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        #30: Two-Party Political System Takes Hold in US

        作者:Christine Johnson 發布日期:3-13-2013

        Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

        George Washington became America's first president in seventeen eighty-nine. He had commanded the forces of the American colonies in their successful rebellion against Britain. Washington was elected without opposition. But American politics were about to change. This week in our series, Frank Oliver and Ray Freeman describe the beginnings of the two-party political system in the United States.

        (MUSIC)

        在上一次的建國史話中,我們講到,美國獨立戰爭中的大陸軍統帥喬治·華盛頓眾望所歸,1789年成為美國第一屆總統。

        VOICE TWO:

        George Washington
        George Washington

        George Washington did not belong to a political party. There were no political parties in America at that time. This does not mean all Americans held the same political beliefs. They did not. But there were no established organizations that offered candidates for elections.

        美國當時還沒有政黨政治,喬治·華盛頓也不屬于任何黨派,但是,這并不意味著美國人都有著同樣的政治信仰。

        Two such organizations began to take shape during President Washington's first administration. One was called the Federalists. Its leader was Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton. The other was called the Republicans. Its leader was Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson. Each group represented the political beliefs of its leader.

        喬治·華盛頓總統第一屆任期里,兩大政黨逐漸形成,其中一個是聯邦黨,以當時的財政部長亞歷山大·漢密爾頓為首;另一個是共和黨,為首的是國務卿托馬斯·杰斐遜。兩大政黨分別崇尚漢密爾頓和杰斐遜的政治理念。

        VOICE ONE:

        Hamilton and the Federalists wanted a strong national government with a powerful president and courts. They supported policies that helped bankers and wealthy businessmen. They urged close economic and diplomatic ties with Britain. They did not like democracy, which they described as mob rule.

        漢密爾頓領導的聯邦黨主張建立強大的聯邦政府,總統和法院享有極大的權力,他們支持對銀行家和富商有利的政策,要求加強跟英國的經濟和外交關系,他們不喜歡民主,認為民主就是暴民統治。

        The Federalist Party led by Alexander Hamilton was not the same as an earlier group also called Federalists.

        漢密爾頓領導下的聯邦黨不同于早期的聯邦主義者。

        The word was used to describe those who supported the new American Constitution. Those who opposed the Constitution were known as anti-Federalists.

        早期的聯邦主義者主要是指那些支持美國新憲法的人。反對新憲法的人則被稱作反聯邦主義者。

        Some early Federalists, like Hamilton, later became members of the Federalist Party. They were extremely powerful. They controlled the Congress during the presidency of George Washington. And they almost controlled Washington himself, through his dependence on Alexander Hamilton.

        漢密爾頓等早期的聯邦主義者后來都成了聯邦黨人,他們權勢很大,在喬治·華盛頓任期內控制著國會。由于華盛頓總統十分依賴漢密爾頓,因此總統也幾乎處于聯邦黨人的控制之下。

        VOICE TWO:

        Thomas Jefferson and the Republicans supported the Constitution as a plan of government. But they did not think the Constitution gave the national government unlimited powers.

        與此同時,托馬斯·杰斐遜領導的共和黨支持根據憲法建立的政府,但他們不認為憲法賦予了聯邦政府無限的權力。

        They supported policies that helped the nation's farmers and small businessmen. They urged closer ties with the French people, who were rebelling against their king. And they demanded more rights, more democracy, for the people of the United States.

        他們支持對農民和小生意人有利的政策,認為應該跟當時正在反抗國王統治的法國人民加強聯系,他們還要求增加美國人民的權利和民主。

        VOICE ONE:

        Alexander Hamilton
        Alexander Hamilton

        The men who led these two groups were very different.

        亞歷山大·漢密爾頓和托馬斯·杰斐遜是兩個很不一樣的人。

        Alexander Hamilton of the aristocratic Federalists was not born to an established, upper-class American family. He was born in the West Indies to a man and woman who were not married. However, Hamilton was educated in America. And he gained a place in society by marrying the daughter of a wealthy landowner in New York state.

        聯邦黨領袖漢密爾頓的出身并不是上層社會。他生在西印度群島,父母并沒有結婚,但他是在美國接受的教育,后來娶了紐約州一個很有錢的土地所有者的女兒,確立了自己的社會地位。

        Money and position were important to Hamilton. He believed men of money and position should govern the nation.

        因此,金錢和地位對漢密爾頓來說非常重要。他認為國家應該由有錢有權的人統治。

        Thomas Jefferson of the Democratic Republicans could have been what Alexander Hamilton wanted to be. Through his mother, he was distantly related to British noblemen. And he liked fine food, wine, books, and music.

        托馬斯·杰斐遜其實就是漢密爾頓渴望成為的那種人。杰斐遜母親祖上是英國貴族,他對美食、美酒、書籍和音樂都有著特殊的愛好。

        But Jefferson had great respect for simple farmers and for the men who opened America's western lands to settlement. He believed they, too, had a right to govern the nation.

        但與此同時,杰斐遜又對樸實的農民,對開發了美國大西部的人們充滿了敬意。他認為,這些人同樣有權統治國家。

        VOICE TWO:

        Both Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson were loyal Americans. Yet they held completely opposing opinions on how America's government should operate.

        Thomas Jefferson
        Thomas Jefferson

        Their personal disagreements turned into a public dispute when they served in President Washington's cabinet. The two men did not argue directly in public, however. They fought their war of words in two newspapers.

        漢密爾頓和杰斐遜在華盛頓總統的政府里任職期間,兩人的意見分歧演變成了一場社會辯論。他們并沒有面對面地公開論戰,而是把兩份報紙當做戰場。

        Both knew the power of the press. Jefferson, especially, felt the need for newspapers in a democracy. He believed they provided the only way for a large population to know the truth. He once said: "If I had to choose between a government without newspapers, or newspapers without a government, I would choose newspapers without a government."

        漢密爾頓和杰斐遜都深知媒體的力量。杰斐遜尤其看重民主體制下報紙的重要性。他認為,報紙是讓大量民眾了解事實真相的唯一途徑。杰斐遜曾經說過,“如果一定要我在沒有報紙的政府,和沒有政府的報紙之間做出選擇的話,那么我寧可選擇沒有政府的報紙?!?/p>

        VOICE ONE:

        Hamilton already had experience in using newspapers for political purposes.

        漢密爾頓也曾依靠過報紙的力量。

        During the American Revolutionary War, Hamilton served as an assistant to George Washington, the commander-in-chief. One of his jobs was to get money and supplies for the army.

        美國獨立戰爭期間,漢密爾頓擔任當時大陸軍統帥喬治·華盛頓的助手,他的工作之一就是為大陸軍籌措資金和供給。

        Hamilton asked the thirteen state governments. He also asked the Congress, which had little political power at that time. He got almost no help from either.

        漢密爾頓向十三個州的政府和沒有實權的大陸會議求助,收效甚微。

        Hamilton felt the new system of government under the Articles of Confederation was weak and disorganized. He did not think the states should have so much power. What America needed, he said, was a strong central government. Without it, the Confederation would break apart.

        漢密爾頓因此認為,《邦聯條例》下的政府組織松散,力量薄弱,他覺得州政府權力過大,美國真正需要的是一個強大的中央政府,否則國家就會分裂。

        VOICE TWO:

        Hamilton expressed his opinions in several newspaper articles. He did not put his own name on the articles. He signed them "The Continentalist."

        漢密爾頓在報紙上發表評論性文章,闡述自己的觀點,署名“大陸主義者”。

        He soon became one of the strongest voices calling for a convention to amend the Articles of Confederation. This was the convention that finally met in Philadelphia in seventeen eighty-seven and wrote the American Constitution.

        漢密爾頓后來成為要求召開會議,修改《邦聯條例》的主要倡導者之一,結果促成了1787年的費城制憲大會,并制定了美國第一部憲法。

        Hamilton was one of the delegates. Afterwards, he helped write a series of newspaper articles to win support for the Constitution. These were the Federalist Papers, written together with James Madison and John Jay.

        漢密爾頓是與會代表之一。他后來又在報紙上發表了一系列文章,為憲法尋求支持。這就是后來的“聯邦主義者文集”,作者還有詹姆斯·麥迪遜和約翰·杰伊。

        VOICE ONE:

        Philip Freneau's National Gazette was the first official Republican newspaper. During its two-year existence, it was the leading critic of Federalist policies.
        Philip Freneau's National Gazette was the first official Republican newspaper. During its two-year existence, it was the leading critic of Federalist policies.

        When Hamilton became treasury secretary under President Washington, he continued to use the press. Only now, he was trying to win support for his own policies.

        漢密爾頓出任華盛頓的財政部長后,繼續依靠媒體的力量,但這次是為自己的政策尋求支持。

        Hamilton spoke through a newspaper called the Gazette of the United States. Its editor was John Fenno.

        漢密爾頓在一份叫美國公報的報紙上發表文章,報紙編輯是約翰·芬諾。

        Jefferson won the support of several newspapers. But these were not part of his political movement. It was important, he felt, to have one newspaper speak for him. James Madison found it for him. It would be edited by Madison's old friend Philip Freneau. It would be called the National Gazette.

        杰斐遜也得到了好幾份報紙的支持,但是這些報紙并不是共和黨的組成部分。杰斐遜覺得,最好能固定在一份報紙上講話。詹姆斯·麥迪遜替他找到了一份叫《全國公報》的報紙,報紙編輯是麥迪遜的老朋友菲利普·佛瑞諾。

        VOICE TWO:

        Most of the people who supported Hamilton lived in the cities of the northeast. They were the nation's bankers and big businessmen. They were lawyers, doctors, and clergymen.

        漢密爾頓的支持者大多住在美國東北部的城市里,主要是銀行家、富商、律師、醫生和牧師。

        Jefferson respected Hamilton's political power. But he saw that Hamilton did not have a national organization of common people.

        杰斐遜很尊重漢密爾頓的政治實力,但他發現,漢密爾頓并沒有一個面對普通民眾的全國性組織。

        The cotton gin made cotton a profitable crop in the U.S. The machine shown, invented by Eli Whitney, received a patent in 1794.
        The cotton gin made cotton a profitable crop in the U.S. The machine shown, invented by Eli Whitney, received a patent in 1794.

        In the seventeen nineties, ninety percent of Americans were farmers, laborers, and small businessmen. They were bitter over government policies that always seemed to help bankers, big landowners, and wealthy businessmen. They had no political party to speak for them. These were the people Thomas Jefferson wanted to reach.

        當時,美國百分之九十的人口是農民、勞工和小生意人。他們覺得,政府的政策似乎都是對有錢人有利,因此感到十分不滿,但是又沒有政黨替他們說話,杰斐遜希望吸引的就是這批人。

        VOICE ONE:

        Jefferson's task was big. Many of these Americans knew little of what was happening outside their local area. Many were not permitted to vote, because they did not own property.

        杰斐遜的任務十分艱巨。當時,很多美國人除了當地新聞外,對外部世界的動向知之甚少。很多人因為沒有財產,所以無權投票。

        Jefferson looked at the situation in each state. Almost everywhere he found local political groups fighting against state laws that helped the rich. Here was what Jefferson needed. If these local groups could be brought together into a national party, the Federalists would finally have some organized opposition.

        杰斐遜對每個州的情況分別進行了考查。他發現一個普遍的現像是,各地的政治團體反對那些迎合富人的州立法。杰斐遜需要做的就是把這些地方團體組成一個全國性政黨,跟聯邦黨對抗。

        Jefferson's party included rich men and poor men. They joined together to fight what they saw as a misuse of power by Federalists in the national government.

        杰斐遜組織的共和黨里既有富人,也有窮人,他們認為,政府里的聯邦主義者濫用職權,并希望改變這種局面。

        We will continue our story next week.

        (MUSIC)

        ANNOUNCER:

        Our program was written by Christine Johnson and read by Frank Oliver and Ray Freeman. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION, an American history series in VOA Special English. Transcripts, podcasts and MP3s of our programs are at www.squishedblueberries.com.

        網友的學習評論(2條):
        作者:xuding45
        4-13-2013 5:54:47
        Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson had a different idea about how to rule the nation.Thomas Jefferson hoped to support the power of state, but Alexander Hamilton wished the United States had a strong central government.
        作者:Alumni
        7-24-2013 22:35:6
        Two such organizations began to take shape during President Washington's first administration. One was called the Federalists. Its leader was Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton. The other was called the Republicans. Its leader was Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson. Each group represented the political beliefs of its leader.=== no more werds to comment for the section.
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