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        #31: How a Dispute Helped Lead to Modern Party System

        作者:Christine Johnson 發布日期:3-14-2013

        Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

        Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton had opposing ideas about how the new nation should be governed. Their dispute helped create the system of political parties in the United States. This week in our series, Maurice Joyce and Blake Lanum have more in our story of these two early American leaders.

        在上次的建國史話中,我們講到,在美國第一屆總統喬治·華盛頓任期里,美國的兩大政黨逐漸形成,分別由當時的財政部長亞歷山大·漢密爾頓和當時的國務卿托馬斯·杰斐遜領導。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE TWO:

        The Federalist Party, led by Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton, supported a strong national government with a powerful president and courts. Federalists thought men of money and position should rule the country.

        亞歷山大·漢密爾頓領導的聯邦黨主張設置強大的聯邦政府,總統和法院,他們認為,國家應該由有權有勢者統治。

        And they did in the early seventeen nineties. Federalists controlled the Congress. They also had great influence over the nation's first president, George Washington.

        十八世紀九十年代早期,聯邦黨聲勢浩大,不僅控制著國會,就連第一屆總統喬治·華盛頓也深受他們的影響。

        The Republicans, led by Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson, did not want a strong national government with unlimited powers. And they believed political power should be spread throughout the population.

        與此同時,托馬斯·杰斐遜領導的共和黨則反對讓一個強大的聯邦政府享有無限的權力。他們認為,政治權力應該分配給民眾。

        The power of the press grew over time. This Pennsylvania Packet newspaper in 1781 published letters by George Washington and Alexander Hamilton.
        The power of the press grew over time. This Pennsylvania Packet newspaper in 1781 published letters by George Washington and Alexander Hamilton.

        VOICE ONE:

        The two sides carried on a war of words in their party newspapers. Historians believe Hamilton himself wrote much of what appeared in the Federalist paper. Jefferson, they believe, acted mostly as an adviser to the Republican paper.

        雙方利用各自的黨報,展開了激烈論戰。歷史學家相信,聯邦文集中的大部分文章都是漢密爾頓本人撰寫的,而杰斐遜卻主要充當了共和黨報紙的顧問。

        Both papers carried unsigned articles attacking the opposition. Both printed stories that were false. At times, the attacks were personal. Many people felt two cabinet secretaries should be above that kind of public fighting.

        雙方的報紙都刊登不署名文章,抨擊對手,有時報導并不屬實,甚至夾雜著人身攻擊。很多人都覺得,這種公開沖突不符合兩位內閣大員的身份。

        VOICE TWO:

        Toward the end of president Washington's first administration, he received a letter from Jefferson. The Secretary of State said he planned to resign. He said he disagreed with most of the administration's national and foreign policies. He did not name Hamilton. It was not necessary. Washington knew what he meant. For Hamilton was the chief planner of those policies.

        第一屆任期即將結束的時候,喬治·華盛頓總統收到了國務卿托馬斯·杰斐遜的來信。杰斐遜在信中說,他對政府的大部分國內和外交政策無法茍同,因此打算辭職。他沒有指名道姓,不過也沒有這種必要,華盛頓明白他的意思,因為那些政策的主要制定者都是漢密爾頓。

        The president tried to make peace between the two men. He liked them and respected them. He believed the new nation needed the skills of both men. However, the dispute had gone too far. It was now more than just a question of two strong men who could not agree. It was a battle of two completely different philosophies of government.

        喬治·華盛頓試圖在漢密爾頓和杰斐遜之間進行調和。這兩個人都是他非常欣賞和器重的人,他認為,這兩個人都是國家棟梁。不過,漢密爾頓和杰斐遜之間的分歧已經超越了個人之間的矛盾,演變為兩種截然不同的政治理念的撞擊。

        VOICE ONE:

        Philip Freneau's National Gazette was the first official Republican newspaper. During its two-year existence, it was the leading critic of Federalist policies.
        Philip Freneau's National Gazette was the first official Republican newspaper. During its two-year existence, it was the leading critic of Federalist policies.

        Washington did not succeed in making peace between Jefferson and Hamilton. But Jefferson decided not to resign. In a letter to his daughter, Jefferson said: "the attacks on me have changed a decision which I did not think could possibly be changed. I must remain and fight."

        華盛頓雖然沒能促成杰斐遜和漢密爾頓的和解,但是后來杰斐遜自己放棄了辭職的念頭。他在給女兒的信中說,“對我的攻擊讓我改變了我原本以為無法改變的決定。我要留下來繼續斗爭?!?/p>

        The idea of organized political parties was new in the United States. There were no laws saying what they could or could not do. There were no restrictions on the political activities of government officials. So, while continuing to serve as Secretary of State, Jefferson began working to get his supporters elected to Congress. He believed that was the only way to fight Hamilton. National elections were set for seventeen ninety-two.

        當時在美國,有組織的政黨還是一個新鮮事物,沒有規范政黨行為的立法,政府官員的政治活動也不受任何限制。因此,杰斐遜在擔任國務卿期間,積極幫助自己的支持者進入國會。他認為,這是跟漢密爾頓抗衡的唯一途徑。美國大選定于1792年舉行。

        VOICE TWO:

        There was no dispute about the highest office. In seventeen ninety-two, everyone wanted George Washington to be elected president again. However, many Republicans saw no reason to re-elect John Adams as vice president. Adams was a patriot and had served his country well. But he was not democratic. He made no secret of his opinion that men born to the upper class should rule.

        1792年的時候,總統人選沒有任何爭議,大家都希望喬治·華盛頓連任。然而,很多共和黨人覺得,約翰·亞當斯不適合繼續擔任副總統的職務。亞當斯這個人很愛國,也為國家做了很多貢獻,但是他不贊成民主,公開主張貴族統治。

        Republicans had another reason to campaign against the Federalists. Hamilton's financial policies made it possible for bankers and other money lenders to invest in all kinds of deals. One man did this with information he got as a high-level Treasury Department official. His investments turned bad and his business failed. This caused other businesses to fail. There was a financial crash in New York City, the center of business in the United States.

        共和黨人參加競選還有另外一個原因。根據漢密爾頓的金融政策,銀行家和其他從事貸款的人都可以對任何買賣進行投資,財政部的一名高級官員按照自己掌握的信息投資,結果失敗,不僅自己倒霉,還導致了其他企業的破產,使美國商業中心紐約的金融行業出現了崩潰。

        VOICE ONE:

        The Federalists were strong in the northeast. But the Republicans were gaining strength everywhere else. The election of Republican representatives to Congress in seventeen ninety-two would make them an important force in the House of Representatives.

        共和黨準備在1792年國會選舉中跟聯邦黨人一爭高低。當時,美國東北部是聯邦黨人的天下,但是共和黨人的勢力在美國其他地方不斷擴大。1792年共和黨人進入國會,成為眾議院里的重要力量。

        George Washington
        George Washington

        The Republicans did not, however, win the vice presidency. That office went once again to Federalist John Adams. Perhaps the one thing that saved Adams was the belief of many Americans that President Washington wanted him again as vice president. Yet Adams did not win a clear victory. The electors from four states voted for Republican George Clinton of New York. One state voted for Jefferson, though he was not a candidate.

        不過,共和黨人并沒有爭取到副總統的位置,副總統繼續由聯邦黨人約翰·亞當斯擔任。亞當斯連任的原因之一是因為很多美國人相信,喬治·華盛頓總統希望亞當斯留任。盡管如此,亞當斯并沒有大獲全勝,13個州里,有四個州投了紐約州共和黨人喬治·克林頓的票,還有一個州投票支持杰斐遜,雖然他并不是副總統的候選人。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE TWO:

        The year seventeen ninety-three saw a change in Alexander Hamilton's political powers. The Republicans in the House of Representatives demanded answers to questions about his financial programs. Why did the Treasury Secretary refuse to give Congress all the facts about government plans to borrow, to lend, and to tax?

        1793年,亞歷山大·漢密爾頓的政治權力發生了變化。國會眾議院的共和黨人要求漢密爾頓就自己的金融項目對國會作出解釋。一個國家的財政部長為什么拒絕將政府借債、貸款和收稅的計劃的所有事實告知國會呢?

        For four years, the House had passed all the laws Hamilton asked for without being told why the laws were needed. In his opinion, that was the only way to govern. Now, the House wanted to know more.

        在此之前的四年里,國會眾議院對漢密爾頓言聽計從,按照漢密爾頓的意思通過了種種立法。在漢密爾頓看來,這樣做天經地義。然而,新一屆眾議院提出了知情權。

        VOICE ONE:

        Hamilton considered the request an insult. Yet he answered it. He produced four reports about Treasury Department activities. Republicans searched the reports for proof that Hamilton and his Federalist friends had been dishonest. They found no such proof. And they did not accuse him of taking money for himself. But they attacked him on several other issues.

        漢密爾頓覺得這種要求是對他的侮辱,但還是就國會的問題做出了答復。他提交了四份報告,解釋財政部的工作。共和黨人在報告中仔細搜尋漢密爾頓和他的聯邦黨友人不老實的證據,結果什么也沒有找到。他們沒有指責漢密爾頓貪污枉法,而是在其他問題上對漢密爾頓發起了攻擊。

        For example, they said Hamilton had not followed President Washington's instructions for dealing with the nation's foreign loans.

        比如說,國會共和黨人提出,漢密爾頓在處理外債的問題上,沒有遵循總統的指示。

        They said he paid too much interest to the National Bank of the United States. And, they said he did not carefully obey laws passed by Congress concerning the use of government money.

        他們說,漢密爾頓給美國中央銀行的利息太高,而且沒有嚴格遵守國會關于使用政府資金的立法。

        VOICE TWO:

        Federalist members of Congress answered the accusations. They declared again and again that the Republicans had not been able to prove even one criminal act by the Treasury Secretary.

        國會里的聯邦黨人奮起反擊。他們三番五次地重申,共和黨人無法證明漢密爾頓有任何犯罪行為。

        The attempt to force Hamilton out of office failed. But Hamilton himself was ready to leave. He was satisfied with the work he had done. More than any other man, he had shaped the policies of the United States for the first five years of its existence. He was sure the young nation would continue to be governed by the political ideas he supported. Hamilton went to New York City to work as a lawyer and spend more time with his family.

        共和黨人企圖把漢密爾頓趕下臺,最終以失敗告終。不過,漢密爾頓對自己的工作成績感到滿意,因此萌生去意。美國建國頭五年,對美國政策影響最多的人非漢密爾頓莫屬。漢密爾頓相信,美國政府一定會延續他的政治理念,他后來到紐約去當律師,用更多的時間陪伴家人。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE ONE:

        Most Americans were not excited by the debate between Federalists and Republicans on such issues as the Bank of the United States. Farmers and laborers did not understand economics. But the French Revolution was something else.

        大多數美國人對聯邦黨人和共和黨人有關中央銀行等問題的辯論并不感興趣。普通農民和勞工不懂經濟。然而,法國大革命就不一樣了。

        Federalists opposed the French Revolution. They denounced the violence and the murder of the king and queen. They also wanted closer economic and political ties with Britain. Republicans welcomed the revolution. They saw it as a fight for liberty and democracy -- the same ideas they fought for against Britain. Besides, they said, Britain was no friend of America.

        聯邦黨人反對法國大革命。他們對暴力沖突和殺死國王王后的做法表示譴責。他們還主張加強跟英國的經濟和政治關系。與此同時,共和黨人卻對法國大革命表示支持,認為這是一場自由民主之戰,跟美國擺脫英國統治的獨立戰爭如出一轍。他們還指出,英國并非美國的朋友。

        Britain still held land in the western United States in violation of the peace treaty between the two countries. Britain still paid Native American Indians to kill White settlers in frontier areas. And Britain still took sailors off American ships and forced them to serve in its Navy.

        當時,英國違反兩國間的和平協議,依舊控制著美國西部的土地。英國繼續出錢,讓印第安人殺死西部的白人定居者。此外,英國還強迫美國船員加入英國海軍服役。

        VOICE TWO:

        The revolution in France put the United States in a difficult situation. The situation became worse when the kings of Europe sent their armies against the new French republic. The United States had a treaty with France. It had agreed to aid France if France were attacked. But President Washington firmly believed the United States should not become involved in the politics of Europe. So he declared the United States would remain neutral.

        法國大革命讓美國陷入了尷尬的境地,歐洲國家的國王們對法蘭西共和國開戰后,美國更是進退維谷。美國跟法國有協議,如果法國受到攻擊,美國就要出兵協助,但是喬治·華盛頓堅信,美國不應該介入歐洲政治,因此他宣布,美國保持中立。

        VOICE ONE:

        The declaration was a victory for the Federalists. They still had a great deal of influence over President Washington. But what would they do after seventeen ninety-six? Washington's second term would come to an end that year. And he had announced he would not run again.

        喬治·華盛頓在這個問題上的立場代表了聯邦黨人的勝利,說明他們對華盛頓還有一定的影響力。不過,1796年以后怎么辦呢?屆時,華盛頓任期滿了,而且他已經宣布不再競選連任。

        At that time, the Constitution did not limit the number of presidential terms. Yet, George Washington felt two was enough. Who was the most likely candidate to succeed him? That will be our story next week.

        雖然當時的憲法并沒有限制總統可以連任幾屆,但是喬治·華盛頓覺得,兩任足夠了。誰最有可能接任總統職務呢?我們將在下一次的美國史話中介紹。

        (MUSIC)

        ANNOUNCER:

        Our program was written by Christine Johnson. The narrators were Maurice Joyce and Blake Lanum. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION, an American history series in VOA Special English. Transcripts, MP3s and podcasts are at www.squishedblueberries.com.

        網友的學習評論(3條):
        作者:xuding45
        4-17-2013 6:39:18
        In the early of American history the modern party system had form. Two men took a important act in party system. Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton had many disputes in how a government ruled the United States. Alexander hamilton thought elites ruled the nation but Thomas Jefferson thought the people should had the power in the nation.
        作者:Alumni
        7-25-2013 22:9:6
        it is not untill finishing this section that i know the terms of " morden party system" in the United States. it came into formation extremely in the need of human nature. There were two sides. One for Alexander Hamilton who thought that men of money and position would rule the country . And second for Tomas Jefferson who insisted political power should be spread throughout the population. Disbutes happened so the modern party system was born.
        作者:hliu
        7-30-2015 9:26:51
        Both the two strong knew the power of the press, and how to win support by utilizing it. Fighting alone is impossible to win.
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