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        #41: Jefferson Suspends Trade with Europe in 1807

        作者:Frank Beardsley 發布日期:3-24-2013

        ANNOUNCER:

        Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

        This week in our series, Steve Ember and Shirley Griffith continue the story of Thomas Jefferson's second term as president.

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE TWO:

        Thomas Jefferson
        Thomas Jefferson

        In the early eighteen hundreds, Britain and France were at war with each other. The United States remained neutral. President Jefferson did not want to become involved in a war. He believed it would destroy all the progress he had made.

        十九世紀初期,英法戰爭期間,美國保持中立。托馬斯.杰斐遜總統不希望卷入戰爭,他相信,戰火會摧毀業已取得的所有進展。

        His economic policies had helped to pay much of the national debt. And he was able to reduce taxes. Staying neutral was not easy, however. The United States was having trouble with Britain.

        在杰斐遜經濟政策的引導下,美國不僅還清了大部分債務,而且還減少了人民的賦稅。然而,保持中立并不簡單,美國跟英國之間發生了矛盾。

        VOICE ONE:

        For many years, Britain had been taking men by force to serve in its navy. The custom was called 'impressment.' Britain claimed the right to impress -- or seize -- any British citizen, anywhere.

        多年來,英國海軍一直采取強制入伍的政策。英國政府認為,他們有權強制任何地方的英國公民參軍服役。

        Conditions in the British navy were not good at that time, and many sailors deserted. Some went to work on American ships. The American ships were stopped and searched in British waters. Anyone born in Britain was seized. Several thousand sailors were taken off American ships during the early eighteen hundreds. Sometimes, American citizens were taken by mistake.

        當時,英國海軍的條件惡劣,不少水兵當逃兵開小差,其中一些人到美國船只上工作,因此美國船只途徑英國水域,經常會遭到攔截和搜查,只要是英國出生的人就會被抓走。十九世紀初期,共有幾千名水兵被英國海軍從美國船只上抓走,其中也有被誤抓的美國人。

        VOICE TWO:

        Impressment was one of two major problems the United States was having with Britain in the early eighteen hundreds. The other problem was trade.

        強制征兵是美國和英國十九世紀初期的兩大主要矛盾之一,另外一大矛盾是貿易。

        Britain wanted to stop the United States from trading with France and its colonies. British warships blocked the port of New York all through the year eighteen-oh-five. No American ship could leave without being searched. When goods for France were discovered, the ship was taken to Halifax on the coast of Canada.

        英國希望阻止美國跟法國及其殖民地進行交易。1805年整整一年,紐約港口都被英國戰艦封鎖,出港船只要接受搜查。一旦發現運往法國的物資,貨船就要被押往加拿大的哈利法克斯港。

        There, a British court had the power to seize the goods and force the ship's owners to pay a large amount of money.

        在那里,英國法庭有權沒收物資,并強迫船主繳納巨額罰款。

        VOICE ONE:

        James Monroe
        James Monroe

        President Jefferson protested this interference in American trade. He sent James Monroe to London to negotiate a treaty. Jefferson wanted Britain to stop taking sailors from American ships, and to stop interfering in the trade of neutral nations. Monroe tried many times to discuss such an agreement. But the British foreign minister was always too busy to see him.

        杰斐遜總統對英國插手美國貿易提出抗議。他派詹姆斯.門羅到倫敦去,設法跟英國達成某種協議。杰斐遜希望英國不要再到美國船只上去抓捕水兵,并停止對中立國貿易的干涉。門羅多次試圖跟英國交涉,但是英國外交大臣一直以沒時間為由,拒絕接見他。

        VOICE TWO:

        In Washington, Congress decided to act and not wait for a treaty. The House of Representatives debated two proposals.

        與此同時,美國國會決定不再等待,主動出擊。國會眾議院討論了兩項提案。

        One proposal would stop all goods from being imported into the United States from Britain and its colonies. Imports would be permitted only after Britain had answered America's protests.

        其中一項提案要求,在英國對美國的抗議做出答復前,禁止從英國及其殖民地進口物資。

        The representative who offered the proposal said: "We do not wish to destroy the ties that ought to join nations of the same interests. To prevent this, we want an agreement that will satisfy both the United States and Britain. But if Britain continues its hostile acts, then we must loosen these ties of friendship."

        支持這項提案的議員說,“我們不希望破壞國際關系,因此希望能達成讓美國和英國都滿意的協議,但是如果英國繼續敵對行動,我們就必須疏遠這種友好關系。”

        VOICE ONE:

        Some members of Congress felt that this measure was too extreme. They believed it might lead to war with Britain. The second proposal was more moderate. It would ban only those British goods which could be gotten from other places.

        有些國會議員覺得這樣做過于極端,擔心會導致戰爭。另外一項提案則相對溫和,只禁止從英國進口那些可以從其他地方進口的物資。

        The House of Representatives debated the two proposals. After four months, it finally approved a ban on the import of some British goods.

        美國國會對這兩項提案進行了四個月的討論,最后批準了第二項提案,拒絕進口部分英國物資。

        VOICE TWO:

        President Jefferson did not want the trade ban to last long. He pressed for an agreement with Britain. He sent William Pinkney to assist James Monroe in London.

        杰斐遜總統不希望貿易禁運延續太長的時間,他的本意是希望借此迫使英國接受協議。他讓威廉.平克尼到倫敦去,協助門羅的工作。

        The two diplomats were told to make clear to Britain what it must do to end the limited ban on British imports. Britain was to stop taking sailors from American ships. It was to stop interfering with trade between the United States and the colonies of France. And it was to pay for all property seized from American ships.

        平克尼和門羅的任務是清楚地告訴英國,如果想要結束進口限制,就不能再從美國船只上抓捕水兵,停止干涉美國跟法國殖民地的貿易,對沒收美國貨船的物資進行賠償。

        Monroe and Pinkney knew they could never reach an agreement if they obeyed their orders. So they decided to negotiate on their own as best they could.

        平克尼和門羅明白,如果完全照辦,肯定無法達成協議,因此決定自做主張。

        VOICE ONE:

        They dropped the demand for payment for seized property. And they accepted a note -- separate from the agreement – about impressment. The note promised that Britain would be careful not to seize any more American sailors.

        不要求英國賠償沒收的物資;在強制征兵的問題上,他們也接受了一項備注,只讓英國保證不再抓捕美國水兵。

        At the end of December, eighteen-oh-six, Monroe and Pinkney sent word to Washington that the treaty was ready. But from the way their note was written, it seemed the treaty might not be satisfactory.

        1806年年底,門羅和平克尼通知華盛頓,可以簽署協議了。但是從他們的信中可以看出,協議內容似乎不盡人意。

        Secretary of State James Madison wrote back. He said if the two diplomats could get no clear agreement on the question of impressment, then the talks should end without a treaty. But it was too late. Monroe and Pinkney had signed the agreement. But it was too late. Monroe and Pinkney had signed the agreement.

        當時的美國國務卿詹姆斯.麥迪遜回信說,如果平克尼和門羅無法在強制征兵的問題上達成明確共識,就不要簽署協議。但是太晚了,門羅和平克尼已經簽字了。

        VOICE TWO:

        President Jefferson was angry. His negotiators had disobeyed his orders. He refused to send the treaty to the Senate for approval. And he said he would tell Monroe and Pinkney to re-open negotiations.

        談判特使竟敢違背自己的命令,讓杰斐遜總統十分氣憤。他決定,要讓門羅和平克尼重新談判。

        Before that could happen, an incident added more fuel to the diplomatic fire. A British navy ship attacked the American Navy ship Chesapeake while looking for deserters.

        但是尚未付諸行動,就發生了一起沖突,加劇了英美兩國間的外交緊張。事情的起因是,一艘搜捕逃兵的英國海軍艦只對美國海軍切薩皮克號發起了進攻。

        Britain believed that some of the deserters were on the American ship. The United States said the men were American citizens who had been forced to serve in the British navy. It refused to return them.

        英國相信,有些逃兵就在切薩皮克號上,但美國方面說,船上的都是被強迫在英國海軍里服役的美國公民,所以拒絕交人。

        VOICE ONE:

        When the Chesapeake sailed out of American waters, the British ship tried to stop it and search it. The American captain did not stop. The British ship first fired two shots in front of the Chesapeake. Then it fired all its guns directly at the American ship. The Chesapeake was able to answer with only one gun. The American captain surrendered.

        切薩皮克號駛離美國水域后,英國艦只試圖攔截搜查。切薩皮克號船長拒絕停船。英國艦只先是向切薩皮克號船頭打了兩槍,隨后將所有大炮對準切薩皮克號開火,切薩皮克號只有一門大炮,最后只好投降。消息很快傳到華盛頓。

        News of the British attack spread quickly. President Jefferson ordered all British navy ships in American waters to leave at once. He told citizens not to aid them. And he said any person -- American or British -- who disobeyed his orders would be arrested.

        杰斐遜總統勒令所有英國艦只立即離開美國水域,告訴美國人不要幫助他們,違令者一律輯拿歸案,不論是美國人,還是英國人。

        VOICE TWO:

        In London, James Monroe protested the attack on the Chesapeake. But the British foreign minister did not want to talk about the incident. Monroe saw little purpose in remaining. So he sailed for home.

        在倫敦,門羅對切薩皮克號受襲事件提出抗議,但是英國外交大臣不愿討論此事,門羅覺得再待下去已經沒有任何意義,起身回國。

        A few days after he left London, the British government announced a new rule. It said any American ship sailing to Europe must stop first in Britain to get permission. Ships violating the rule would be seized. Relations between the two countries had reached the breaking point.

        門羅離開英國幾天后,英國政府就頒布了新規定,要求凡是駛往歐洲的美國船只都要??坑?,申請許可,違反規定的船只一律扣押。英美兩國關系瀕臨破裂。

        VOICE ONE:

        When President Jefferson learned of the new rule, he called a cabinet meeting to discuss the crisis. He said the United States had three choices: Go to war with Britain. Stop all trade with Europe. Do nothing. Jefferson supported the second choice -- a total embargo -- no trade with Europe.

        杰斐遜聽到這一消息后,召集內閣開會,商談這一危機。杰斐遜說,美國面臨三種選擇,一是跟英國開戰;二是停止跟歐洲的一切貿易;三是按兵不動。杰斐遜支持第二種選擇,斷絕跟歐洲的貿易。

        The president sent a special message to Congress. He proposed that no ships be permitted to enter the United States, and no ships be permitted to leave. Both houses of Congress approved Jefferson's proposal. He signed the measure in the closing days of eighteen-oh-seven.

        杰斐遜向國會提議,禁止任何船只進出美國水域,得到了國會參眾兩院的批準。1807年年底,杰斐遜在法案上簽字生效。

        VOICE TWO:

        Jefferson later explained why he thought the embargo was the best choice of action. He said if American ships had sailed out of American waters, they would have been seized by Britain or France. That would have forced the United States into war. Jefferson said: "It was far better to stop all communications with these nations until they returned to some sense of justice."

        杰斐遜后來解釋說,他認為禁運是最好的選擇,理由是,如果美國船只離開美國海域,就可能被英國或是法國扣押,迫使美國參戰。杰斐遜說,在這些國家恢復理智之前,美國寧可斷絕跟這些國家的一切聯絡。

        VOICE ONE:

        Jefferson's decision, and continuing tense relations with Britain, caused problems through his final days as president. The situation did not improve for America's next president, James Madison. That will be our story next week.

        杰斐遜的決定,外加上跟英國關系的持續緊張,給杰斐遜任期的最后一段時間帶來了麻煩。這種情況還要留待下屆總統詹姆斯.麥迪遜去解決。

        (MUSIC)

        ANNOUNCER:

        Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Steve Ember and Shirley Griffith. Join us each week for THE MAKING OF A NATION – an American history series in VOA Special English. Transcripts, podcasts and MP3s of our programs can be found at www.squishedblueberries.com.

        網友的學習評論(3條):
        作者:xuding45
        5-10-2013 5:43:34
        In the second presidency Tomas Jefferson faced many troubles. One of them coped the relationship between Britain and America. Jefffson decided to suspend trade with Europe, in this way America could avoid the war with European countries.
        作者:Alumni
        8-4-2013 17:59:56
        another war could take place between the United States and Britain . we could foresee it in being at daggers drawn between them ,with the Britain 's sezing the sailers of America and America's reaction of ' embargo' policy. it would be ravishing !!
        作者:hliu
        8-8-2015 9:44:32
        At early eighteen hundreds, America was at its begining phase, it's not powerful enough. It's not completely independent at least in terms of trade.
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