<em id="0i93o"></em>
<sub id="0i93o"></sub>
<meter id="0i93o"></meter>
      1. <form id="0i93o"></form>

        官方APP下載:英語學習播客(支持蘋果手機、安卓手機)
        創辦于2003年
        UNSV記不???那就記中文諧音“憂安思?!卑?!
          Slow and Steady Wins the Race!
        UNSV英語學習頻道 - Slow and steady wins the race!
        公眾微信服務號(英語全能特訓)
        英語全能特訓(微信公眾服務號)
        UNSV英語學習頻道淘寶網店
        客服短信:18913948480
        客服郵箱:web@unsv.com
        初級VIP會員
        全站英語學習資料下載。
        ¥98元/12個月

        #28: The Imagination of Alexander Hamilton

        作者:Harold Braverman 發布日期:3-11-2013

        ANNOUNCER:

        Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English. Today we begin the story of Alexander Hamilton, one of the nation's most important early policy makers.

        在上次的建國史話中,我們講到,亞歷山大.漢密爾頓出任美國第一屆財政部長。不過,除了擔任財政部長外,漢密爾頓還是美國早期最重要的決策者之一,我們今天就來講講他的故事。

        The first government of the United States was weak. It had many debts and an empty treasury. Its support from the people was not firm. There was some question about its future. Many wondered if it would last.

        美國第一屆政府力量薄弱。建國之初,外債累累,國庫空虛,人民對政府的支持并不牢固,國家前途充滿疑問,很多人擔心國家存亡旦夕。

        In a few years, however, there was a change. This change was produced in large part by the energy and imagination of one man, Alexander Hamilton. Hamilton wanted to make the United States a strong and important nation. He wanted it to become the equal of the powerful nations of Europe. Here are Shirley Griffith and Frank Oliver with our story.

        然而,局面在短短幾年內就得到了改觀,這種變化主要歸功于一個人的活力和創造力,這個人就是亞歷山大.漢密爾頓。漢密爾頓希望讓美國強大昌盛,跟歐洲強國平起平坐。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE ONE:

        Alexander Hamilton
        Alexander Hamilton

        Alexander Hamilton firmly believed that no country could become a modern nation without industry. So, he carefully developed a program that would make the United States an industrial nation. He also organized the nation's finances. This was done by establishing government credit and a national bank.

        漢密爾頓堅信,任何現代化國家都不能沒有工業。因此,他仔細制定了發展工業的計劃,并建立政府信貸和中央銀行,籌劃國家財政。

        The bank increased the flow of money needed for investment. It fed the needs of business and commercial activity. The need for money had brought much of this activity to a stop.

        中央銀行增加了投資需要的資金流動,滿足了因為資金短缺而陷入停頓的商業活動的需要。

        Finally, Hamilton took steps to protect American manufacturers from foreign competition. He did this by establishing a system of import taxes -- tariffs -- on some foreign goods brought into American ports. These import taxes forced foreign manufacturers to raise their prices. As a result, American manufacturers had much less competition in selling their products.

        漢密爾頓還采取措施,對某些進入美國港口的外國產品征收關稅,以此保護美國制造商不受外來競爭的壓抑。關稅的實行,使外國制造商不得不提高產品價格,從而減少了美國制造商的產品所面對的競爭。

        VOICE TWO:

        Such a tariff system, Hamilton hoped, would strengthen American industry. He thought the United States should not have to depend on other nations for the things it needed. Such a system, he believed, would create a demand for all kinds of workers. It would increase immigration from other countries. And it would bring a new and greater demand for American farm products.

        漢密爾頓希望關稅制度能增強美國工業的實力。他認為,美國無須依靠別國產品來滿足自身的需求。他相信,這一系統能為各行各業創造就業機會,增加來自其它國家的移民,創造并提高對美國農產品的需求。

        Hamilton's financial program helped manufacturers. But it did not seem to do much for farmers.

        There was a loud protest, especially among farmers in the south. Everything he did, they said, helped the industrial and banking interests of the north. Yet the farmers had to pay more for the manufactured goods they needed. At the same time, they had to sell their crops at lower prices.

        亞歷山大.漢密爾頓的財政計劃確實幫助了美國制造商,但是對農民幫助不大,并因此引起了農民,特別是南方農民的強烈抗議。他們指責漢密爾頓的所作所為,完全出于北方工業和銀行業的利益,農民購買制造業產品,要加倍付錢,但是出售糧食的時候,又要降低價格。

        VOICE ONE:

        Hamilton succeeded in getting Congress to approve his financial proposals. Yet his political victories brought him many enemies. And they started a Constitutional debate that continued throughout American history. The dispute involved this question: What exact powers do the government and the Congress have under the Constitution?

        漢密爾頓成功說服國會,通過了他的財政提案,但政治上的勝利也給他樹立了很多敵人。這些人圍繞憲法到底賦予政府和國會哪些權力的問題展開了辯論,辯論一直延續到今天。

        VOICE TWO:

        Alexander Hamilton believed the Constitution gave the government a number of powers besides those written down. Otherwise, he said, the government could not work. For example, he believed that under the Constitution, the government had the right to start a national bank. It also had the right to put a tax on imported goods.

        漢密爾頓認為,除了白紙黑字規定的以外,憲法還賦予了政府其他一些權力,否則政府是無法工作的。比如說,漢密爾頓認為,根據憲法,政府有權建立中央銀行,也有權對進口商品征收關稅。

        Hamilton's opponents disagreed sharply. They did not give the words of the Constitution such a wide meaning. They said the government had just those powers that were clearly spelled out in the Constitution, and nothing more. If not, they said, the government could become dangerously powerful.

        然而,漢密爾頓的對立派完全不同意這種看法。他們認為,不能如此廣義地理解憲法,政府根據憲法享有的權力都白紙黑字地寫在上面,不能隨意擴大。否則政府的權力就可能太大。

        VOICE ONE:

        These disputes, and others, helped shape the new United States. In future programs, we will tell more about Alexander Hamilton's influence on political developments. Now, however, we will tell a little about his private life. What kind of man was he? Where did he come from? How did his political and economic beliefs develop?

        那么,漢密爾頓是一個什么樣的人?是哪里人?他的政治和經濟理念又是從何而來的?

        There is much mystery about the early days of Alexander Hamilton. Some facts about his childhood and youth have been clearly established. Others have not.

        VOICE TWO:

        亞歷山大.漢密爾頓早年歷史有很多謎團。

        His mother was the daughter of French Huguenots who had settled in the West Indies. Her name was Rachel Lavien. Historians are not sure who his father was. One story says he may have been James Hamilton, a poor businessman from Scotland. Rachel Lavien lived with him after she left her husband.

        他外公是法國胡格諾派教徒,在西印度群島定居。亞歷山大.漢密爾頓的母親名叫雷切爾.萊溫。但是,歷史學家始終無法確定他的父親到底是誰。有一種說法認為,他父親名叫詹姆斯.漢密爾頓,是一個來自蘇格蘭的窮商人。雷切爾.萊溫離開自己的丈夫后,跟他住在一起。

        One thing is certain. His mother died when he was eleven years old. When she died, friends of the family found work for the boy on the island of Saint Croix -- then called Santa Cruz -- in the Virgin Islands. He was to be an assistant bookkeeper. He would learn how to keep financial records.

        不過,有一件事情可以肯定,那就是,小漢密爾頓只有11歲的時候,母親就去世了,家里的朋友幫他在圣克羅伊島上找了個活兒,給會計當助手,學記帳。圣克羅伊島當時叫圣克魯斯,是維爾京群島的一部分。

        VOICE ONE:

        Young Alexander was considered an unusual child. Other children played games. He talked about becoming a political leader in the North American colonies.

        小漢密爾頓從小就與眾不同,其他孩子還在玩游戲的時候,他已經立志,長大要做北美殖民地的政治領袖。

        He read every book that was given to him -- in English, Latin and Greek. At a young age, he learned a great deal about business and economics. And he developed an ability to use words to communicate ideas clearly and powerfully. This ability to write started him on the path to a new life.

        他閱讀了每一本能夠得到的書籍,不管是英語的、拉丁語的,還是希臘語的。他在很小的時候就學習了不少商業和經濟知識,能清楚、有力地表達自己的主張。這種表達能力給他的新生活奠定了基礎。

        VOICE TWO:

        A severe ocean storm hit the West Indies. Hamilton wrote a report about the storm for a newspaper called the Royal Danish American Gazette. His story was so good that some of his friends decided to help him get a good education. They gave him money so he could attend a college in New York City.

        The boy's plan was to study medicine and return to Saint Croix as a doctor.

        當時,一場海上風暴襲擊了西印度群島。小漢密爾頓給一個叫皇家丹麥美國公報的報紙寫了一篇相關報導,文章引人入勝,他的一些朋友因此決定幫助他去接受良好的教育。小漢密爾頓拿著他們的錢,到紐約去上學,他打算讀醫學院,畢業后回到圣克羅伊島,報效鄉親。

        VOICE ONE:

        When Hamilton arrived in New York, he tried to enter King's College, which would later be known as Columbia University. However, he did not have enough education to enter King's College. So he went to a lower school at Elizabethtown, in New Jersey.

        漢密爾頓到了紐約后,申請到國王學院學習,也就是如今的哥倫比亞大學,但是因為他的教育水平不夠,所以沒有被錄取。所以他決定先到新澤西伊麗莎白鎮的一所學校去。

        He was one of the most serious students at the school. He read his books until midnight. Then he got up early and went to a cemetery to continue reading where it was quiet. He wrote many papers. Each time, he tried to improve his style. After a year at Elizabethtown, he was accepted at King's College.

        漢密爾頓是學校里最認真的學生之一,每天看書到午夜,早上又很早起床,到一個安靜的墓園去繼續讀書。他寫了很多文章,每次都努力改進自己的風格。在伊麗莎白鎮待了一年后,漢密爾頓被國王學院錄取了。

        VOICE TWO:

        At King's College, both teachers and students were surprised by Hamilton's intelligence and his clear way of writing and speaking. The problems of the American colonies were very much on the young man's mind.

        漢密爾頓敏捷的才智,清晰的思維和表達能力都讓國王學院的老師和同學們感到驚訝。漢密爾頓非常關心美國殖民地所面臨的問題。

        Hamilton protested against British rule. When colonists in the city of Boston seized a British ship and threw its cargo of tea into the water, Hamilton wrote a paper defending them. Then came the year seventeen seventy-six. The thirteen American colonies declared their independence from Britain. The declaration meant war.

        他參加了抗議英國統治的活動,并發表文章,為“波士頓傾茶事件”提出辯護。1776年,北美13個殖民地宣布獨立,這就意味著戰爭。

        VOICE ONE:

        In this letter, George Washington thanks Alexander Hamilton for sending a copy of the pamphlet written by 'Publius'
        In this letter, George Washington thanks Alexander Hamilton for sending a copy of the pamphlet written by 'Publius'

        As a boy, Alexander Hamilton had written, "I want success. I would put my life in danger to win success, but not my character. I wish there were a war where I could show my strength." Now, war had come.

        亞歷山大.漢密爾頓還是孩子的時候曾寫下這樣一段話:“我渴望成功,為了成功,可以去冒生命危險,但是不能犧牲人格。我希望能發生一場戰爭,讓我展現自己的能力。”美國獨立戰爭就給了漢密爾頓施展才略的機會。

        The American Revolution gave Hamilton the chance to show his abilities. He wanted to be a great military leader. Instead, he became a valuable assistant to the commanding general, George Washington. In this job, he had to use all his political and communication skills to get money and supplies for the Revolutionary Army.

        漢密爾頓本來希望成為一名偉大的軍事指揮官,但最后卻成了大陸軍統帥喬治.華盛頓寶貴的助手。漢密爾頓施展了自己的全部政治和溝通技巧,為大陸軍爭取資助和供給。

        Hamilton also would become an influential thinker, writer, and journalist. For many years, he wrote editorials for the newspaper he established, the New York Evening Post. He also helped write the Federalist Papers with James Madison and John Jay. The Federalist Papers are considered the greatest explanation of the United States Constitution ever written.

        漢密爾頓最終成了一個頗具影響力的思想家、作家和新聞工作者。他給自己創辦的紐約晚間郵報寫了很多年的社論,還跟詹姆斯.麥迪遜和約翰.杰伊一起撰寫了聯邦主義者文集,里面的文章被認為是對美國憲法最好的解釋。

        VOICE TWO:

        In addition to being a fine writer, Hamilton was a fine speaker, but only to small groups. He spoke the same way that he wrote: clearly, forcefully, and with knowledge. It was this ability that he used so well in the New York state convention that approved the Constitution.

        More than any other man, it was Alexander Hamilton who made the delegates to that convention change their minds and accept the document.

        漢密爾頓還很擅長演講,但只限於小規模演講。他的演說跟他的文字一樣,思路清晰、強勁有力,旁征博引。他的這種能力促成了紐約大會對憲法的批準,是他讓大會代表們改變看法,最終接受了憲法。新政府成立后,漢密爾頓繼續在國家政治中發揮重要的作用。

        After the new government was formed under the Constitution, Hamilton continued to play an important part in national politics. That will be our story next week.

        (MUSIC)

        ANNOUNCER:

        Our program was written by Harold Braverman. Shirley Griffith and Frank Oliver were the narrators. For transcripts, podcasts and MP3s of our programs, go to www.squishedblueberries.com. And join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION, an American history series in VOA Special English.

        網友的學習評論(5條):
        作者:xuding45
        4-11-2013 6:20:4
        Alexander Hamilton played a important role in the United State. He serviced George Washington as a assistant in the independent war, after that he was elected as a first finance leader. In few years the nation had a large change.
        作者:Alumni
        7-22-2013 23:4:54
        this section it talked about a person, another leader of American early history, Alexander Hamilton. How winsome his personal glamour is! He spoke the same way that he wrote: clearly, forcefully and with knowledge. Admirable!
        作者:鄭烈波
        11-5-2014 9:40:38
        after the new government was formed under the constitution,hamilton continued to play an important part in national politics.
        作者:hliu
        7-29-2015 9:17:2
        For the first time I know being capable of writing and speaking can give a much power.
        作者:brucemeng
        5-2-2019 22:12:6
        sad story !!
        版權所有©2003-2019 南京通享科技有限公司,保留所有權利。未經書面許可,嚴禁轉載本站內容,違者追究法律責任。 互聯網經營ICP證:蘇B2-20120186
        網站備案:蘇公網安備 32010202011039號蘇ICP備05000269號-1中國工業和信息化部網站備案查詢
        廣播臺
        又粗又大又黄又爽的免费视频