<em id="0i93o"></em>
<sub id="0i93o"></sub>
<meter id="0i93o"></meter>
      1. <form id="0i93o"></form>

        官方APP下載:英語學習播客(支持蘋果手機、安卓手機)
        創辦于2003年
        UNSV記不???那就記中文諧音“憂安思?!卑?!
          Slow and Steady Wins the Race!
        UNSV英語學習頻道 - Slow and steady wins the race!
        公眾微信服務號(英語全能特訓)
        英語全能特訓(微信公眾服務號)
        UNSV英語學習頻道淘寶網店
        客服短信:18913948480
        客服郵箱:web@unsv.com
        初級VIP會員
        全站英語學習資料下載。
        ¥98元/12個月

        #26: The Heart and Spirit of the Constitution

        作者:Christine Johnson 發布日期:3-9-2013

        ANNOUNCER:

        Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English.

        George Washington
        George Washington

        Last week in our series, we described how the Constitution became law once nine of America's first thirteen states ratified it. The Continental Congress set a date for the new plan of government to take effect. The first Wednesday in March, seventeen eighty-nine.

        在上次的建國史話中,我們講到,經過各州的辯論和投票,憲法被正式接受。大陸會議宣布,1789年三月份的第一個星期三,憲法生效。

        Now, here are Richard Rael and Shep O'Neal to continue our story.

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE TWO:

        In seventeen eighty-nine, the population of the United States was about four million. The thirteen states had been loosely united for a short time, only about ten years. Before that, they were separate colonies of Britain.

        1789年的時候,美國有大約四百萬人口,在這之前的十年里,美國十三個州一直處于松散的邦聯狀態,再往前說,它們還都是英國的殖民地。

        Because the colonies were separate, their people developed different ways of life. Their economies and traditions were different. As a result, Americans were fiercely independent. An emergency -- the crisis of the revolution -- brought them together.

        這些各自獨立的殖民地,形成了各具特色的生活方式,它們的經濟和傳統也存在差異,是獨立戰爭這一緊急事件,讓它們走到了一起。

        Together, they celebrated the Fourth of July, the day America declared its independence from Britain. Together, they fought British troops to make that declaration a political reality. Together, they joined under the Latin phrase 'E Pluribus Unum' -- one out of many.

        他們一起慶祝七月四號美國獨立日,一起跟英國軍隊作戰,讓獨立成為政治現實。他們聯合建國,合眾為一。

        Yet when the war ended, the soldiers returned to their home states. They still thought of themselves as New Yorkers, or Virginians, or Marylanders. They did not consider themselves a national people.

        但是戰爭結束后,大家卻紛紛打道回府,依然把自己看成是紐約人、維吉尼亞人、或是馬里蘭人,而不把自己看成是美國人。

        VOICE ONE:

        Americans of seventeen eighty-nine were sharply divided on the need for a national government. Many were afraid the new government would not survive. They feared the anarchy that would result if it failed. Others hoped it would fail. They wanted strong state governments, not a strong central government.

        1789年時候的美國人在是否需要建立一個聯邦政府的問題上分為兩大陣營,很多人擔心新政府成不了氣候,擔心聯邦政府的失敗會造成無政府狀態;還有人希望聯邦政府失敗,因為他們不想要一個強大的聯邦政府,更喜歡強大的州政府。

        For those who supported the national government, there were good reasons to hope for success. The country had great natural resources. And its people were honest and hard-working.

        支持建立聯邦政府的人認為,成功的希望還是很大的,因為美國有豐富的自然資源,而且美國人民正直誠實、吃苦耐勞。

        Also, in seventeen eighty-nine, the American economy was improving after the destruction of the Revolutionary War. Agriculture, trade, and shipbuilding were coming back to life. Roads, bridges, and canals were being built to improve travel and communication.

        與此同時,1789年的時候,美國經濟正在從獨立戰爭的創傷中復蘇。農業、貿易和造船業重新繁榮,道路、橋梁和運河也不斷修建,改善了交通往來。

        The country's economy had many problems, however. Two major issues had to be settled. One was repayment of loans made to support the Revolutionary Army. The other was creation of a national money system. Both issues needed quick action.

        不過,美國的經濟依然存在不少問題,其中兩個重要問題急需解決,一個是償還獨立戰爭的債務,另外一個是建立一個全國范圍的貨幣系統。這兩個問題都迫在眉睫,需要立即行動。

        VOICE TWO:

        But before the new government could act, the old government had work to do. It had to decide where the capital city of the new nation would be. It also had to hold elections for president and Congress. First, the question of a capital.

        然而,新政府采取行動之前,舊政府還有工作沒有完成,包括選擇首都所在地,以及舉行總統和國會的選舉。首要任務是定都。

        At the time the states ratified the new Constitution, the Continental Congress was meeting in New York City. And that is where it decided to place the new government. Later, the capital would be moved to Philadelphia for a while. Finally, it would be established at Washington, D.C.

        各州批準新憲法的時候,大陸會議開會的地點是紐約,因此紐約就成了美國的第一個首都,后來遷往費城,最后才搬到了今天的首都華盛頓特區。

        Next, the Continental Congress had to decide when the states would choose a president. It agreed on March fourth, seventeen eighty-nine. That was when the new Constitution would go into effect.

        接下來,大陸會議要決定什么時候舉行總統選舉。會議最后把日子定在了1789年3月4號,新憲法生效的那一天。

        VOICE ONE:

        The eleven states that ratified the Constitution chose electors to vote for a president. The result was not a surprise. They chose the hero of the Revolutionary War: George Washington. No one opposed the choice.

        已經批準了憲法的十一個州挑選出選舉人,參加總統選舉的投票,結果毫無懸念,他們一致推選獨立戰爭中的英雄人物--喬治·華盛頓擔任第一屆總統,沒有任何人反對。

        Although not required by the Constitution, George Washington presented the first presidential inaugural address on April 30, 1789
        Although not required by the Constitution, George Washington presented the first presidential inaugural address on April 30, 1789

        Washington learned of his election while at his home in Virginia, Mount Vernon. He left for New York and was inaugurated there on April thirtieth.

        喬治·華盛頓得知自己當選的消息時,正在弗農山莊。他動身趕往紐約,4月30號宣誓就職。

        Members of the new Congress also were elected on March fourth.

        國會也于3月4號選舉產生。

        Now, for the first time, Americans had something many of them had talked about for years -- a working national government. There was much work to be done. The machinery of government was new, untested. Quick decisions were needed to keep the new nation alive and healthy.

        總統和國會產生后,美國人第一次真正有了一個聯邦政府,這是很多人多年來一直討論的。不過,還有很多工作要做。新的國家機器需要接受考驗,政府需要馬上做出決策,讓這個新的國家繁榮昌盛。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE TWO:

        One of the first things the Congress did was to re-open debate on the Constitution itself. Several states had set a condition for approving the document. They said a Bill of Rights must be added to the Constitution, listing the rights of all citizens.

        國會的第一件事就是重新展開了對憲法的討論。大家都還記得,當初同意批準憲法時,好幾個州都提出了預設條件,那就是,要在憲法的基礎上補充保護公民權利的修正法案。

        When the Constitution was written, a majority of the states already had their own bills of rights. So some delegates to the convention said a national bill was unnecessary. Others argued that the Constitution would be the highest law of the land, higher than state laws. So a national bill of rights was needed to guarantee the rights of the citizens of the new nation.

        編纂憲法的時候,大多數州已經有了自己的權利法案,因此費城制憲大會的很多代表都認為,不再需要一個全國性的權利法案了,但是其他人卻爭辯說,憲法是一個國家的最高法律,高于州的立法,因此需要一個全國權利法案,保護美國公民的權利。

        Time proved this to be a wise decision. The Bill of Rights gave the Constitution a special strength. Many Americans consider the Bill of Rights to be the heart and spirit of the Constitution.

        歷史證明,這一決策是非常明智的。權利法案給憲法增添了特別的力量。很多美國人都把權利法案看做美國憲法的核心和精神。

        VOICE ONE:

        Twelve amendments were proposed; the 10 that were ratified became the Bill of Rights in 1791
        Twelve amendments were proposed; the 10 that were ratified became the Bill of Rights in 1791

        What is this Bill of Rights that is so important to the citizens of the United States? It is contained in the first ten amendments to the Constitution.

        那么,美國人如此看重的權利法案究竟是什么呢?權利法案就是美國憲法的前十個修正案。

        The First Amendment is the basic statement of American freedoms. It protects freedom of religion, freedom of speech and freedom of the press.

        第一修正案宣示了美國人最基本的自由,即宗教自由、言論自由和新聞自由。

        The First Amendment guarantees that religion and government will be separate in America. It says Congress will make no law establishing an official religion. Nor will Congress interfere in the peoples' right to worship as they choose. The First Amendment also says Congress will not make laws restricting the peoples' right to gather peacefully and to make demands on the government.

        第一修正案保證美國政教分離,規定國會不得立法確立國教,也不得干涉人民選擇宗教信仰的自由。第一修正案還說,國會不得立法,限制人民和平集會,向政府請愿的權利。

        The Second Amendment guarantees the peoples' right to keep weapons as part of an organized militia. The Third Amendment says people may not be forced to let soldiers stay in their homes during peacetime.

        第二修正案保證人民有權持有武器,作為有組織的民兵的一部分。第三修正案規定,和平時期不得強迫民眾讓士兵待在自己的家中。

        VOICE TWO:

        The Fourth through the Eighth Amendments all protect the peoples' rights in the criminal justice system.

        第四到第八修正案規定了民眾在司法體系中的權利。

        The Fourth Amendment protects people from unreasonable searches and seizures. If police want to search a suspect's house or papers, they must get special permission from a judge. The document from the judge must say exactly what police are looking for. And it must describe the place to be searched.

        第四修正案規定,沒有正當理由,不得搜查和沒收。如果警察希望搜查嫌疑人的住所或文件,必須得到法官的特別許可,許可上一定要具體說明警察尋找的物件,必須注明搜查的地點。

        VOICE ONE:

        The Fifth Amendment says no one can be put on trial for a serious crime unless a grand jury has first examined the evidence and agreed that a trial is needed. No one can be put on trial more than once on the same criminal charge. And no one can be forced to give evidence against himself in court.

        第五修正案規定,任何人因為嚴重的罪行受審之前,大陪審團必須首先聽取證據,對審判的必要性做出判斷。任何人都不得因為同一犯罪行為受到兩次審判。不得強迫任何人在法庭上自證其罪。

        The Fifth Amendment also says no one can lose their freedom, property, or life except by the rules of law. And the government cannot take people's property for public use without paying them a fair price.

        第五修正案還說,除非根據法律,否則任何人不得失去自由、財產和生命。政府將個人財產充作公用,必須給予公平的賠償。

        VOICE TWO:

        The Sixth Amendment says all persons accused of crimes have the right to a fair and speedy public trial by a jury. This guarantees that people cannot be kept in prison for a long time unless a jury has found them guilty of a crime.

        第六修正案規定,所有被控犯罪的人都有權接受陪審團的公平和迅速的公開審理。這就保證,除非陪審團認定有罪,否則不能將嫌疑人長期關在監獄中。

        The Sixth Amendment also guarantees the right of accused persons to be defended by a lawyer. It says they must be informed of the nature and cause of the charges against them. And it says they have the right to face and question their accusers.

        第六修正案還保證,被告有權得到律師的辯護,他們必須被告知自己被控罪行的性質和理由,被告有權跟原告證人當面對質。

        The Seventh Amendment guarantees a person's right to have a jury decide his legal dispute with another person. The Eighth Amendment bars all cruel and unusual punishments.

        第七修正案規定,涉案人有權讓陪審團來決定他跟另外一個人的法律糾紛。第八修正案禁止了所有殘忍和不同尋常的懲罰方式。

        The Ninth Amendment provides protection for other rights not stated directly in the Constitution. And the Tenth Amendment says any powers which the Constitution does not give to the national government belong to the states or to the people themselves.

        第九修正案保證了憲法中沒有明確說明的其它權利。第十修正案規定,憲法沒有賦予聯邦政府的任何權利,都歸各州或是人民所有。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE ONE:

        A majority of the states approved the Bill of Rights by the end of seventeen ninety-one. As we have seen, these amendments limited the powers of the national government. As a result, many anti-Federalists ended their opposition. They accepted the new government. Many agreed to help with the job of building the new nation.

        1791年年底前,大多數州都已經批準了權利法案。這些修正案限制了聯邦政府的權利。很多反聯邦主義者因此不再反對憲法。他們接受了新政府,很多人還同意協助建立新國家。

        President Washington wanted the best men -- Federalist or anti-Federalist -- to be in his administration. The new nation needed strong leadership. George Washington provided it. General Washington's work as the first president will be our story next week.

        第一屆美國總統喬治·華盛頓希望能由最優秀的人才進入自己的內閣,不論他們是聯邦主義者還是反聯邦主義者。新國家需要有力的領導,喬治·華盛頓不負眾望。

        (MUSIC)

        ANNOUNCER:

        Our program was written by Christine Johnson and Carolyn Weaver. The narrators were Richard Rael and Shep O'Neal. Transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our programs are at www.squishedblueberries.com. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION, an American history series in VOA Special English.

        網友的學習評論(5條):
        作者:xuding45
        4-9-2013 14:9:21
        The heart and spirt of constitution is a Bill of Rights. People in the nation can have a effive protect, so both federalist and anti-federalist supported the Bill of Rights.
        作者:Alumni
        7-21-2013 21:43:5
        Well begun half done. Americans did. The Constitution was written through four months of debating and ten months for ratifying it. it was really a hard process . When the last amendmants among which the Bill of Rights is heart and spirit was made the Constitution was finally born. It is practical and realistic . So are Americans.
        作者:資文杰
        3-29-2014 11:48:38
        strong leadership, the best man guarantee
        作者:鄭烈波
        4-9-2015 14:18:0
        many agreed to help with the job of building the new nation.
        作者:hliu
        7-27-2015 8:57:31
        It turns out that both Federalist and anti-Federalist fought for good reasons--rights, freedom and protection. George Washington also has a broad mind.
        版權所有©2003-2019 南京通享科技有限公司,保留所有權利。未經書面許可,嚴禁轉載本站內容,違者追究法律責任。 互聯網經營ICP證:蘇B2-20120186
        網站備案:蘇公網安備 32010202011039號蘇ICP備05000269號-1中國工業和信息化部網站備案查詢
        廣播臺
        又粗又大又黄又爽的免费视频