most Americans understood what he was trying to do with the embargo. And he believed they would vote for his party's candidate. Jefferson was right. Madison was elected.

        但是杰斐遜卻穩如泰山。他堅信,大多數美國人都了解他實施貿易禁運的意圖,一定會把票投給共和黨候選人。結果證明他是正確的,麥迪遜順利當選。

        VOICE ONE:

        As we said earlier, Congress was trying to resolve the issue of the embargo before Jefferson left office.

        我們上面說到,美國國會試圖在杰斐遜離任前解決貿易禁運的問題。

        In the first months of eighteen-oh-nine, it finally approved a bill. The bill lifted the ban on trade with all European countries except Britain and France.

        1809年頭兩個月,國會終于通過了一項法案,取消了除英、法兩國外,美國跟其它歐洲國家的貿易禁運。

        Jefferson had hoped to continue the embargo a little longer and with more powers to enforce it. He was not satisfied with the final bill. But he signed it anyway on March first. Three days later, the fifteen-month-old embargo was dead. And the United States had a new president.

        杰斐遜原本希望禁運能延續得再久一些,實施力度再大一些。雖然杰斐遜對最后的法案很不滿意,但3月1號還是在法案上簽了字。三天過后,執行了15個月的貿易禁運宣告結束。美國也迎來了一位新總統。

        That will be our story next week.

        (MUSIC)

        ANNOUNCER:

        Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Steve Ember and Shirley Griffith. Join us each week for THE MAKING OF A NATION – an American history series in VOA Special English. Transcripts, podcasts and MP3s of our programs are at www.squishedblueberries.com.

        網友的學習評論(2條):
        作者:xuding45
        5-18-2013 6:1:10
        During the second presidency Thomas Jefferson tried to keep trade ban on Europe. But this policy was opposited by many people. They wanted to get money by the trade between American and European countries.
        作者:Alumni
        8-5-2013 22:6:11
        Jefferson went and Madison came.
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