<em id="0i93o"></em>
<sub id="0i93o"></sub>
<meter id="0i93o"></meter>
      1. <form id="0i93o"></form>

        官方APP下載:英語學習播客(支持蘋果手機、安卓手機)
        創辦于2003年
        UNSV記不???那就記中文諧音“憂安思?!卑?!
          Slow and Steady Wins the Race!
        UNSV英語學習頻道 - Slow and steady wins the race!
        公眾微信服務號(英語全能特訓)
        英語全能特訓(微信公眾服務號)
        UNSV英語學習頻道淘寶網店
        客服短信:18913948480
        客服郵箱:web@unsv.com
        初級VIP會員
        全站英語學習資料下載。
        ¥98元/12個月

        #34: Jefferson Is Elected President in 1800, But Only on the 36th Vote

        作者:Harold Braverman and Christine Johnson 發布日期:3-17-2013

        Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION – an American history series in VOA Special English.

        The presidential election of eighteen hundred is our subject this week. The candidates included President John Adams of the Federalist Party and Vice President Thomas Jefferson of the Republican Party. Here with our story are Frank Oliver and Shep O'Neal.

        在上次的建國史話中,我們講到,1800年美國總統大選主要是現任總統---聯邦黨人約翰.亞當斯和現任副總統-共和黨人托馬斯.杰斐遜之間的較量。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE TWO:

        John Adams, in a detail from a portrait by the 19th century artist Alonzo Chappel
        John Adams, in a detail from a portrait by the 19th century artist Alonzo Chappel

        As president, John Adams was head of the Federalist Party. But the power of that position belonged, in fact, to former treasury secretary Alexander Hamilton.

        亞當斯作為總統,雖然名義上是聯邦黨的領袖,但實際上,實權卻掌握在前財政部長亞歷山大.漢密爾頓的手中。

        For this and other reasons, Adams did not like Hamilton. He said: "Thomas Jefferson will be a good president, if elected. I would rather be a minister to Europe under Jefferson than to be a president controlled by Hamilton."

        基于種種原因,亞當斯很不喜歡漢密爾頓。他曾說過,“如果當選,托馬斯.杰斐遜會是一個非常出色的總統。我寧可在他的麾下擔任派駐歐洲的使節,也不愿意做一個被漢密爾頓掌控的總統?!?/p>

        Hamilton did not like Adams. He did everything he could to block Adams from becoming president again. He gave his support to another Federalist candidate, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney of South Carolina.

        漢密爾頓也不喜歡亞當斯,他竭盡全力,防止亞當斯再次當選。他支持聯邦黨的另外一位候選人,南卡羅來納州的查爾斯.平克尼。

        Under the electoral system of that time, the candidate with the most votes became president. The candidate with the second highest number of votes became vice president.

        根據當時的選舉程序,得票最多的候選人當選總統,得票次多的候選人擔任副總統。

        VOICE ONE:

        Thomas Jefferson
        Thomas Jefferson

        A Federalist victory in the election of eighteen hundred would not be easy. The Republicans had a very strong and popular candidate -- Thomas Jefferson. So, Federalist Party leaders attempted to change the electoral system.

        聯邦黨人要想在1800年的總統大選中獲勝并不簡單。共和黨總統候選人托馬斯.杰斐遜深得人心,呼聲極高。聯邦黨人因此想在選舉程序上下功夫。

        The Constitution said state legislatures were to choose electors to vote for president. The Federalists tried to gain control over the legislatures' decisions.

        美國憲法規定,總統由州議會指定的選舉人投票選舉產生。聯邦黨人因此試圖在選舉人的人選上做手腳。

        They wanted Congress to create a special committee to rule if an elector had -- or did not have -- the right to vote. The committee could say if an elector's vote should be counted or thrown away.

        他們希望國會建立一個特別委員會,對選舉人的投票資格進行審核。這個特別委員會可以決定,某個選舉人的選票是否有效。

        VOICE TWO:

        The committee would have six members from the Senate and six members from the House of Representatives. The thirteenth member would be the chief justice of the United States. Creating such a committee violated the Constitution. Federalist leaders knew this. So, they wanted Congress to approve the committee, but keep the measure secret until after the election.

        這個特別委員會包括六名參議員、六名眾議員,外加美國最高法院首席大法官。聯邦黨領袖很清楚,建立這個委員會是違憲的,所以他們希望得到國會的批準,但是選舉前需要保密。

        The Federalists held a majority of seats in the Senate. And the Senate voted to approve the proposal. But some Federalist members of the House of Representatives denounced it. They made many changes in the proposal. The Senate refused to accept the changes. Without agreement by both houses of Congress, the bill died.

        聯邦黨人在參議院占多數席位,參議院投票通過了這項提案。但是眾議院里的一些聯邦黨人提出異議,對提案進行了很多改動,參議院不愿意接受這些改動,國會兩院無法達成共識,使提案無果而終。

        Federalist leaders saw their hopes for an election victory begin to disappear.

        聯邦黨人在大選中獲勝的希望也隨之化為泡影。

        VOICE ONE:

        Aaron Burr
        Aaron Burr

        By the summer of eighteen hundred, Thomas Jefferson's Republican Party had strong leaders in every state. It had many newspapers to express party ideas. Jefferson decided to take a holiday at Monticello, his farm in Virginia.

        1800年夏天,托馬斯.杰斐遜領導的共和黨的領袖人物遍布各州,而且還有不少黨報。杰斐遜決定回到位于維吉尼亞蒙蒂塞洛的農場里休假。

        The Republican Party leader in New York was a lawyer, Aaron Burr. Burr had served as an officer under General George Washington during America's war for independence from Britain. After the war, he joined the Federalist Party and was elected to the United States Senate. Later, he changed parties and became a Republican.

        當時,共和黨在紐約的領袖是律師出身的艾倫.伯爾。美國獨立戰爭期間,伯爾曾是喬治.華盛頓的部下,擔任大陸軍指揮官,戰爭結束后加入聯邦黨,被選入參議院,后來改弦易張,投奔共和黨。

        In eighteen hundred, a group of both Federalists and Republicans supported him as a candidate for president.

        1800年大選期間,一些聯邦黨人和一些共和黨人都支持伯爾參加總統選舉。

        VOICE TWO:

        Aaron Burr and Alexander Hamilton were bitter enemies. When Hamilton learned of a plan by his own party to elect Burr president, instead of Jefferson, his reaction was quick and sharp.

        伯爾跟漢密爾頓是死對頭。漢密爾頓得知自己領導的聯邦黨居然要推選伯爾,而不是杰斐遜的消息后,做出了異常激烈的反應。

        "Anybody," he said, "even Thomas Jefferson, is better than Aaron Burr. Jefferson is not dangerous. Burr is. Jefferson's ideas of government are wrong. But at least he is an honest man. Burr is a man without honesty and character. He will destroy America."

        他說,“任何人,甚至連托馬斯.杰斐遜,都要比艾倫.伯爾強。杰斐遜并不危險,但是伯爾很危險。杰斐遜關于政府的看法是錯誤的,但至少他是一個誠實的人。伯爾則是一個沒有誠信的人,會毀了美國?!?/p>

        VOICE ONE:

        In 1800, President John Adams sent a letter to federal department heads ordering the relocation of government offices from Philadelphia to the District of Columbia
        In 1800, President John Adams sent a letter to federal department heads ordering the relocation of government offices from Philadelphia to the District of Columbia

        The president elected in eighteen hundred would govern in a new capital city. The national government would move from Philadelphia to Washington, a newly built city in the District of Columbia. It was on the Potomac River between the states of Maryland and Virginia.

        當時,美國正準備將首都從費城遷往新建的城市華盛頓特區,座落在馬里蘭州和維吉尼亞州中間的波托馬克河畔。

        When President Adams and his wife Abigail arrived in Washington, D.C., they found a frontier town. There were few houses or streets. Missus Adams could not believe what she saw. She wrote to her daughter:

        亞當斯總統攜夫人來到華盛頓特區,看到的是一個很原始的城鎮,住房和街道都十分稀少。亞當斯夫人不敢相信眼前的一切。

        "This is a city only because we call it a city. Our house here is very big. But the rooms are not finished. There is almost no furniture. There are not enough lamps for light."

        她在寫給女兒的信中說,“這里之所以算個城市,完全是因為我們這么叫它,我們的房子雖然很大,但是許多房間都沒有完工,幾乎沒什么家具,也沒有足夠的臺燈照明?!?/p>

        VOICE TWO:

        A street called Pennsylvania Avenue went from the president's house to the Capitol building where Congress would meet. On each side of the street -- where buildings stand today -- there were fields of mud.

        賓夕法尼亞大道從總統府直通國會。如今,這條道路兩旁建筑林立,但是當年卻是泥地。

        This was the new federal city, the new capital of the United States. This was where the winner of the presidential election of eighteen hundred would begin his term of office.

        但不管怎么說,這里畢竟是美國的新都,1800年總統大選的獲勝者將在這里開始他的任期。

        VOICE ONE:

        George Washington won America's first two presidential elections without opposition. John Adams won the third presidential election by three votes. This time, in eighteen hundred, there was no clear winner.

        美國第一任總統喬治.華盛頓兩次當選美國總統,都沒有競選對手;約翰.亞當斯當選第三屆總統,靠的是區區三票的優勢;1800年大選前,似乎看不出有哪位候選人穩操勝券。

        When the electors' votes were counted, President Adams had sixty-five votes. But Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr each had seventy-three votes. So, under the Constitution, the House of Representatives would choose between Jefferson or Burr -- the candidates with the highest number of votes.

        選票清點的結果顯示,現任總統亞當斯65票,托馬斯.杰斐遜和艾倫.伯爾分別獲得73票。按照憲法的規定,在這種情況下,國會眾議院要在杰斐遜和伯爾兩人中做出取舍。

        Each congressman could vote. But each state had just one vote. That vote would go to the candidate supported by a majority of congressmen from the state. A candidate had to receive a majority of the state votes to win. In eighteen hundred, that was nine of the sixteen states.

        每位眾議員都可以投票,然后按照他所代表的州匯總,哪位候選人在一個州里得票最多,這個州就算在他的名下,當時美國一共有十六個州,誰能爭取到九個州的支持,就是最后的勝利者。

        VOICE TWO:

        The Federalists saw the situation as their last chance to control the presidency. They had two plans. They would try to block the Congress from electing either Jefferson or Burr as president. Then they would try to find a way to put executive power in the hands of a Federalist. If that plan failed, they were prepared to elect Burr.

        聯邦黨人認為這是他們控制總統權力的最后一次機會。他們做好了兩手準備:上策是阻止杰斐遜和伯爾當中的任何一個人當選,然后設法讓聯邦黨人掌握行政大權;如果不成功,下策就是讓伯爾擊敗杰斐遜,擔任總統。

        The Federalists tried to make people believe that Burr was working with them, against Jefferson. Burr denied this. In a letter to Jefferson, Burr wrote:

        聯邦黨人希望造成一種假象,讓民眾覺得伯爾跟他們站在一起,同杰斐遜作對,但是遭到了伯爾的駁斥。

        "Every Republican wants you to be president of the United States. Every good Republican wants to serve under you. I would be happy and honored to be your vice president. And, if you believe I could help you better in some other position, I would do so."

        他在寫給杰斐遜的信中說,“每一個共和黨人都希望你出任總統,每一個優秀的共和黨人都希望為你效力。給你當副總統,我會很高興,也很榮幸。如果你覺得我擔任副總統對你更有幫助的話,我義無反顧?!?/p>

        VOICE ONE:

        Tally of electoral votes for the 1800 presidential election
        Tally of electoral votes for the 1800 presidential election

        On February eleventh, the House of Representatives began to count votes, state by state. Eight states chose Jefferson. Six chose Burr. The representatives of two states -- Maryland and Vermont -- gave each man an equal number of votes. There was no majority within those states. So neither man won the votes of those states.

        1800年2月11號,國會眾議院開始一個州一個州地清點選票。結果是,八個州支持杰斐遜,六個州支持伯爾,在剩下的馬里蘭和佛蒙特兩個州里,杰斐遜和伯爾得票數量一樣,沒有勝利者。

        The voting continued. All that day and throughout the night the representatives voted. Twenty-seven times the count remained the same. Eight states for Jefferson. Six for Burr. Two undecided.

        眾議院只好一遍一遍地投票,一直繼續到深夜,但是投了27次,依然沒有變化,還是八個州支持杰斐遜,六個州支持伯爾,剩下兩個州沒有結果。

        The next morning, the representatives decided to rest for four hours. The voting began again at noon. There was no change.

        第二天早上,眾議院決定休息四個小時,中午繼續投票,但結果還是一樣。

        The thirteenth of February passed, then the fourteenth and fifteenth. Still no change. The House voted thirty-three times. It could not elect a president.

        2月13號過去了,然后是14號,15號。國會眾議院先后投票33次,還是沒有選出新總統。

        VOICE TWO:

        A change in the vote of just one congressman from Maryland or Vermont could decide the contest.

        只要馬里蘭或是佛蒙特兩個州里的任何一個眾議員改變主意,就能決出勝負。

        Later, after the election, the representative from Delaware said he had met with two congressmen from Maryland and one from Vermont. All were Federalists. All had voted for Aaron Burr.

        事后,德拉瓦州的一位議員說,他見到了馬里蘭的兩位眾議員和佛蒙特的一位眾議員,三個人都是聯邦黨人,開始都投了伯爾的票。

        The Delaware congressman said they claimed they spoke with a friend of Thomas Jefferson. He said they told Jefferson's friend they would change their votes, if Jefferson made certain promises.

        他們自稱見過杰斐遜的朋友,并表示,只要杰斐遜做出某些承諾,他們就可以改變立場,把票投給杰斐遜。

        Jefferson denied that he had made any political promises. He said many men tried to get promises from him. But he said he told them all that he would never become president with his hands tied.

        杰斐遜承認,很多人希望從他那里得到各種各樣的承諾,但是被他一概回絕,因為他絕對不愿意做一個被捆住手腳的總統。

        VOICE ONE:

        History experts do not agree on what really happened. What is sure is that the House of Representatives voted for the thirty-sixth time on February seventeenth. Ten states, including Maryland and Vermont, voted for Thomas Jefferson. Four states voted for Aaron Burr.

        Two states -- Delaware and South Carolina -- did not vote. But Jefferson had the majority he needed. He would be the new president.

        這段時間里到底發生了些什么,沒人可以肯定。但最后的結果是,國會眾議院2月17號進行第36次投票,結果包括馬里蘭和佛蒙特在內的十個州支持杰斐遜,四個州支持伯爾,德拉瓦和南卡羅來納沒有投票。杰斐遜終于得到了當選所需要的多數州的支持,繼華盛頓和亞當斯之后,當選為美國的第三位總統。

        (MUSIC)

        ANNOUNCER:

        Our program was written by Harold Braverman and Christine Johnson. The narrators were Frank Oliver and Shep O'Neal. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION, American history in VOA Special English. Our series can be found online with transcripts and MP3s at www.squishedblueberries.com.

        網友的學習評論(4條):
        作者:xuding45
        4-20-2013 6:48:47
        Both John Adams and Aaron Burr joined in the presidential election. The Congress voted for the election again and again. At final John Adams got win in the competition.
        作者:XsXSJ
        5-20-2013 19:24:1
        Geogie Washinton ,then . John Adams, then Thomas Jefferson....
        作者:Alumni
        7-28-2013 22:1:16
        Congress was consisted of the Senate and the House of Representatives and the chief justice of the United States. It is made clear today.
        作者:鄭烈波
        3-27-2015 14:39:21
        he would be the new president.
        版權所有©2003-2019 南京通享科技有限公司,保留所有權利。未經書面許可,嚴禁轉載本站內容,違者追究法律責任。 互聯網經營ICP證:蘇B2-20120186
        網站備案:蘇公網安備 32010202011039號蘇ICP備05000269號-1中國工業和信息化部網站備案查詢
        廣播臺
        又粗又大又黄又爽的免费视频