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        #27: George Washington: From Revolutionary War Hero to President

        作者:Harold Braverman 發布日期:3-10-2013

        ANNOUNCER:

        Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English.

        George Washington by artist Laugier
        George Washington by artist Laugier

        The United States declared its independence from Britain on July fourth, seventeen seventy-six. The new nation was a loosely formed alliance governed under the Articles of Confederation. All this changed when a new plan of government, the Constitution, went into effect on March fourth, seventeen eighty-nine. There was much to be done to make it work. The machinery of government was untested. Strong leadership was needed. Today, Harry Monroe and Kay Gallant tell the story of America's first president, George Washington.

        在上次的建國史話中,我們講到,美國1776年宣布獨立后,根據《邦聯條例》形成了松散的聯盟。1789年3月4號正式生效的憲法改變了這種狀況。美國新的國家機器有待考驗,重擔落在了美國第一屆總統喬治.華盛頓的肩上。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE TWO:

        Many historians believe there would never have been a United States without George Washington. He led the American people to victory in their war for independence from Britain. He kept the new nation united in the dangerous first years of its life.

        很多歷史學家都相信,如果沒有喬治.華盛頓的話,恐怕就不會有今天的美國。他不僅率領美國人民取得了獨立戰爭的勝利,而且在建國之初最危險的階段,保證了國家的團結和統一。

        Washington had a strange power over the American people. His name still does. During his lifetime, he was honored for his courage and wisdom. After his death in seventeen ninety-nine, he became almost god-like. People forgot that he was human, that he had faults and made mistakes.

        喬治.華盛頓對美國人有一種奇怪的影響力,直到今天依然如此。他在世的時候,大家敬仰他的勇氣和智慧;他1799年去世后,更成了神一樣的人物。大家忘記了他也是人,也有缺點,也會犯錯誤。

        For well over one hundred years, Americans found it difficult to criticize George Washington. He represented the spirit of America -- what was best about the country.

        美國建國后的前一百多年,美國沒有人敢于批評喬治.華盛頓,他成了美國精神的化身。

        VOICE ONE:

        Recent historians have painted a more realistic picture of Washington. They write about his weaknesses, as well as his strengths. But this has not reduced his greatness and importance in the making of the nation.

        近年來,歷史學家變得相對現實,開始客觀評述喬治.華盛頓的優點和缺點,但這絲毫沒有減少他在美國建國史上的偉大和重要。

        The force of Washington's personality, and his influence, was extremely important at the Philadelphia convention that wrote the new Constitution. Had he not agreed to attend, some say, the convention would not have been held. Later, as the first president, he gave the new nation a good start in life.

        喬治.華盛頓的性格及其影響力,對完成美國憲法的費城制憲大會至關重要。有人說,如果當初他不去參加的話,制憲大會根本不可能召開。后來作為美國開國總統,他又為國家奠定了一個良好的開端。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE TWO:

        George Washington by artist George Dunlap
        George Washington by artist George Dunlap

        Washington was able to control political disputes among officials of the new government. He would not let such disputes damage the nation's unity.

        喬治.華盛頓能夠有效地化解新政府內部的政治糾紛,不讓政府官員之間的分歧破壞國家團結。

        Washington often thought of the future. He wanted the first government to take the right steps.

        他經常思考國家前途,希望第一屆政府能邁出正確的步伐。

        He said, some things may not seem important in the beginning, but later, they may have bad permanent results. It would be better, he felt, to start his administration right than to try to correct mistakes later...when it might be too late to do so. He hoped to act in such a way that future presidents could continue to build on what he began.

        喬治.華盛頓曾經說過,有些事情開始的時候看起來并不重要,但后果卻可能是無法更改的。他覺得,與其等到發現錯誤再去糾正,而且可能已經為時過晚,不如一上來就做出正確的決策。他希望能為后來者打下堅實的基礎。

        VOICE ONE:

        Washington had clear, firm ideas about what was right and what was wrong. He loved justice. He also loved the republican form of government.

        喬治.華盛頓是非分明。他熱愛正義,也熱愛共和體制。

        Some people had difficulty seeing this part of the man. For Washington looked like an aristocrat. And, at times, he seemed to act like one. He attended many ceremonies. He often rode through the streets in a carriage pulled by six horses. His critics called him "king."

        然而,很多人看不出這一點,因為從表面看來,華盛頓是個十足的貴族,表現得也很有貴族氣派。他經常去參加各種儀式,外出都是坐在六匹馬拉的馬車上。批判人士因此稱他為“國王”。

        Washington opposed rule by kings and dictators. He was shocked that some good people talked of having a monarchy in America. He was even more shocked that they did not understand the harm they were doing.

        但事實上,喬治.華盛頓反對國王和獨裁。他對有人建議在美國建立王權表示驚訝,對這些人不明白自己所造成的傷害而感到震驚。

        VOICE TWO:

        Washington warned that this loose talk could lead to an attempt to establish a monarchy in the United States. A monarchy, he said, would be a great victory for the enemies of the United States. It would prove that Americans could not govern themselves.

        喬治.華盛頓警告說,這種輕率的說法會促使某些人試圖在美國建立王權。他說,君主的出現意味著美國敵人的勝利,證明美國人民無法管理自己的事務。

        As president, Washington decided to do everything in his power to prevent the country from ever being ruled by a king or dictator. He wanted the people to have as much self-government as possible. Such government, Washington felt, meant a life of personal freedom and equal justice for the people.

        喬治.華盛頓出任總統后,千方百計防止美國出現國王或是獨裁者,他希望人民能最大限度地實行自治。他覺得,這種政府才意味著人民能夠享受個人自由和法律的公正。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE ONE:

        The eighteenth century has been described as the age of reason and understanding for the rights of people. Washington was a man of his times. He said no one could feel a greater interest in the happiness of mankind than he did. He said it was his greatest hope that the policies of that time would bring to everyone those blessings which should be theirs.

        十八世紀被說成是理性的時代,是理解人民權利的時代。華盛頓代表了時代潮流。他曾表示,沒有人比他更關心人類福祉,他對當時政治的最大愿望就是讓每個人都得到自己應得的幸福。

        Washington was especially happy and proud that the United States would protect people against oppression for their religious beliefs.

        讓喬治.華盛頓覺得最值得高興和驕傲的,就是美國對公民宗教信仰的保護。

        He did not care which god people worshipped. He felt that religious freedom was a right of every person. Good men, he said, are found all over the world. They can be followers of any religion...or no religion at all.

        喬治.華盛頓對民眾信奉何方神靈并不介意。在他看來,宗教自由是每個人的權利。他說,世界上到處都有好人,他們可以是任何宗教的信徒,也可以不信仰任何宗教。

        Washington's feelings about racial oppression were as strong as his feelings about religious oppression. True, he owned Negro slaves. But he hated slavery. "There is not a man alive," he once said, "who wishes more truly than I to see a plan approved to end slavery." By his order, all his slaves were freed when he died.

        喬治.華盛頓對種族壓迫和對宗教壓迫同樣深惡痛絕。不錯,他本人曾是奴隸主,但他同時也憎恨奴隸制度。他曾經表示,“這個世界上沒有任何人比我更真心地希望能夠通過一項計劃,結束奴隸制度了”。根據他的遺愿,喬治.華盛頓去世后,他的所有奴隸都獲得了自由。

        VOICE TWO:

        George Washington at Princeton by artist Charles Willson Peale
        George Washington at Princeton by artist Charles Willson Peale

        From the beginning, George Washington was careful to establish a good working relationship with the Congress. He did not attempt to take away any powers given to the Congress by the Constitution. By his actions, he confirmed the separation of powers of the three branches of the government, as proposed in the Constitution.

        喬治.華盛頓從一開始就努力跟國會建立良好的工作關系。他沒有想方設法剝奪憲法賦予國會的權力,并以實際行動鞏固了憲法中所規定的三權分立的制度。

        The Congress, too, was ready to cooperate. It did not attempt to take away any powers given to the president by the Constitution. The Congress, for example, agreed that President Washington had the right to appoint his assistants. But Congress kept the right to approve them.

        同時,國會也非常合作,沒有奪取憲法賦予總統的權力。國會同意,喬治.華盛頓有權任命內閣,但批準權歸國會所有。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE ONE:

        Washington asked some of the nation's wisest and most able men to serve in the new government.

        喬治.華盛頓邀請當時美國一些最有見識、最德高望重的人進入內閣。

        For Secretary of State, he chose Thomas Jefferson. At the time, Jefferson was America's representative to France.

        他挑選了當時擔任美國駐法外交使節的托馬斯.杰斐遜出任國務卿。

        While Congress was considering Jefferson's nomination, Washington heard of threatening events in France. He learned that a mob had captured the old prison called the Bastille. Washington was worried. The United States had depended on France for help during its war for independence. And it still needed French help. A crisis in France could be bad for America.

        就在國會討論杰斐遜的任命的時候,法國傳來了壞消息。喬治.華盛頓得知,巴士底獄被攻陷,非常著急。美國獨立戰爭期間,得到了法國的幫助,而且仍然需要法國的幫助,因此,法國發生危機,對美國很不利。

        The information Jefferson brought home would prove valuable if the situation in France got worse. Washington also thought Jefferson's advice would be useful in general, not just on French developments.

        杰斐遜回國,能帶來有關法國局勢的寶貴消息。喬治.華盛頓同時覺得,杰斐遜很有見解,不光是在法國的問題上。

        VOICE TWO:

        For Secretary of the Treasury, Washington chose Alexander Hamilton. Hamilton had served as one of Washington's assistants during the Revolutionary War.

        財政部長一職,華盛頓決定任命亞歷山大.漢密爾頓。獨立戰爭期間,漢密爾頓就是華盛頓的部下。

        For Chief Justice of the United States, he chose John Jay. Jay helped write the Federalist Papers, which are considered the best explanation of the Constitution ever written. Two delegates to the Constitutional convention were named associate justices of the Supreme Court: James Wilson and John Rutledge.

        聯邦最高法院首席大法官,華盛頓選擇了約翰.杰伊。杰伊參與了聯邦主義文集的撰寫,對美國憲法做出了最透徹的解釋。參加制憲大會的另外兩名代表詹姆斯.威爾遜和約翰.拉特利奇也被任命為聯邦最高法院的法官。

        For Attorney General, Washington wanted a good lawyer and someone who supported the Constitution. He chose Edmund Randolph of Virginia. It was Randolph who proposed the Virginia Plan to the Philadelphia convention. The plan became the basis for the national Constitution. Randolph refused to sign the document, because he did not believe it could be approved. But he worked later to help win Virginia's approval of the Constitution.

        喬治.華盛頓希望能找一名出色的律師來擔任司法部長,這個人還必須是憲法的支持者。他選中了維吉尼亞州的埃蒙德.倫道夫。當初,在費城制憲大會上提出維吉尼亞州提案的,就是倫道夫,這一提案成了憲法的基礎。后來,倫道夫拒絕在憲法上簽字,因為他認為憲法不會通過,但他還是推動了維吉尼亞州對憲法的審議和批準。

        VOICE ONE:

        President Washington named his assistants, and the Congress approved them. The president was ready to begin work on the nation's urgent problems. And there were many.

        內閣人選得到國會的批準后,喬治.華盛頓準備開始工作。新政府面對一系列棘手的問題:

        One problem was Spain's control of the lower part of the Mississippi River. American farmers needed to use the river to transport their crops to market. But the Spanish governor in Louisiana closed the Mississippi to American boats.

        其中之一是西班牙人對密西西比河下游的控制。美國農民要靠這條河把糧食運往市場,但是路易斯安那的西班牙總督卻下令對美國船只關閉密西西比河道。

        There also were problems with Britain. The United States had no commercial treaty with Britain. And Britain had sent no representative to the new American government.

        美國跟英國也存在矛盾。美國跟英國沒有商業條約,英國也沒向美國新政府派遣使節。

        Equally urgent were the new nation's economic problems. Two major issues had to be settled. One was repayment of loans made to support the American army in the war for independence. The other was creation of a national money system. Both issues needed quick action.

        除此之外,喬治.華盛頓領導的新政府還面臨著經濟方面的難題。迫在眉睫的兩大問題是:償還美國獨立戰爭的貸款;以及建立一個全國統一的貨幣系統。喬治.華盛頓的財政部長亞歷山大.漢密爾頓需要找到解決這兩大問題的答案。

        Finding solutions would be the job of President Washington's treasury secretary, Alexander Hamilton. Alexander Hamilton will be our story next week.

        (MUSIC)

        ANNOUNCER:

        Our program was written by Harold Braverman. The narrators were Harry Monroe and Kay Gallant. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION, an American history series in VOA Special English. Our programs are online with transcripts, MP3s and podcasts at www.squishedblueberries.com. You can also learn about the history of the series itself. THE MAKING OF A NATION was first broadcast in nineteen sixty-nine, ten years after VOA started Special English.

        網友的學習評論(4條):
        作者:xuding45
        4-10-2013 6:9:53
        George Washington was the fist president in the new nation. He led American to win the independent war and then he attended the meeting for writing the constitution. George Washington gave a good start for the new nation.
        作者:Alumni
        7-22-2013 17:40:59
        'Washington had a strange power over the American people. His name still does. During his lifetime, he was honored for his courage and wisdom.' as well as all the founding fathers in the world. They all made a nation with their courage and wisdom. Washington was one of the most great one.
        作者:鄭烈波
        10-30-2013 10:23:1
        hard on begin
        作者:hliu
        7-28-2015 11:34:15
        Like Franklin, Washington seems contradictory on the issue of slavery. He hated slavery, but also had slaves work on his own farm. By the way, where is James Madison?
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