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        #4: Buffalo, 'Mystery Dogs' (Horses) and the Lives of the Plains Indians

        作者:Paul Thompson 發布日期:1-20-2013

        VOICE ONE:

        This is Rich Kleinfeldt.

        VOICE TWO:

        And this is Sarah Long with the MAKING OF A NATION, a VOA Special English program about the history of the United States. Today, we tell about early Native Americans.

        VOICE ONE:

        Scientists believe that the native peoples of America came here thousands of years ago during the last ice age. These people settled the land from the cold northern areas to the extreme end of South America.

        科學家認為,美洲的土著居民是數千年前在最后一個冰河時代來到美洲大陸的??脊艑W家從寒冷的北部地區到南美洲的最南端,都找到過他們的足跡。

        As the groups of people settled different parts of the land, they developed their own languages, their own cultures and their own religions. Each group's story is important in the history of the Americas. However, it is perhaps the tribes of the central part of the United States that are most recognized. They will be our story today.

        居住在不同地區的土著居民,創造了自己獨特的語言、文化和宗教。每個土著部落的故事,都是美洲歷史的重要組成部分,但是最為后人認可的,還是那些在今天的美國中部定居的土著部落。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE TWO:

        Merriwether Lewis and William Clark
        Merriwether Lewis and William Clark

        In eighteen-oh-four, Merriwether Lewis and William Clark led a group of explorers to the Pacific Ocean. They were the first educated Americans to see some of the native tribes of the Great Plains. And they were the first white people these Native American people had ever seen.

        1804年,劉易斯和克拉克率領的探險隊到了太平洋。他們是見到大平原地區土著部落的第一批受過教育的美國人,也是土著人第一次見到的白人。

        When the group of explorers neared the eastern side of the great Rocky Mountains, they met with a tribe of Indians called the Shoshoni. Merriwether Lewis was the first to see them.

        Let us imagine we are with Merriwether Lewis near the Rocky Mountains almost two hundred years ago. Across a small hill, a group of sixty Shoshoni men are riding toward us.

        劉易斯和克拉克等人到達落基山東側的時候,大約六十個肖肖尼土著居民正騎馬向他們走來。他們生動地記載了當時的情景。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE ONE:

        The first thing we see is that these men are ready for war. Each is armed with a bow and arrows. Some carry long poles with a sharp knife on the end.

        我們的第一反應是,這些人已經做好了戰斗的準備。他們都佩有弓箭,還有些人拿著頂端插著尖刀的桿子。

        They are riding very fast. Some horses seem to be without riders. But a closer look shows that the men are hanging off the sides, or under the horse's neck. They are using the horses' bodies as protection.

        他們騎得飛快,有些馬背上好像并沒有人,仔細看才會發現,騎手都貼在馬肚子上,或是掛在馬脖子下面,用馬的身體做掩護。

        The horses are painted with many different designs that use blue, black, red or other colors. Later we learn that each design has a special meaning for the man who owns the horse. Each one tells a story.

        這些馬的身上畫著五顏六色的圖案,后來我們才知道,每個圖案有不同的意思,對馬的主人有特殊的意義。

        For example, the man riding one horse is a leader during battle. Another has killed an enemy in battle. One of the designs protects the horse and rider.

        比如說,其中一個人是戰斗總指揮,另一個在戰斗中殺死過敵人,其中一種圖案能保護馬匹和騎手的安全。

        VOICE TWO:

        As they come nearer, the Shoshoni group sees that we are not ready for war. They slow their horses but are still very careful. Merriwether Lewis holds up a open hand as a sign of peace. The leader of the Shoshoni does the same. They come closer.

        這些肖肖尼騎手走近后,看到我們不象要打仗的樣子,于是放慢了步伐,但還是十分小心。劉易斯舉起一只手,以示和平。肖肖尼人的頭領也做出同樣的手勢,做出回答。雙方繼續靠攏。

        The Shoshoni are dressed in clothes made from animal skin. Most of these skins are from deer or the American buffalo. The shirts they wear have many designs, and tell stories like the designs on the horses. One shows a man has fought in a battle. Another shows a man has been in many raids to capture horses. Still another shows the man saved the life of a friend.

        肖肖尼人穿著用獸皮做的衣服,大多是鹿皮或水牛皮。他們的襯衣有不同的圖案,也有不同的意思,可以顯示某個人參加過戰斗、多次參加捕獲馬匹的突襲行動,或是救過朋友的性命。

        VOICE ONE:

        Captain Lewis smiles at these men. He again makes a hand sign that means peace. The signs are now returned. Lewis and the Shoshoni chief cannot speak each other's language. They can communicate using hand signs.

        劉易斯沖這些人笑笑,再次做出和平的手勢,肖肖尼人也做出同樣的手勢。劉易斯和肖肖尼頭領語言不通,但是可以通過手勢進行交流。

        VOICE TWO:

        One young Shoshoni man comes near. He drops to the ground from his horse. He is tall and looks strong. His hair is black in color and long. He wears one long bird feather in the back of his hair. Some of his hair is held in place by animal fur.

        一個年輕的肖肖尼人翻身下馬,他身材高大強壯,留著長長的黑發,頭發用獸皮綁著,頭發后面還有一根很長的羽毛。

        His arms have been painted with long lines. We learn that each line represents a battle. There are many lines. But we leave the Shoshoni without him adding another one.

        他的胳膊上劃著很多長線,每條線代表著一場戰斗。但是這次跟我們的遭遇,雙方并沒有兵戎相見。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE ONE:

        The Shoshoni were only one of many tribes of native people who lived in the Great Plains area. The life, culture and society of these tribes developed because of the land that was their home.

        (我們在前一個小時的建國史話中講到了劉易斯和克拉克的探險隊第一次遇到土著部落--肖肖尼人的情景。)其實,肖肖尼人只是大平原上眾多土著部落中的一個。這些部落的生活、文化和社會形態都帶有大平原的特色。

        The Great Plains today is still huge. Even in a car, traveling at one hundred kilometers an hour, it can take two long days of driving to cross the Great Plains. The plains reach from several hundred kilometers north in Canada across the middle of the continent to Mexico in the south. In the East, the Great Plains begin near the Mississippi River and go west to the huge Rocky Mountains. It is the center of the United States.

        直到今天,大平原還是一望無際,即使是坐在時速100公里的車上,要穿越大平原也要整整兩天的時間。大平原北起加拿大,南抵墨西哥,東靠密西西比河,西至落基山脈,是美國的中心地區。

        There are big rivers here, deserts and mountains. Other areas are so flat that a person can see for hundreds of kilometers. Millions of kilometers of this land were once covered by a thick ocean of grass.

        大平原上有河流、沙漠、山脈,其余的地方則是一望無際的草地。

        VOICE TWO:

        'Buffalo Lancing in the Snow Drifts -- Sioux' by artist George Catlin
        'Buffalo Lancing in the Snow Drifts -- Sioux' by artist George Catlin

        The grass provided food for an animal that made possible the culture of the Indians of the Great Plains. The grass fed the bison, the American buffalo. The buffalo was the center of native Indian culture in the Great Plains.

        草地養肥了水牛,水牛是大平原土著印第安人文化的核心要素。

        The huge animal provided meat for the Indians. But it was much more than just food. It was an important part of the religion of most of the native people in the Great Plains.

        水牛不僅為印第安人提供了食物,也是大平原地區大多數印第安人宗教的重要部分。

        The Lakota tribe is one of the people of the Great Plains. The Lakota are sometimes called the Sioux. They believed that everything necessary to life was within the buffalo. Another Plains tribe, the Blackfeet, called the animal "My home and my protection."

        蘇人印第安部落就相信,凡是生活必須品,都能從水牛的身上找到。另外一個印第安人部落把水牛稱做“我的家和保護者。”

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE ONE:

        The back of the huge buffalo provided thick skin that was used to make homes for the Plains Indians. Other parts were made into clothing. Still other parts became warm blankets. Buffalo bones were made into tools. Nothing of the animal was wasted.

        牛背上厚厚的皮可以用來做帳篷,其他部分的皮可以做衣服和毯子,牛骨頭可以做工具,水牛身上的任何地方都不會被浪費掉。

        No one knows how many buffalo were in North America when Merriwether Lewis first met the Shoshoni. But experts say it was probably between sixty million to seventy-five million.

        沒有人知道,劉易斯遇到肖肖尼人的時候,北美大陸上到底有多少頭水牛,專家估計可能有六千萬到七千五百萬頭左右。

        VOICE TWO:

        Another animal also helped make possible the Indian cultures of the Great Plains. Native Americans first called these animals mystery dogs, or big dogs. They had no word for this animal in their language. We know it as the horse.

        另外一種動物也對大平原印第安部落的文化起到了關鍵作用。當時的土著印第安人把這種動物叫做大狗,其實他們說的就是馬。

        No horses existed in North America before the Spanish arrived in the fifteen hundreds in what is now the southern part of the United States. Native peoples hunted, moved and traveled by foot. Traveling long distances was difficult, so was hunting buffalo.

        西班牙人十六世紀來到今天的美國南部之前,北美大陸上原本沒有馬。土著印第安人都是徒步狩獵和行動的,長途跋涉十分辛苦,更不用說捕獵水牛了。

        The horse greatly changed the life of all the people of the Great Plains. It gave them a method of travel. It provided a way to carry food and equipment. It made it easier and safer to follow and hunt the buffalo. The horse made it possible to attack an enemy far away and return safely. The number of horses owned became the measure of a tribe's wealth.

        馬的出現徹底改變了他們的生活,給他們提供了交通和運輸的方便,也讓追蹤和捕獵水牛變得更加簡單了。有了馬,印第安人就能對遠方的敵人發動進攻,然后安全返回。擁有馬匹的數量,一度成為衡量部落財富的標準。

        VOICE ONE:

        Spanish settlers rode horses to the small town of Santa Fe in what is now the southwestern state of New Mexico. They arrived there in about the year sixteen-oh-nine.

        西班牙定居者大約在1609年的時候騎馬到了今天美國西南部新墨西哥州的小鎮圣菲。

        It is not known how native peoples in Santa Fe got the first horses in the country. Perhaps they traded for them. Perhaps they captured them in an attack. Many tribes soon were trading and capturing horses.

        沒有人知道,圣菲的土著居民是怎么得到第一匹馬的,也許他們是用東西換的,也許是發動進攻搶來的。重要的是,沒過多久,很多印第安部落都開始買賣和捕獲馬匹了。

        By the seventeen fifties, all the tribes of the Great Plains had horses. They had become experts at raising, training and riding horses. They became experts at horse medicine.

        到1750年代的時候,大平原上的所有部落都有了馬,而且這些印第安人成了飼養、訓練和騎馬的行家。

        Each Indian of the Great Plains could ride a horse by the age of five. As an adult, a young man would have a special horse for work. Another horse would be trained for hunting. And another would be trained for war. An Indian warrior's success depended upon how closely he and his horses worked together.

        大平原地區的印第安人,五歲學騎馬,長大以后,每個年輕人都有好幾匹馬,分別用于工作、狩獵和作戰。一個印第安勇士的成功在很大程度上要取決于他和他的坐騎的密切配合。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE TWO:

        William Fisk painted this picture of George Catlin in 1849
        William Fisk painted this picture of George Catlin in 1849

        George Catlin was an artist who traveled a great deal in the early American west. He painted many beautiful pictures of American Indians. Mister Catlin said the Plains Indian was the greatest horse rider the world has ever known. He said the moment an Indian rider laid a hand on his horse he became part of the animal.

        卡森林是美國早期藝術家,他到過西部的很多地方,畫了很多描寫印第安人的作品,據他說,大平原上的印第安人是世界上最出色的騎手,印第安人把手放在馬身上的一瞬間,就和馬融為一體了。

        VOICE ONE:

        The buffalo and horse were extremely important to the Plains Indian. Because the horse made hunting easier, more time could be spent on things like art. The Plains Indians began to make designs on their clothing, and on special blankets their horses wore. Even common objects were painted with designs.

        水牛和馬匹對大平原地區的印第安人來說至關重要,馬的出現簡化了狩獵工作,讓印第安人能把更多的時間用于美化生活,他們開始在衣服和馬用的毯子上設計圖案,即使是最常用的物品上也出現了圖案設計。

        VOICE TWO:

        The coming of white settlers to the Great Plains was the beginning of the end of the buffalo and horse culture of the American Indians. Settlers did not want buffalo destroying their crops. The buffalo were killed. By the year eighteen eighty-five, the Indians of the Great Plains were mostly restricted to area of land called reservations.

        白種定居者的到來,標志著美洲印第安人水牛和馬匹文化的終結。定居者不希望水牛破壞他們的莊稼,于是開始宰殺水牛。到了1885年的時候,大平原地區的印第安人大多都已經被趕到了保留地上居住。

        VOICE ONE:

        Many of the Great Plains tribes that survive today work hard to keep their traditional cultures. They produce art, music, and clothing. They keep alive the memory of these people who added greatly to the history of America.

        很多延續至今的部落都在設法保留自己的傳統文化,他們通過藝術、音樂和服裝,讓對美洲歷史做出過重大貢獻的自己祖先的文化流傳下去。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE TWO:

        This MAKING OF A NATION program was written by Paul Thompson. This is Sarah Long.

        VOICE ONE:

        And this is Rich Kleinfeldt. Join us again next week for another VOA Special English program about the history of the United States.

        網友的學習評論(14條):
        作者:流櫻豪
        1-28-2013 12:51:25
        good
        作者:華晨
        1-31-2013 20:18:40
        Today , I have learned the history of early native Americans. The white settler destroyed the peaceful life of indian tribes . The surviror were mostly restricted to the area of land called reservations .
        作者:櫻桃圓子
        3-1-2013 21:18:8
        buffalos and horses
        作者:雅喬
        3-15-2013 16:9:57
        The native peoples of America are great!
        作者:雅喬
        3-15-2013 16:24:9
        We should keep alive the memory of these people who added greatly to the history of China!
        作者:雅喬
        3-16-2013 10:2:0
        No horses existed in North America before the Spanish arrived in the fifteen hundreds in what is now the southern part of the United States.
        作者:小凌
        11-8-2013 14:29:38
        it's great.
        作者:Terry
        12-6-2013 17:22:47
        American History is just a history of aggression, Pitiful American Native Indians
        作者:Kane
        1-17-2014 21:13:50
        I am here again~~
        作者:photon
        7-6-2014 17:16:36
        Buffalo and bison provided food and life material for Plain Indians. Horse were brought in by the Spanish. Finally Plain Indians were restricted in the area of reservation. Would the Indians go out of the sufferings? Chances exist, I think ..
        作者:Melody
        12-30-2014 10:47:8
        Buffalo and horse play an important role for the plains Indians . Every part of the buffalo is well utilized without any waste . It was not only the basic food for life surviving but also the essential part of the religion of most of the native people in the Great Plains . The horse can be trained to work , hunt, to carry cargoes and equipment , to fight with your enemys etc. The number of buffalos and horese became an measure of a tribe's wealth .
        作者:Melody
        12-30-2014 10:51:53
        However , this history was culminated with the coming of white settlers to the Great Plaints . Imagine that if the white settlers never invaded there , what will be today's history of the Great Plaints ? History can't be repeated and what we can do is to keep alive the memory of these people who added greatly to the history of America .
        作者:hliu
        7-2-2015 9:3:33
        Keeping the traditional customs is natives' misfortune, and is others' fortune!
        作者:karen
        8-25-2017 17:31:17
        By the year eighteen eighty-five, the Indians of the Great Plains were mostly restricted to area of land called reservations.
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