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        #39: A Supreme Court Justice Is Put on Trial in 1805

        作者:Frank Beardsley and Christine Johnson 發布日期:3-22-2013

        Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

        We talked last week about the presidential election of eighteen hundred and four. Thomas Jefferson, the nation's third president, was easily re-elected. He was head of the Democratic-Republican Party, known today as the Democratic Party. His political opponents were called Federalists.

        在上次的建國史話中,我們講到,美國歷史上的第三位總統托馬斯.杰斐遜輕而易舉地當選連任。當時美國已經出現了兩黨政治,杰斐遜是民主-共和黨的領袖,也就是今天的民主黨。他的政治對手是聯邦黨,是如今的共和黨的前身。

        Now, Doug Johnson and Richard Rael begin the story of his second term as president of the United States.

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE TWO:

        Jefferson had a very good record during his first term as president.

        The Louisiana Purchase Treaty was signed in Paris on April 30, 1803
        The Louisiana Purchase Treaty was signed in Paris on April 30, 1803

        He ended many taxes. He paid government debts. And he gained possession of the huge Louisiana Territory from France without going to war. The Federalists were sure he would win the election of eighteen-oh-four. Still, they were surprised by the strength of his election victory.

        杰斐遜第一屆任期內取得了驚人的政績。他削減人民的稅務、償還政府的負債,沒費一槍一彈,就從法國人手中得到了路易斯安那。聯邦黨人知道,杰斐遜肯定會連任,但是杰斐遜贏得的絕對多數票,還是讓他們大吃一驚。

        VOICE ONE:

        Jefferson won one hundred sixty-two electoral votes. His opponent, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, won just fourteen. The Federalists had expected Pinckney to get about forty.

        杰斐遜贏得了162張選舉人票,而他的對手,聯邦黨候選人平克尼只得到了14票,遠遠低于聯邦黨人預計的40票。

        Jefferson received support even in the Northeast. That is where the Federalists had their greatest strength. What was the explanation?

        即使是聯邦黨人力量最雄厚的東北部地區,也都投票支持杰斐遜。這是為什么呢?

        One man tried to explain the meaning of Jefferson's great victory. He was John Quincy Adams, son of former president John Adams. President Adams had been a firm Federalist. This is what his son said:

        美國前總統約翰.亞當斯的兒子約翰.昆西.亞當斯是這樣解釋的。

        VOICE TWO:

        "The power of Jefferson's administration rests on a strong majority of the American people. The president has great popular support. His re-election shows that the experiment of the Federalists has failed. It never can and never will be brought to life again. To try to bring it back would be foolish. It would be like trying to put life into a body that has been buried for years."

        他說:“杰斐遜政府的力量來源于美國人民。杰斐遜總統得到了民眾的支持。他的當選連任顯示,聯邦黨人的嘗試失敗了,再也無法起死回生。試圖東山再起無疑是荒唐的,如同讓僵尸復活。”

        After the election of eighteen-oh-four, only seven Federalists remained in the United States Senate. Only twenty-five remained in the House of Representatives.

        1804年大選后,美國參議院里只剩下七個聯邦黨人,眾議院里也只有25個聯邦黨人了。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE ONE:

        The Federalists no longer controlled the Congress, although they still controlled the courts. Many judges had been appointed during John Adams's last days as president. These judges opposed Thomas Jefferson. Some used the courtroom as a place to attack his policies. Judges were not supposed to make political speeches in court.

        聯邦黨人早已失去了對國會的控制,但依舊掌握著法院系統。當時的很多法官都是亞當斯總統任期結束前委任的,他們反對杰斐遜,有些法官還把法庭作為戰場,對杰斐遜的政策展開攻擊。

        One of the most powerful anti-Jeffersonian judges was Samuel Chase. He was a member of the Supreme Court.

        跟杰斐遜唱對臺戲的法官之一就是塞謬爾.蔡斯。

        VOICE TWO:

        Samuel Chase was from the state of Maryland. He was active in local and national politics for a long time. He had signed America's Declaration of Independence from Britain. He had served in the Continental Congresses that governed America during and after its Revolutionary War. Yet he did not agree with all parts of the United States Constitution. When the Maryland legislature voted to approve or reject the Constitution, he voted against it.

        塞謬爾.蔡斯是聯邦最高法院的法官,來自馬里蘭州,一直積極參與地方和國家政治。他曾簽署美國獨立宣言,是大陸會議成員。但是他并不完全贊成美國憲法。馬里蘭州議會圍繞憲法進行投票表決時,他投了反對票。

        VOICE ONE:

        Samuel Chase was not a republican: he believed that Americans should not have the same rights. For example, he believed that all citizens should not have the right to vote. He said this would lead to mob rule. He declared that great trouble would come to the government if common people had the same rights as educated people who owned property.

        塞謬爾.蔡斯不是一個共和主義者。他不認為美國人應該享有同等的權利。例如,在他眼里,美國公民不應該享有同等的投票權,因為這樣做會導致暴民統治。蔡斯表示,如果普通民眾跟受過教育的財產所有者享有同等權利的話,就會后患無窮。

        President Jefferson heard about Chase's statement. He told a member of Congress that he was concerned. Jefferson asked: "Should this judge's attack on the ideas of our Constitution go without punishment? The public will look to Congress to take the necessary action against him."

        杰斐遜總統聽到蔡斯的言論后,告訴一名國會議員說,他十分擔心。他說,“這個法官對憲法理念的攻擊難道可以不受懲罰嗎?民眾會要求國會對他采取必要的行動。”

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE TWO:

        During the last months of Jefferson's first term as president, the House of Representatives began discussing the possibility of removing Justice Chase from the Supreme Court.

        杰斐遜總統第一個任期的最后幾個月里,國會眾議院開會討論,是不是應該取消蔡斯作為聯邦最高法院法官的職務。

        A committee was named to investigate. The committee decided that there was enough evidence to bring him to trial before the Senate. The full House agreed. The impeachment trial was to begin in February, eighteen-oh-five.

        國會專門設立的一個委員會負責調查。這個委員會認定,證據確鑿,蔡斯應該接受參議院的裁決。這一意見得到了國會眾議院的全體通過。彈劾聽證定于1805年2月舉行。

        VOICE ONE:

        The impeachment trial of Supreme Court Justice Samuel Chase forced the Senate to explore the meaning of impeachable crimes
        The impeachment trial of Supreme Court Justice Samuel Chase forced the Senate to explore the meaning of impeachable crimes

        The judge in the trial was the chief officer of the Senate, Vice President Aaron Burr. Burr would decide what evidence could or could not be heard. His actions would have great influence over the final decision.

        國會參議院1805年2月圍繞是否應該取消聯邦最高法院法官蔡斯的職務一事舉行彈劾聽證會。聽證會主席是副總統艾倫.伯爾。伯爾決定什么樣的證據可以接受,什么樣的證據不能接受。他的行動會對最終裁決產生巨大的影響。

        Both Federalists and Republicans watched Burr closely during the trial. Both groups looked for some sign of support. Burr gave none. No one found any reason to criticize his actions.

        聯邦黨人和共和黨人都密切關注伯爾的一舉一動。雙方都在尋找伯爾偏袒的跡象,但是沒有找到。他的行動沒有給批評者留下任何把柄。

        VOICE TWO:

        The Senate heard testimony for a little more than three weeks. Then it voted on each of the eight charges against Justice Chase. A two-thirds vote was needed to declare him guilty. None of the charges received the necessary two-thirds vote. The impeachment had failed. Samuel Chase could not be removed from the Supreme Court.

        國會參議院用了三個多星期的時間聽取證詞,然后就蔡斯的八項指控逐一表決。沒有任何一項指控得到了罪名成立所需要的三分之二多數票。彈劾案宣告破產。蔡斯繼續留任聯邦最高法院的法官。

        President Jefferson had hoped that Chase would be found guilty. He did not get this wish. But, after the trial, Chase no longer used the courtroom for political purposes.

        杰斐遜總統原本希望蔡斯能被認定有罪,但是沒能如愿以償。不過,彈劾聽證后,蔡斯也沒有再利用法庭,對杰斐遜進行政治攻擊了。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE ONE:

        A few days after the impeachment trial ended, Thomas Jefferson was to be sworn in as president for a second term. In those days, the inauguration of the American president was held in March, not January.

        彈劾案結束幾天后,托馬斯.杰斐遜宣誓就職。那時候,總統宣誓是在3月,后來才變成了現在的1月。

        Aaron Burr would not be serving with Jefferson again. The Republican Party had not supported him for vice president. Instead, it chose George Clinton, who had been governor of New York state. Before leaving office, Burr decided to make one last speech to the Senate.

        伯爾沒有得到共和黨的支持,因此離任,副總統一職由紐約州州長喬治.克林頓接替。伯爾決定對參議院發表離任前的最后一次演說。

        VOICE TWO:

        The senators were very interested in what Burr had to say. Even his political opponents sat up and listened. Burr told his friends goodbye. He said he might never see them again. Yet he said they could still join together in defending freedom and social justice.

        參議員們很好奇,不知道伯爾要說些什么,就連他的政敵也不例外。伯爾首先向大家告別。他說,雖然今后恐怕再也無緣相見,但他們還是會攜手捍衛自由和公正。

        He spoke of the senators' great responsibility to protect liberty, the law, and the Constitution. "If the Constitution is ever destroyed," he said, "its final breaths will come on this floor."

        他表示,參議員們肩負著保衛自由、法律和憲法的重任。他說,“如若憲法被摧毀,其最后一刻也應該是在這里渡過。”

        VOICE ONE:

        Aaron Burr by Jacques Jouvenal
        Aaron Burr by Jacques Jouvenal

        Aaron Burr faced a future full of questions. He had lost all political power. He owed large amounts of money. He could not return to his home in the New York area. He would face criminal charges there as a result of his duel with Alexander Hamilton. Burr had shot and killed Hamilton in the duel.

        伯爾的前途充滿了未知數。他失去了一切政治權力,欠了一屁股債,因為在決斗中打死了漢密爾頓,所以不能回到紐約去,否則就要被追究刑事責任。

        At the end of March, eighteen-oh-five, Burr wrote to his daughter. "In ten or twelve days," he said, "I shall be on my way west. The trip may lead me to New Orleans, perhaps even farther."

        1805年3月,伯爾寫信給女兒說,“十天,或是十二天后,我就要往西走,可能會在新奧爾良停下來,也可能會繼續向西。”

        He also wrote to his daughter's husband. He said he would not return home. "In New York," he wrote, "I would lose my freedom. In New Jersey, I would be hanged. So, for the present, I will not take a chance."

        他還寫信給女婿,說自己不會回家。他說,“在紐約,我會失去自由;在新澤西,我會被絞死;所以現在,我不能掉以輕心。”

        VOICE TWO:

        What would Burr do instead? For more than a year, he had thought about a secret plan. Details are not clear, because he said different things to different people. But history experts say the plan involved an attempt to seize Mexico from Spain.

        伯爾將何去何從?其實啊,一年多來,伯爾一直在考慮一項秘密計劃,計劃細節并不明朗,他告訴過很多人,但是內容都不一樣。不過,歷史學家說,歸根結蒂,伯爾是打算從西班牙手中奪取墨西哥。

        Burr could not keep his plan a secret from everyone. He needed help. He worked with two men. One was Jonathan Dayton, a former United States senator. The other was James Wilkinson, military governor of the Louisiana Territory.

        伯爾單槍匹馬無法落實這項計劃,他需要幫助。他找到了兩個幫手,一個是前參議員喬納森.戴頓。另外一個是路易斯安那的軍事指揮詹姆斯.威爾金森。

        VOICE ONE:

        Burr also needed money. He got some from his daughter's husband. And he got some from a man in Ohio named Harman Blennerhassett. Mister Blennerhassett had become rich after coming to America from Ireland.

        伯爾還需要金錢。他從女婿那里得到一筆錢,此外又得到了哈曼.布倫納哈薩特的資助。哈曼是愛爾蘭移民,來到美國后發家致富。

        History experts say Burr tried to get help from Britain, too. Burr told the British ambassador in Washington that he wanted money and ships to create a new country. It would include Mexico and several western states. The states would be split away from the Union.

        歷史學家說,伯爾還試圖取得英國的支持。伯爾告訴英國駐華盛頓大使說,他要建立一個新的國家,需要金錢和船只。這個新國家包括墨西哥和美國的幾個西部州,這些州要脫離美國。

        VOICE TWO:

        The British ambassador liked Burr's plan. He told Burr that he would urge his government to support it. It would take at least four months, however, for the ambassador to communicate with his government in London. Burr decided not to wait for an answer. He began his trip to the West.

        英國大使覺得伯爾的計劃不錯。他答應伯爾,要說服英國政府支持伯爾,但是跟倫敦聯系至少需要四個月的時間。伯爾等不及了,決定出發。

        That will be our story next week.

        (MUSIC)

        ANNOUNCER:

        Our program was written by Frank Beardsley and Christine Johnson. The narrators were Richard Rael and Doug Johnson. Join us each week for THE MAKING OF A NATION – an American history series in VOA Special English. Transcripts, podcasts and MP3s of our programs can be found at www.squishedblueberries.com.

        __

        This is program #39 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

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