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        #36: Jefferson Begins Presidency With a Loyal Cabinet

        作者:Harold Braverman 發布日期:3-19-2013

        ANNOUNCER:

        Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION – an American history series in VOA Special English.

        Thomas Jefferson
        Thomas Jefferson

        In eighteen-oh-one, the United States had a new president, Thomas Jefferson. It also had a new party in power: his Democratic-Republican Party. Though supporters of Jefferson were called Republicans, that party led to the modern Democratic Party.

        在上次的建國史話中,我們講到,1801年美國新總統托馬斯.杰斐遜宣誓就職。他領導的民主-共和黨開始掌權。雖然杰斐遜的支持者被稱為共和黨人,但當年的共和黨其實就是今天美國民主黨的前身。

        On taking office, Jefferson spoke of the bitter struggle between his party and the Federalist Party of Alexander Hamilton. The United States now had a two-party system. Jefferson held out the hand of peace and friendship to the Federalists. He said: "We are all Republicans. We are all Federalists. Let us unite with hearts and minds. Let us have peace and love in our relations with each other."

        杰斐遜在就職演說中談到了自己領導的共和黨和漢密爾頓領導的聯邦黨之間的激烈斗爭。他同時也向聯邦黨人伸出了和平和友誼的橄欖枝。他說,“我們都是共和黨人。我們都是聯邦黨人。讓我們同心同德,讓我們和平共處、彼此愛護?!?/p>

        Now, Jack Weitzel and Stuart Spencer continue our story.

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE TWO:

        Alexander Hamilton
        Alexander Hamilton

        Thomas Jefferson, third president of the United States, thus held out the hand of friendship to the Federalists. But Alexander Hamilton did not accept it. As Jefferson became president, Hamilton made a speech attacking Jefferson.

        然而,漢密爾頓并沒有接受杰斐遜的友善。杰斐遜宣誓就職時,漢密爾頓發表講話,對杰斐遜大肆攻擊。

        Hamilton had decided to continue fighting the democratic movement in the United States. This did not worry Jefferson. He was sure he could show even the Federalists that his program was good for all.

        漢密爾頓決心繼續跟美國的民主運動做斗爭,但是杰斐遜并不擔心,因為他相信,自己能夠讓聯邦黨人看到,自己的政策符合所有人的利益。

        Of course, he said, the top leaders of the Federalists -- men like Hamilton -- could never be changed. But he was more interested in bringing their followers to his side.

        杰斐遜承認,象漢密爾頓這樣的聯邦黨高層領袖是永遠不會改變的,但他更關心的是,如何讓漢密爾頓的追隨者們改變立場。

        VOICE ONE:

        Jefferson was a happy president in those early days of eighteen hundred-one. Jefferson said: "We can no longer say that there is nothing new under the sun. What we have done in this country is all new. The force of public opinion is new. But the most important and pleasing newness is that we have changed our government without violence. This shows a strength of American character that will give long life to our republic.

        1801年就職后的日子里,杰斐遜心情舒暢。他曾經說,“我們再也不能說陽光下沒有任何新鮮事物了。我們在美國的成就是全新的。公眾輿論的力量是前所未有的。最重要的是,我們沒有使用暴力就完成了政府換屆,體現了美國的力量,這種力量會讓我們的共和體制世代長存?!?/p>

        The Declaration of Independence was composed on this wood desk, designed by Thomas Jefferson and built by Philadelphia cabinet maker Benjamin Randolph
        The Declaration of Independence was composed on this wood desk, designed by Thomas Jefferson and built by Philadelphia cabinet maker Benjamin Randolph

        "We have proved that freedom of the press, freedom of speech, and freedom of thought are necessary in a healthy nation. Let men argue with each other. The arguments may become bitter. But the bitterness is just a cloud that passes. And out of the arguments will come the truth."

        杰斐遜還說,“我們證明,媒體自由、言論自由、思想自由對一個國家的健康必不可少。讓大家隨意爭論吧,即使爭論會變成爭吵,但激烈的爭吵只是過眼煙云,撥開云霧,會看到真理?!?/p>

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE TWO:

        As for the Federalist leaders, they too -- except for Hamilton -- were pleased. President Jefferson had said in his inaugural speech: "We are all Republicans. We are all Federalists." This, the Federalist leaders said, showed that Jefferson would not even think of trying to destroy their program.

        除了漢密爾頓以外的其他聯邦黨領袖對杰斐遜很滿意。他們指出,杰斐遜在就職演說里提出“我們都是共和黨人,我們都是聯邦黨人”,這種說法顯示,杰斐遜沒有消滅聯邦黨人的打算。

        George Cabot, the strongest Federalist leader in New England, usually agreed with Hamilton. But now, he did not. Cabot said, "I believe that our new president wants to stay out of war. We do not have to worry any longer that he plans to join France against England. He is friendly to us and wants our help. Therefore, I am sure that he will not dismiss any of our people from their government positions."

        喬治.卡伯特是新英格蘭最重要的聯邦黨領袖。一貫跟漢密爾頓步調一致的他,這次卻是例外??ú卣f,“我相信,新總統不想打仗,我們不用再擔心他計劃協助法國,跟英國交戰。他對我們非常友好,而且需要我們的幫助。因此我相信,他不會將聯邦黨人踢出聯邦政府?!?/p>

        VOICE ONE:

        Another Federalist leader -- Timothy Pickering -- the secretary of state under President Adams, said: "I am satisfied that Jefferson will not make any important changes in government policy, and that he will depend for support more on us Federalists than on the Democrats."

        另外一位聯邦黨領袖、亞當斯總統任期內的美國國務卿蒂莫西.皮克林表示,“我感到滿意的是,杰斐遜不會對政府的政策做出重大變動,而且他更依賴于我們這些聯邦黨人,而不是民主黨人的支持?!?/p>

        During those first few weeks of the new government, the Federalist leaders really believed that Jefferson was afraid of them, that he had surrendered to them and would soon be destroyed as the leader of the Republican Party. One Federalist wrote: "Soon Jefferson will feel the bite of his dirty Democrats when they attack him!"

        杰斐遜就職后的幾個星期里,聯邦黨領袖堅信,杰斐遜十分懼怕聯邦黨人,已經向他們投降,用不了多久,就會被自己人摧毀。其中一位聯邦黨人曾經寫到,“杰斐遜不久就會感受到他那些骯臟的民主黨人對他發起的攻擊?!?/p>

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE TWO:

        George Washington and Thomas Jefferson sought the best talents to design the United States Capitol. This drawing by Stephen Hallet shows a great conference room where the House and Senate were to meet in joint session.
        George Washington and Thomas Jefferson sought the best talents to design the United States Capitol. This drawing by Stephen Hallet shows a great conference room where the House and Senate were to meet in joint session.

        Jefferson soon did hear complaints from Republican leaders who felt he was being too kind to the Federalists.

        杰斐遜宣誓就職后,向聯邦黨人伸出了和平的橄欖枝。他的這種做法,很快引起了共和黨領袖的不滿,他們指責杰斐遜對聯邦黨人過于寬宏大量。

        William Giles, a Jeffersonian leader in Virginia, wrote: "Of course, I am very pleased by the president's inaugural speech. The president's program is correct. It agrees with the opinions of the people. But I still think that the president's success will depend on how he carries out his program.

        維吉尼亞州的共和黨領袖威廉.賈爾斯曾寫道:“當然了,我對總統的就職演說十分滿意??偨y的政策是正確的,符合民意,但我還是相信,他的成功與否要取決于他落實這些政策的方式?!?/p>

        "Let him offer friendship to the Federalists. But he must not permit friendship to become weakness. His friends believe that the first thing he must do is to clean out the executive branch of the government. He must dismiss from office all men who are enemies of the Republican program."

        威廉.賈爾斯接著寫道,“他可以向聯邦黨人表示友好,但絕不能讓這種友好變成軟弱。他的友人們相信,他的當務之急是要整頓政府,把反對共和黨政策的所有敵人都清除出去?!?/p>

        VOICE ONE:

        Even James Monroe wrote a strong letter to the president:

        就連詹姆斯.門羅也給杰斐遜寫了一封措辭強硬的信。

        "Your speech and your program are healthy and good. But there are serious dangers ahead of you. There are two parties in this country, not one. One of these parties, the Federalists, has controlled the government for twelve years and has hurt our nation greatly. Some of these Federalists now speak softly to you and promise their support.

        信中說,“你的講話和政策都很好。但是你會遇到嚴重的威脅。這個國家里有兩個政黨,不是一個。聯邦黨人控制政府長達十二年,對國家造成了巨大的傷害。如今,聯邦黨里有些人輕聲細語地表示支持你?!?/p>

        "But you must remember, too, that there are thousands of good Republicans who have always supported you. If you keep Federalists in office, if you appoint Federalists to office, many of these good Republicans will stop believing in you.

        “但你必須記住,共和黨里數以千計的優秀人才一直支持你,如果你繼續留任聯邦黨人,如果你任命聯邦黨人擔任政府要職,很多共和黨人就會停止對你的信任?!?/p>

        "Certainly, there is no reason why you should give jobs to men who worked for the Federalist government of John Adams. Certainly, you must throw out the officials of the last government who stole money and sold their services. Do this and you will give strength to our Republican movement.

        “很顯然,你沒有理由對那些效勞于亞當斯政府的人委以重任。很顯然,你必須將上屆政府里那些貪贓枉法的官員清除出去。這樣做,你就能增強共和運動的力量?!?/p>

        "Please understand me. I am speaking only of high offices. I do not ask that you dismiss small officials because they are Federalists. They have a right to their political beliefs. Let them keep their jobs. This will show that you are a president who can accept different political opinions."

        我想說明的是,我指的只是政府高官。我并不是要你解除那些基層聯邦黨人的職務。他們享有政治信仰的權利,不要讓他們丟掉飯碗。這會顯示出,你是一個能夠接受不同政見的總統。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE TWO:

        As the Federalists and the Republican leaders kept asking Jefferson for positions in the government, the president was thinking of his cabinet. He quickly decided who would be his secretary of state and secretary of the treasury.

        聯邦黨和共和黨領袖不斷向杰斐遜總統要求出任公職。與此同時,杰斐遜也很快決定了國務卿和財政部長的人選。

        James Madison of Virginia -- Jefferson's old friend and the father of the Constitution -- would be secretary of state. For secretary of the treasury, Jefferson chose Albert Gallatin of Pennsylvania, the brilliant leader of the Republicans in Congress, the man who understood economics and finance as well as Alexander Hamilton.

        國務卿是杰斐遜的老朋友、美國憲法的奠基人之一,維吉尼亞州的詹姆斯.麥迪遜。財政部長由賓夕法尼亞州的阿爾伯特.加勒廷擔任。加勒廷是共和黨國會議員,政績顯著,而且精通經濟和金融,絲毫不比漢密爾頓遜色。

        For the War Department, Jefferson turned to General Henry Dearborn of New England.

        戰爭部長的人選,杰斐遜挑選了新英格蘭的亨利.迪爾伯恩將軍。

        Jefferson's first choice to be secretary of the Navy was Judge Robert Livingston, the great lawyer from New York. But Judge Livingston rejected this position. Jefferson finally chose Robert Smith of Baltimore, Maryland.

        至于海軍部長,杰斐遜的首選是紐約州的羅伯特.利文斯頓法官,但是遭到宛然拒絕,杰斐遜只好選擇了馬里蘭州巴爾地摩的羅伯特.史密斯。

        VOICE ONE:

        The president had already appointed one man from New England to his cabinet, Secretary of War Dearborn. Yet, he went to New England for two more appointments.

        Jefferson knew that the strength of the Federalist Party was greater in New England than in any other part of the country. He believed that there was no better way to move New England away from the Federalist program than to give cabinet positions to men from New England.

        杰斐遜知道,新英格蘭州是聯邦黨人最強勢的地方。他因此認為,任命新英格蘭人擔任內閣官員,是讓新英格蘭脫離聯邦黨影響的最佳手段。

        And so, Jefferson found his attorney general in Levi Lincoln of Massachusetts. Like Dearborn, Lincoln was a patriot of the American Revolution. He had been a supporter of Jefferson from the beginning. He was famous as a lawyer in Massachusetts, where he was the top leader of the Republican Party.

        基于這種原因,杰斐遜任命麻薩諸塞州的利瓦伊.林肯擔任司法部長。跟戰爭部長迪爾伯恩一樣,利瓦伊.林肯也是美國獨立戰爭時期的愛國者,一開始就支持杰斐遜,他在麻薩諸塞州是遠近聞名的大律師,也是共和黨在那里的最高領袖。

        Jefferson went to New England, too, for the postmaster general. It was not yet a cabinet office. But its importance was growing. The president gave this appointment to Gideon Granger -- lawyer, businessman, and writer, one of the strong Jeffersonians in the state of Connecticut.

        杰斐遜政府內的郵政局長也來自新英格蘭,雖然那個時候,郵政局長還不是內閣部長,但是這個職務的重要性正在逐步增加。杰斐遜任命吉迪恩.格蘭杰擔任郵政局長。格蘭杰是律師、商人、作家,也是康涅迪格州的共和黨領袖。

        Such was Jefferson's cabinet. All strong Republicans. All completely loyal. The Federalists were shocked. Not one of their men had been appointed.

        杰斐遜組建內閣的工作就此完成,所有內閣成員都是共和黨人,都死心塌地地忠實于他。內閣里沒有一個聯邦黨人,讓聯邦黨人大吃一驚。

        (MUSIC)

        ANNOUNCER:

        Join us each week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English. Our narrators today were Jack Weitzel and Stuart Spencer. Transcripts, podcasts and MP3s of our programs can be found at www.squishedblueberries.com

        網友的學習評論(2條):
        作者:xuding45
        4-26-2013 5:47:19
        The third president, Tomas Jefferson, called on the federalist party and the republican party joined together. He tried to avoid the differences between the two parties. But at final he bulit his cabinet, there were all strong republicans.
        作者:Alumni
        7-31-2013 16:49:27
        but the bitterness is just a cloud that passes. it is history as well as the lives of society of human beings.
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